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THE FACTS 



OF 



THE COTTON FAMINE 



BY 

JOHN WATTS, Ph.D., 

MEMBKR OW THE CKSITKAL RBXJXF COMJilTTBI. 



LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALI 
MANCHESTER: A. IRELAND k 

1866. 

4 



*r' f r 



LIBRARY OF 
LELAND STANFORD Jh. . VTY. 

ALBXAITDBR IRELAND AND CO., PBINTBIM, 
MAMCHK8TER. 



PREFACE. 



p 

f 



In producing this volume, my only motive has been to secure a 
reliable record of the main facts of the cotton famine. The great 
extent and importance of the cotton manufacture, its rapid rise and 
progress, its direct and reflex influences a.t home and abroad, its 
sudden paralysis by the indirect shock of the American war ; the 
bearing of the people under their unexampled trials ; the immense 

• ■ 

flow of benevolence to their aid ; the various and manifold organi- 
sations which were improvised for the collection and distribu- 
tion of the means of sustenance; — all seemed to me to demand 
registration for future reference. A hurried compilation, got up to 
hit the humour of the passing hour, could not possibly meet the 
want; and I suggested successively to several gentlemen, who were 
fully competent, that they should imdertake the work. The 
result surprised me. It was an urgent request, from every quarter 
to which I applied, that I should myself prepare the record ; and, 
seeing no other way of filling the void, I reluctantly consented ; 
and have, for the last twelve months, given to the object all the 
leisure which my ordinary and imperative engagements would 
allow. 



IV PREFACE. 

It is said that a sculptor is never satisfied with his own work, 
and I can well understand the feeling; for I am anything but 
satisfied with my book, and know that if it had to be re-written it 
would be materially improved. 

I have, however, endeavoured' to render it useful as well as 
interesting, by including a sketch of the rise and prepress of the 
manufacture, up to the occurrence of the American war; and of the 
later social developments amongst the working classes, such as 
strikes for wages, and the establishment of co-operative stores and 
manufacturing companies ; and seeing that the home trouble arose 
from our almost total dependence upon one foreign source of supply, 
I have set forth the efforts which have been made firom time to 
time to abate that evil ; and have discussed the helps and hio- 
ilraucos of the government, particularly as regards the attempts 
to extend and improve the growth of cotton in India. I have gone 
into considerable detail on the principal aspects of the crisis, and 
upon the principles and actions of the central executive ; and hare 
fully discussed the various remedial measures which were adopted, 
including the Rate in Aid Act, the Public Works Act, and the 
Union Chargeability Act; and have freely, but, I hope, fairly, 
criticised the various prominent actors therein. As " it is an ill 
wind which blows nobody good," I have endeavoured to find out 
who have got the good out of the cotton famine, and to apportion 
the gains and losses, amongst the cotton, woollen, and flax traders 
And their various dependants. 



In the earlier portions of the book I have been much indebted 
to Mr. Mann's History of the Cotton Trade ; the late Archibald 
Prentice's Historical Sketches of Manchester; and Mr. David 
Chadwick's pamphlet on wages ; also to Mr. Henry Aahworth, and 
Hr. Bazley, MP. In the sanitary portion, I have made free use of 
Sir J. P. Kay-Shuttleworth's valuable hook on education In the 
narrative of the famine itself, I have to acknowledge great and 
willing assistance from Mr. Maelure, the honorary secretary to tlif 
central executive ; and I have quoted freely from Mr. Edmu 
Waugfa's descriptive sketches of the condition of the people, con- 
tributed to the Manchester Exam/vner and Ti/tnea. To these, and 
to all who have rendered aid, I tender hearty thanks ; and in the 
hope that my own labour may prove in some degree useful, I 
dedicate this volume to all who subscribed to the funds of the 
various relief committees, and to all who aided in the distribution 
of those funds ; in the full coDviction that the munificent gifts of 
the subscribers, and the arduous and pains-taking work of thu 
distributors, saved thousands of valuable lives, and kept thousands 
also from worse than death. 

JOHN WATTS. 



% 



CONTENTS. 



[ 



CHAPTER L 

Inirodttction — Antiquity of Cotton Manufacture — The Cotton Fibre— The Term 
Spinster — Inventions of Whyatt and Kay — Domestic Loom Shops — Habits of Early 
Cotton Operatives — Character of the Population — Holidays — Marriage — Rise of 
the Factory System— Cost of Cotton Goods in 1741 and 1860— Inventions of Har- 
greaves and Arkwright — The Bridgewater Canal — Silk Factories — Turkey Ked 
Dyeing and Calico Printing — Crompton*s Mule — Cost of Spinning in 1779 and 
1860 — Cartwright's, Bellas, and Miller's Power Looms — Richard Roberts's Self- 
Acting Mule and Loom — Watt's Steam Engine — Application of Coal Gas — 
Government Helps and Hindrances ........ 1 — 19 y^ 

CHAPTER IL 

Views of Employers and Operatives on Improvements of Machinery^ A League 
against Machine-spun Yuns — Machinery Riots in 1779 — Measured Madness — The 
War of 1793 and its Effects upon Trade — ^The Wage Question — Machinery the 
Scapegoat for War— Bankruptcies in 1793— The War of Tariffs and the Price 
of Bread — Import Duty on Cotton, and its Effects — Prohibition to Export 
Machinery — Government Nursing— The State of Blockade, 1806, and the Orders 
in Council — The American Embargo on Foreign Trade — Machinery and Food 
Riots at Leicester, Nottingham, Manchester, &c. — Economical Errors of Em- 
ployers — ^Prejudices against Foreigners — Riots of 1826 and 1829 — Destruction of 
Power Looms — Commencement of Working Class Day Schools, and Rise of Poli- 
tical Feeling 20—33 y^ 

CHAPTER IIL 

Comparative Increase of Population, 1801-1861 — Increase of Real Property— Manu- 
facturing and Agricultural Hundreds — Classes of the Population — Comparative 
Increase of Various Classes — Effects of the Excise on Paper — Progress of Manu- 
facture, 1830-1860— Wages in 1844 and 1860 — Influences of Factory Life on 
Physical and Moral Health— Old and Modem Mills— Plurality of Tenure— The 
Short-time Agitation— Richard Oastler — The Factories Education Act — Man- 
chester Meetings — Comparative Mortality of Large Towns — Infant Mortality in 
Manchester and Liverpool — Relative Progress of Cotton, Silk, and Woollen Manu- 
factures—Immigration of Silk Operatives— Jealousy of Old Hands— Subsidiary 
Trades — Relative Progress of the Cotton Industry in England and America — 
American Tariffs — Yankee 'Cuteness — The French Treaty, 1860 — Prejudice at 
Coventry— Imports of Silk Goods— The Flax Trade— Mr. Bazley on the Cotton 
Trade — American and Indian Cotton— A Century of Progress — The Wisdom of 
Figures 34—62 



I 



CHAPTER IV. 

RegnUrit; aad Ponotiimlity > Featnre of I^iicaihin lite—Eflectt of Diai^pfiM on 
WorkpeapJe— Trades Sod(ti<»-Strik(« [or Wag«-Effeclc of Strikes—Policjp ui ' 
Employer! — PropoMd Bcauutraction of TndcsSodetiei — Advuitage of Ba|iid 
Aocumulktion o[ Cafatal— The Eniplojen of South StaflordBhiro mad the Dia- 
ehv^ Note— The Strike M ttu Muchstei' New Pruon— The Architect and thv | 
Hodmui— Proposal to give the WorkineD ma Inlerot in Profit*— ApplicstioD of 
the Principle — The Limited Liability Art — Co-opet»ti»B Stora sad Ecliet 
Conunittefs 6!— 72 

CHAPTER V. 

Co-oparadTeStom and MannfacturinKCompaiiie*— Robert Own) and In&uit Scboob— 
Ha Qaeenwood Conununity— The Friendly Soeietie* Act and ita Impmremsnli— 
Stxuliam and the First Co-operatiTe Slo»— The Rochd^ n«a— Prindplt of a 
Blare— The WhnlMale Society— The Coin UHl—Joint-Stook Companifa and Uw 
Contn Crim—DinnoQ of PmfiU anipn««t the Operatirta-The Relief Comnnltpe 
•ad 0<MqNfa>iaD — l>nd Dfrfar'a Minnie — Tlie HanlingrlTii Giiaidiaiia and Ibe 
aum— The Property of the Woridng Claan 73-^ 

CHAPTER VL 

Uaw^frter in 1833-Kr J. P. Kay-ShaUlnorth oDthe Habita and Sanituy Condi- 
tinn of the PiKD^-CeDat Dwellices and Typhna— Canata c< Panperimi- Improve- 
nentB from 183S to 1861— The Gamtoka and Walarwisb— The Public Parb- 
The Fnw Ubmr—Pitienm of Liimpcal Emf 173* to IMS— Tlte Docks and th* 
lUairay- Edocatiaa Aid Socwty of MiDi*Mti»— Sacaadaty Educatioa- 
Cnioit tJ iMtftulaat LanOihiia maA CheJiiw SO 

CHAPTER Vn 

Dcmoorata and Republiaua— Tba "Dnd Sent*' CWi KogiM - 

» frva IMO M 1860-Saatw Daogtaa « Kanaia Ekctt 

LoooIb Md Fan of Fot Stuuter- Feeliiw in Engtaod- Slavery and Ute Tcrri- 

tniaa— Hie Abolition rumltiiialiiiii rbliim"'»"'i'i"'ia of Linoola— Tke E&d rf 

the War— PMok'i Racaotation 108-111 



CHAPTER Vm. 
^(Q iMndnfi^ aboat tha Ai^ricao Wai^TsI of Prim— The Taper Blododft-E^ 

latioda in Cottoa— 3tq>Fag( of HiDa— Rafiid InacMa of Pupan^i— SbAaof: 
AjIdoB, Frarton, Stockport, and Glow^ in Ffta'Dary, UCS— Newspaper Om- 
nunti- Fret Laboor Cotton— Outaide lUp fo Opcntina- Satal CoUoo— 
Kdeth'a Additioa to tbe Rcdpasnta of Belief— Coopwatiiv CcaditiiiiL of UUrf 

CniiiaiBKirxanbar.lSaaad 1863— Cotton Milla aiirl Fma Ratia r<aalilini if 

Iha Smalt Shofikcepeia— Itinoant Sisgen— Tbe Diatma in France— North and 
SoDlb— Tot labour in ManGfaealer lU— 131 



CHAPTER IX 
■ c<PMaton,I8SI-Sl— Conailiunin May, 1 
ae-VisU to the Poor— The Soup Kitchen — Out -door Work f« Ifaa Gw- 
' » Propotiuo at Sntall S 



' CONTENTS. IX 

/ 
of Co-operative Stores and Joint -Stock Companies — The Political Relief Com- 
mittee — Specimens of Paupers — Mr. Famall^s Report — Condition of Wigan — 
Visit to Amy Lane — Stockport To Let — Operative Beggars — Lord Egerton and y 
the Public Works— Mr. Famall on the State of Ashton . . 132—155 



CHAPTER X. 

Origin of the Mansion UooBe Fund — Letters of "A Lancashire Lad** — Deputation to 
the Lord Mayor — ^Balance Sheet and List of Subscriptions . 156—168 

CHAPTER XL 

• 

Origin of the Central Comjnittee— Meeting in Manchester Town Hall— Reasons for 
Doing Nothing — Proposal for Loans to the Poor — Meeting at Bridgewater House- 
Revolution in Central Executive — Mr. Cobden on the Prospects of the Operatives- 
Formation of a Collecting Committee — Character of the Manchester Subscrip- 
tion— Tlfte Times and Professor Kingsley — The County Meetings — Lord Derby 
the Advocate of the Helpless — The Bridgewater House Principle of Distribution 
and High Poor Rates— How Rich Traders Escape the Poor Rate — The Man- 
chester District Provident Society — The Rival Committees at Ashton — Various 
Kates of Relief — Disciplinary Labour— Origin of the Adult Schools — The Aus- 
tralian Fund Appropriated to Education — Misunderstanding in the Colony — 
Effects of the Schools — Manual for Relief Conmiittees — Tabular Return of School 
Attendances 169—212 



CHAPTER XXL 

VTlie Policy of Emigration— The Emigrants' Aid Society, and National Colonial Emi^ 
^ gration Society — Attitude of Employers— Disappearance of Operatives— Mr. / 
Famall's Blunder — Government Emigration Returns — The Maximimi Pressure 
of Diittress — Decrease of Indigence, and Revision of Relief Lists — Pressure by 
Central Executive — Difficulties of Traders— Raw IJotton Dearer than Calico — 
Illegitimacy at Wigan — The Bastardy ^Promotion Fund — Decrease of Employ- 
ment in October, 1863— ITie Turn of the Tide— The Peace Panic and its Effects— 
The Death of the Confederacy— Mr. Maclure's Last Report— Close of the Ashton 
Committee — Percentages of Persons Relieved to those out of Employment at 
Various Periods 213— 221) 

CHAPTER XIIL 

King C-otton- Mistake of Southern SyTni)athiser8— Sufferings of the Pegple— Sick- 
ne8.s and Mortality not Increased — Analysis of the Subscriptions — Colonial and 
Foreign Contributions — The "George (xriswold"- Address to Captain Lunt— 
Contribution of the New Society of Painters in Water Colours — Mr. Ansdell— 
List of Subscriptions and Balances remaining in Hand — Comparison of the Sums 
Sulwcribed to the Cotton Famine, the Royal I*atri(>tic Fund, the Indian Mutiny 
Fund, the Hartley Colliery Fund, '^c - Comparative Statement of Local Sub- 
scriptions, Poor Rate, and Central Executive Contributions— Causes of the Varied 
PreHsiu^ of Distress — Remissions of Rent in Various Localities — Percentage of 
Uncollected Rates, 1861-4— Rates and Factory Assessments at Ashton, Bury, and 
Glossop— Adjournment of Central Executive sitic t/tc— Proi><)scd Disimsal of the 
Bah^nce of the Fund 230—201 

a 



V CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



Kodiiction of Relief, and Introiluction of Ticket System, at Stalybridge— Excitement 
of the Oi>erative8— Position of the Clerj^— The Ragged Trousers in the Pulpit— 
The Strike against Tickets — Assault upon the Officials—Window Smashing— The 
Police Defeated^Sacking of the Relief Stores and Shops— The Riot Act Read— 
The Soldiers and the Police— Sunday Visitors- The Mob at Ashton — Sacking of 
Provision Shops — The Riot Act and the Charge of the Military— Excitement at 
Dukinfield — Sacking the Co-operative Store— The Police and the Roughs at 
Arthton — The End of the Riot — The Deputation to the Mansion House— The 
Premium for Violence — Sir J. P. Kay-Shuttleworth at Stalybridge — Address of 
The Central Executive — The Rev. Mr. Eagar at the General Committee — The 
Aiwlogy for Riot 2G2-282 

CHAPTER XV. 

Action of the Poor-T^aw Board — Mr. FamaU*8 Appointment — Debate in the House 
of (,'ommons — Mr. Villiers's Reply — Messrs. Bright and Cobden on the Distress — 
The Rate in Aid Bill — Objections to Borrowing Powers— Defects of the Act — Mr. 
Cobden on the Forty-third of Elizabeth— Tabular Return of the Onlers for Aid, 
and of Sums Borrowed Under the Act— Instructions to the SiMJcial Commissioner- 
HIh Interpretation of the Poor-Law and the Consolidated Orders — Exce]>tional 
Conditions reqi.ire Exceptional Remetlies — Inequality of Rating — The Union 
Chargeability Bill and its Probable Eflfects— Policy of Public Works— Mr. Famairs 
Failures 283—307 

CHAPTER XVL ^ 

Growing Monotony of Disciplinary Labour — Conditions of Grants to Superintendents— 

Rules for the Execution of Public Works— Suggestions as to the Adoption of the 

Local Crovemment Act, 18.58— Introduction of the Public Works (Manufacturing 

Districts) BiU — Conditions of the Bill— The Princii)le of Public Loans Vindicated— 

. Mr. Rawlinson*s Report— Debate on Second Reading of the Bill— T he Policyi^ f 

Emigration- Mr. Ferrand's Error— Mr. Famall's Estimate of the JsWbers who 

wouldbe Employed under the Act — Disappointment of the Executive Committee - 
MLsappropriaticm of the Loan at Manchester, Stockport, and Blackburn — The 
^lanchesterBoard of Guardians— The Hulme Park Movement— Protest of Working 
!Mcn against the Pauper Passage to Labour— Class of Men Engaged on the Stock- 
port Works — Mr. Rawlinson's Erroneous Estimate of Numbers — Slow Progress - 
Official Reflection and Delay —Account of the Works Undertaken —Applications 
Refused and the Grounds thereof 308 -3;i2 

CHAPTER XVIL 

Condition of Friendly Societies — Ingenious Suggestions to Avoid Illegality — Value of 
Re;,nHtrar*8 Reports —State of the Oddfellows (Manchester Unity)— The Amal- 
K'Jiinated Engineers, &c.— The Warehousemen and Clerks' Society — Condition of 
the Savings Banks — Deposits and Withdrawals, 1861 to 1864— Classes who Invest 
in Sa\'ings Banks— Effects of the Crisis on Co-oj)erative Stores —Condition of 
Fourteen Sample Stores— Withdrawals of Capital — Joint -Stock Spinning and 
Manufacturing Companies — Share List, 1861 and 1864 — Fabulous Profits of 
1S60-1 — Dear Experience — Instances of Failures — Influence of the Crisis on 
Railway Traffic and Dividends 333—347 



CONTENTS. XI 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



Kffecta of the Cotton "Famine ori Marriages— Tabular Ketum, 1861-4 — lUegitimate 
Births, 1861-4 — Special Return — Comparative Illegitimate Births in England anil 
Wales and in Lancashire — The Factory System not specially Promotive of Sexual 
Immorality — Prostitution in Various Districts — Slow Improvement — Effects of 
the Crisis on Crime in Lancashire — Percentages of Crime in Various Districts - 
Excess of Female Crime in Lancashire, and its Probable Cause. :M8— 35r) 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Gains and Losses— Consumption of Cotton in 1861 and 1862 — Effects of American 
News on Prices — Average Condition of the Trade in 1860-2— Speculators in 
CotUm — Gains by Rimning the Blockade — Consumption of 1863— Large Extra 
Capital Required— Effects of Peace Rumours — Bankruptcy Return — Decrease<l 
Consumption of Indian Cotton— Condition of the Trade in 1863-4 — Adulteration 
of Goods — The Trade Losses in Three Years — Messrs. Frazer's Circular - 
Mr. McHaffie on Cotton Losses . :i'56— .ms 

CHAPTER XX. 

The Flax Trade — Calico rergus Linen — Irish Energy Exhibited in Flax Cultivation- 
Returns of Cultivation, and Im|)orts of Flax and Yams— Increase of Trade — Sir 
Robert Kane at the Society of Arts — Return of Spinning Mills, and Wages of 
Operatives — The Value of a Mill at Two Periods — Estimate of the Gains of Flax 
Spinners and Manufacturers by the C-otton Famine .... 384— I^iH) 

CHAPTER XXI. 

The Woollen and Worsted Trades— Progress of Eighty-five Years- -Wages in 1800, and 
1833, and 1868— Mr. Baines, M.P., on the Woollen Tnule -The Trouble of Lan- 
cashire the Opportunity of Yorkshire — The Increased Imi)orts of 1862-4— Exports 
of Yams and Manufactured Gooils- The Price of Spinning in 1861 -4— Yorkshire 
Gains by the Cotton Famine 31)1 401 

CHAPTER XXIL 

Origin of the Cotton Supply Association —Cotton Prospects in 1860- Assistance of the 
Foreign Office — Constitution of the Association - The Work of Eight Years Tlie 
Mission to India and its Results — Concessions by the Turkish, Eg>'ptian, ami 
Portuguese Crovemments — The Tunti^ Bombay ('orres]>ondent on the (Jjiins of 
India— Whimsical Tastes — A Bombay Share Ijist —Reports of (Joveninieiit Col- 
lectors — Indian Superstition the Cause of Insolvency - Eighty -six Millions Sterling,' 
Extra Paid in Four Years to Intiia- Decreasing Consunijition of Indian Cotton 
Mr. Shaw's Calculations on Dharwar Cott<m -Efforts towards K.\tensi(»n of 
Cotton Cultivation by Mr. Frederic Warren -Messrs. Cross and Hacking- Mr. 
Thomas Clegg, 4:c., &c.- African Cotton- llie Piinciple of Proti'ction amonu'st 
the Merchants 4()->-41l» 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

Constitution and Utility of Chambers of C-ommerce — I^iniits of (Jovernniont Inter 
ference on Behalf of Ti*afle — The Government Landlord of India -Opinions of 
Chambers of Commerce as to the Requirements of British India India ( apaMi* 



i 



/ . 1 CONTEXTS. 

•ff f ''nn\ttri'm-/ Hu/;':*r»»*fijlJy in C'/lt/m PrryJuction— Exjunpleeof Defectrre Laire of 
< <;iiiriMd l*r*ii¥MM}>^ '4 l/inlit Stanley and Canning on Waste Lands — Sir Charlea 
W'ff*Vn Vfrt</, aivl h'lH own Plan T)i«: Import I>yty cm Lancashire Hanafactures— 
n<fmliiti</ti t<> Mr. Miuwry Tlie R««l Tajje B^jnd— Sir Cliarles Wood^ Budget 
iS|M'<M'|j Cfiiii|NLrativ«: KxfM;uditure on Imprrivements of the Landlord Govcm- 
iimfid ill Ititiia, aii/1 <#f the late Duke of Nurthmuberland at Home . 420 — 436 

OHAPTKR XXTV. 

otijiTU Iff thu MaitchKMtt'r ('otton ('onipany — Expectations of Grovemment Help— 
l'iiiriilHi*ii of tlm liidiiin Si*cn!tary - l>r. Forbeii on the Necessity for Roads and 
i'itii-H ill Imlia Kviili'iuH* of the Indian Manager of the Company— The Madras 
i'lnit'H on till* NfiM^HMiu^' MeiMurcM to Insure Cotton Cultivation — Loss of Capital, 
mil \Viiiiliii>{up of tin: (*oinpany The Anglo-Indian Cotton Company— 
• '..iirluHiuii 437-450 

AiiiM.iN No. 1 460—467 

At-nsiMx Ni». '2 468-^72 



THE 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 



CHAPTER I. 



Introdaciion — Antiquity of Cotton Mannfaoture — The Cotton Fibre — The Term 
Spinster — Inventions of Whyatt and Kay — Domestic Loom Sbope — Habits of 
Early Cotton Operatives — Character of the Population — Holidays— Marriage — 
Rise of the Factory System— Cost of Cotton Goods in 1741 and 1860 — Inventions 
of Hargreaves and Arkwright — ^The Bridgewater Canal — Silk Factories— Turkey 
Red Dyeing and Calico Printing — Crompton's Mule — Cost of Spinning in 1779 
and 1860 — Cartwrigfat's, Bellas, and Miller*s Power Looms — Richard Roberts's 
Self-acting Mule and Loom — Watt's Steam Engine — Application of Coal Cas — 
Government Helps and Hindrances. 

It is probable that the manufacture of clothing from vegetable 
fibre is almost as old as the existence of man, varied in different 
countries by the indigenous productions of each locality, and the 
varying necessity and ingenuity of the inhabitants. The most 
ancient mummies of Egypt are found wrapped in linen, and the 
earliest records of India show the existence of the cotton manufac- 
ture there as nearly as possible in the condition which subsists in the 
interior of that country at the present time, and which was universal 
until the recent establishment of cotton mills in Bombay. The 
distaff is still used for spinning, and the looms are still of the rudest 
construction, and yet some of the woven fabrics vie with the finest 
productions of Lancashire or Lanarkshire — showing that in this, as 
in many other arts, our progress has not been in delicacy of mani- 
pulation, but simply in the quantity of goods produced within a 
given time, by the substitution of machinery for hand labour. 
Cotton goods were exported from Lidia in the second century of 

B 






I 



2 FACTS OF THK OOTTOS FAMISE. 

the Christian era, and the muslina of Bengal were even then 
famous for tlieir beautiful texture, and Surat produced at that time 
some such goods aa the coloured chintzes which are now made in 
Ijauca«hire, and used for bed furniture, or for chair and sofa covera. 
But the trade of Lancashire is the growth of not more than a 
single century, during which time it has risen to such a position 
as to enable the poorer portion of the population of the world to 
clothe themselves almost wholly in garments made from the filmy 
wings of the cotton seed. If these deticatu fibres were not gathered 
by man, they would serve the same purpose to the cotton seed 
which the filaments attached to the seed of the dandelion perform 
for it — they would waft it through the air, or float it upon the water, 
until wind or waves found it a new home, so that, if deposited in 
proper soil, it might reproduce its kind. The genius of man econo- 
mises the productions of nature, and, whilst appropnating to his own 
use the wings of the cotton seed, he performs by deputy the office 
of those wings for such a proportion of the seed as is necessary for 
his own future enjoyment. He carries it with certainty to earth 
already prepared for it, and is thus enabled to otherwise utilize 
the large proportion of seed which, apart from his superintendence, 
would fall " by the way side, or amongst thorns, or on stony 
ground," and produce no fruit 

The universality of the term "spinster" is proof enough of the 
former employment of one halfof the unmarried population; and we 
know from history that matrons as well as maidens frequently spent 
a large portion of thoir time in preparing the materials of clothing 
for the family. At the present time, some COO.OOl) of the popula- 
tion of Lancashire. Lanarkshire, and their bortlers, produce the cotton 
clothing for half the world ; a large proportion of this production 
being exchanged by our merchants for the comforte and luxuries of 
almost every clime. The tea of China, the cofi'ee and com of 
Turkey, the spices and dye stuffs of India, the tobacco of South 
America, the gold of California, the tallow and flax of Russia, the 
silk of Italy, the wool of Australia, the fruits of the Ionian Islands, 
and the furs of the Hudson's Bay settlements, are all bought 
directly or indirectly with the manufactures of Lancashire. 

The cotton manufacture, doubtless owes ita great prt^ess to 
the durability, the cheapness, and the capacity for ornamentation 
offered by the various products of ita industry. 



THE ctyrrov ttbhe. S 

The fibre of cotton is so fine and delicate as to need the use of a 
microscope for familiar examination, yet it is spun into yams vary- 
ing from the candle and lamp nick to that which forms the meshes 
of the finest lacei and the waste from these processes is mado into 
twines ajid cordage, for tying np drapers' parcels, and for the packnge 
of heavy goods. Cotton yarns are woven into an immense variety of 
^cj>mraoditiea, from the heaviest moleskin to the finest muslin ; the 
^■■ickLayer's labourer and the belle of the ball-room being alike 
^^■Sebted for their clothing to the wings of the cotton seed. Cotton 
^^kra frequently forms the weft of silk velvets ; it contributes one- 
half the Bubstajice of Orleans and Cohourg cloths, lustres, and 
lastinga, and of many materials used for figured vestings. The march 
^^f economy which has led to the manufacture of woollen waste, has 
^Bfao opened up a new field for cotton yarns, and they now form th« 
^^Birp for low-priced cloaking and trouserings ; whilst raw cotton is 
^^Ren also " scribbled in" amongst the wool which forms the weft of 
these articles. The gorgeous silk damasks, which adorn the windows 
and cover the sofas and chairs of the nobility, frequently have cotton 
d for weft; and the basis of the gimps, fringes, and trimmings, 
Ibich ornament the dresses of the most fashionable ladies, is com- 
of cotton. And the refuse of refuse — the sweepings of the 
ntton mill — which, to appearance, is beyond all utility, is sent, to- 
gether with the ragged remnants of cotton clothing, to the paper mill, 
is there torn hterally to atoma, converted into pulp, and so diffused 
in water as to he invisible whilst the water is in motion, and in this 
condition is spread in a thin layer upon a blanket, pressed between 
rollers, sized, and dried, and then made a vehicle of knowledge io 
the shape of printing or wriung paper, or it enters again into 
commerce as wrapping paper, and has before it as wide a field 
of usefulness as in its former and pristine condition. Up to the 
year 17-tl the various processes of converting cotton fibre into 
useful articles constituted literally a manufacture in the proper 
sense of the term, for handwork was everything, machinery 
nothing. About that time the first step of improvement was 
achieved in each of the twin processes, — spinning and weaving. 
John \Vhyatt, of Birmingham, constructed a machine to spin a 
number of threads at once, by means of rollers instead of the 
spinning wheel, which produced only one thread at a time ; 
and John Kay, of Bury, produced the fly shuttle, to be driven 



4 FACTS OF THE CX)TTON FAMINE. 

by the picking peg, instead of being thrown by the weaver 
from one hand to be caught by the other. By the old process a 
wide cloth would need two weavers to one loom, for one man 
would not be able to reach across the web. Kay's simple con- 
trivance doubled the possible produce of a loom devoted to the 
making of plain goods, and was soon followed by the invention 
of the drop-box, which enabled the same contrivance to be applied 
to cliecks, by the use of two or three shuttles, each of which 
was supplied with a diflFerent coloured weft, as may be seen to this 
day amongst the hand-loom silk weavers of Spitalfields, in London; 
or amongst the same class at Middleton or Failsworth, in Lanca- 
shire ; or even amongst the lingering remnant of gingham weavers 
by hand-looms in Manchester. At this date, and for many years 
afterwards, the cotton manufacture w»s entirely a domestic occu- 
pation. Spinners fetched their cotton and linen, weavers their 
warp and weft, from their employers to their own homes, and 
carried back the finished article to exchange for wages, just as many 
silk weavers and stocking frame knitters do at present 

A walk through the older portions uf the towns of the cotton 
districts will exhibit clear evidence that the dwellings of the 
working people were built with a view to other than the pur- 
poses for which they are now occupied The long ranges of 
windows in the upper stories were never intended for sleeping 
rooms, and their existence bespeaks a necessity which in later 
vears b:vs passed away, and enabled modem builders to assimilate 
their cottages to those of the workpeople of other localitiea These 
up|x^r stories were loom shops; and the traveller of sixty or seventy 
veai-s ago through these streets would find the nicknack of the 
hund-kx>m as familiar a sound in Lancashire as the click of the 
8to^*kin^ frame is in the villages of Leicestershire at the present 
dav. Outside the towrs the loom shop was ot\en a one-storied erec- 
tion att;iehed to the l>ack of the cottage, with unplastered walls, 
uuot ilovl roof, antl soil for the floor. And, judiring from the records 
whioh remain to us, it would appear that the men of those days 
were tvK> fretjuently as rude as their dwellings and workshops ; a 
rvniirh. honest, jovial, and hardy set of fellows, who worked when it 
suited them, and played as heartily as they worked. A meeting of 
houiuis tor a fox or stag hunt would stop m^vjt of the looms in a 
villaiTo; bull-baiting, bear-baiting, badger-baiting were thoroughly 



HABITS OF EARLY COTTON OPERATIVES. 



Hilarsports.andintlieabseticeoFany such excitement, a cock -fight 
B duck-hunt would frequently be improvised, or " Saint Monday" 
i be spent at foot racing or football during the day, whilst 
vening would be jovially spent at the public-house or "hush 
lop" over cards or dominoes, wiUi intervals for bacchanalian 
Of course, gambling was not then any more than at 
esent exempt from quarrelling, and the manner of settlement 
;heae quarrels shows the terrible energy and earnestness of the 
mcaabire character. In the days when gentlemen thought it 
wsaary to show their sense of right and to prove their courage 
r submitting in a quarrel to the chances of the best shot, the 
men of Lancashire under similar circumstances ntript 
themselves to the waist, and then grasped each other and fought 
with hands and feet, striking with the fists, kicking with their 
heavy clogs, pressing with the knees, strangling by grasping at the 

Itoat, up and down, until one or other was forced to relax his hold 
' Bheer exhaustion. 
The rudeness of the Lancashire character is, however, conai- 
Kably modified, and is accompanied by so much hearty generosity 
longst all classes, that it is at once forgotten in the genuine 
spitality which follows. A traveller will find the country 
inns homely and cheap, and the landlords mostly intelligent and 
obliging ; but men who are engaged in public business will seldom 
need to trouble the innkeepers. A guest to an educational or 
isl gathering will on arrival commonly find lodgings prepared 
! him ; he will be warmly welcomed at the festive board ; his 
; will rest upon rich ottomans, or be buried in long woolled 
pwy hearthrugs ; and when the labours and enjoyments of the 
ming are over, he will find sweet oblivion upon a hed of down 
(a room heavy with decorations, and from which the light of 
f is strictly excluded, until the footman comes in the morning 
I hut water and announces the time to rise. 
And the generosity of the poor is, except in its accessories, not 
y different to that of their richer brethren. The men are cast 
■'the same mould ; they give a rougher but not less hearty wel- 
; they unhesitatingly link arms with the visitor, and tell him 
t he is to "go to Thompson's to tay;" and, during the progress 
Etbe meal, he is frequently reminded that bo is "aitin nought," 
a brisk conversation is meanwhile kept up about the business 



d 



I 



6 FACTS OF THE COTTOX FAMISE. 

in hand. The tea is universally accompaniei] by hot cakes of flour, 
or flour mixed with potatoes, baked specially for the occasion, and 
soaked with butter. Oat«ake of home production and cheese are also 
commonly found upon the table. But the lodging accommodation 
amongst the working class in the villages, during the first quarter of 
the present century, betokened more friendliness than delicacy. It 
happened too frequently that a workman's cottage consisted of but 
one room down stairs and one up ; and if the family was small, the 
children would occupy a portion of the same room with the parents. 
Where could the kind-hearted souls stow away a visitor ? The prac- 
tice (which we hope is now extinct) was for the visitor m such a case 
to occupy a part of the host's bed — a male visitor sleeping behind 
the husband, and a female behind the wife. The writer was once, 
after attending a public meeting, taken to a lodging engaged for 
him, and, after supper shown into a double-bedded room. Not 
liking to complain about the accommodation which his good- hearted 
friends had provided, and assuming that the other bed was for a 
male lodger, he retired to rest, but had not got to sleep before the 
hostess and her grown-up daughter made their appearance in the 
room, and having partially undressed, extinguished the light which 
they had brought, and in due time took possession of the second bed. 
A slight noise disturbed the guest before daylight, but when the sun 
had risen, he found himself the sole occupant of the room. The 
hostess and her daughter had risen to work, and appeared at the 
hreakfast table without a blush, thoroughly unconscious of any 
improper action. Breakfast amongst the operatives usually consists 
of oatmeal porridge, with milk or treacle according to taste, followed 
by a cup of boiled coffee, with bread and butter or cheese and oatcake^ 
It is said that one of the greatest disadvantages with which 
trade has to contend in Roman Catholfc countries is the frequent 
holidays which interfere with and depreciate the discipline of the 
workshop, and thus by hindering work enhance the cost of produc- 
tion. In the days when the manufacture of cotton was a domestic 
occupation, holidays were frequent in Lancashire also, and so popu- 
lar that even the most steady-going people felt impeUed to join in 
them ; and the physical exercise and enjoyment of these holidays, 
whilst hindering production and preventing economy, had yet 
their good side in promoting the health and longevity of the peo- 
ple. They were worse housed, worse paid, and worse taught, but 



r 



HOLIDAYS — MARRIAQES. 



outside the towns they were stronger and longer lived than at 
present. The ceremony of marriage is regarded everywhere with 
especial interest. Kich and poor invite their friends to rejoice 
over the auspices of the new adventurers on the sea of life. In 
many countries the visitors are hearers of costly gifts, which serve 
t only afl tokens of affection but aid materially in furnishing 
B bouse for the young couple. In rural Lancashire the custom a 
Intury ago differed somewhat from the usages of polite society ; 
; Manchester, heing a very large parish extending to Oldham 
pid to Ashton, occasionally even now exhibits a remnant of the 
Men time, Manchester Cathedral or Parish Church is the fa- 
vourite place for marriages amongst the country people; and it 
frequently happens that several couples, from the same locality, 
arrange their weddings for the same day, and make holiday in 
Manchester after the ceremony. Probably the blushing brides are 
kept in better countenance by the largeness of their escort, and 
stand the gaze of the smiling citizens better than they would 
do alone. However that may be, it was not unusual a few years 
ago for a company to adjourn from the church to the hotel, and 
after liberal refreshment to parade the streets, preceded by a 
^^bdler playing some merry tune, and occasionally the confidence in 
^Hbe future was so great that a cradle formed part of the proceasion 
^^B the return home. The visitors to the weddings of the poor do 
^^Bt bear many presents, but the feast is never stinted, and it is 
^^■mmoD when all is over to share the expenses. This custom is 
^■nDetimes abused by regular topers, who, knowing that many 
moderate people will share the payment, drink as long as they can 
keep their seat*, and turn the marriage feast into a drunken orgie. 
These strong-limbed and shrewd lovers of liberty, who were 
idy for any game requiring strength, agiUty, or endurance; ready 
1 to be drilled by moonlight upon the mosses and wastes, so that 
' might be ready, in case of need, to fight for " their political 
" were to be disciplined to regular houra of work, to learn to 
I at the sound of the factory belt as a serf at the command 
f his lord, or a dog at the word of his master. It is easy 
now-a-days to set up the doctrine that alt useful work 
piionourable; easy for us to see that the lad who sweeps a cross- 
Dig to the best of his ability is a liero ; that it is a duty for every 
1 to perform the work which is before him with all his might, 



4 



^8 



PACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 



I 



and that in so doing he 13 contributing to (he progress of civilization, 
and increasing the enjoyments of all by whom he is surrounded ; 
but the commencement of the factory system made great demands 
upon the workmen of Lancashire. They had been used to control 
their own time and to spend it as suited them ; but factories 
demanded regular work, because all the fixed expenses wouKI be the 
flame whether all the hands were at work or not. Kents and 
taxes would go on, fuel must be paid for, and the machinery kept 
in motion if only half the proper number of hands were in attend- 
ance, and the economy of production would therefore depend very 
much upon the proportion of hands present to the machinery ia 
rotation. But the economy of the employer would often look like 
cruelty to the workpeople, and there was a long and a hard 
struggle against the change from liberty and domesticity to the 
discipline of the factory ; but it was the straggle of ignorance 
against intelligence, of weakness against strength, the struggle cJ 
man against the powers of nature. 

Kay's fly shuttle appears to have been willingly and speedily 
adopted, for it enabled each weaver to increase his production, 
and if it did not find him more work to do would simply give him 
more leisure for enjoyment. It required no costly alteration, sacri- 
ficed no old machinery, and could therefore make its way with 
"undertakers" who owned shops of looms, and spent their own 
time principally in going to and from the warehouses and in general 
superintendence of the workshop ; and the drop-box would doubt- 
less meet with equally ready acceptance for the same reasons. 

Mr. Mann, in his history of the cotton trade, tells u« that io 
1741 (i.e., just prior to these inventions), the weaving of a piece 
containing 121bs. of one shilling and sixpence weft (a very coarse 
quality) occupied a weaver's family about fourteen days, and that 
the price for weaving was eighteen shillings ; that spinning the 
weft cost nine shillings ; aud picking, carding, and roving about 
eight shillings; making a total cost for work alone, exclusive of 
spinning the warp, of t'lirty-five shillings — add for the spinning and 
preparing the linen warp eighteen shillings, and the total coat of 
workmanship alone would be fifty-three shillings for a piece of 
coarse cloth weighing about 24lbs. Just before the cotton famine, 
good grey twills of pure cotton were freely sold at tenpence per 
pound, or twenty shillings for Silbs. 



HAEGREAVE3 AND ARKWEIGHT. 9 

Improvements in the process of spinning were in quite ft dif- 
ferent category to those in weavinfr. A spinning frame producing 
a Duiul>or of threads at the same time threatened to annihilate tLe 
spinning wheel, — threatened also the domestic arrangements which 
bad hitherto been carried on in harmony with the demands of trade. 
Kay had simply doubled the power of the loom, but there was 
oo apparent limit to be set to the power of a spinning frame, and 
it therefore threatened also to deprive some people of employment 
It would be a curious inquiry to trace out the causes which 
lead to the centralising of any industry in a particular locality, 
but it ia beyond our present range. It is easy enough to see that 
prior to tbe construction of railways and canals it would be diffi- 
cult to conduct any operations of great magnitude far from tbe 
market for produce, and thus, in trades dependent upon foreign 
countries, the towns and cities upon navigable rivers would enjoy 
a great advantage over those situate in the interior of the coun- 
try. Cotton seems to have tried various localities before finally 
settling down in South Lancashire. Whyatt's first frame for spin- 
ning two hundred and fifty threads at once was set up in the Priory 
at Birmingham, and wa* turned by cattle, and he afterwards tried 
another at Northampton. Hargreaves, who worked a spinning 
frame in 17(i7, was driven from Blackburn to Nottingjiam, and 
was followed there by Arkwright with his water frame, and about 
the year 1795 cotton was also spun on frames in the Priory at 
Coventry ; but in later years the trade has been almost confined 
to Lanarkshire, iu Scotland, and in England can hardly be said to 
flourish beyond a forty miles radius from Manchester. Probably 
tbe convenience of the rivers Mersey and Irweli, which practically 
join Manchester to the cotton port of Liverpool, materially assisted in 
this centralization, and the energy of the late Duke of Bridgewater, 
^^ad of his engineer, Brindley, practically settled the question, by 
^B|eaii8 of the canal which, having wharves close to various pitu and 
J.'nakiiig an additional highway between Manchester and Liverpool, 
distributes coals for consumption and also carries produce to market.* 
The total amount of cotton imported into this country in 1781 
was 5.198.778lbs,, or about 13,000 bales of iOOlbs. each, which was 
equal to the consumption of about a day and a half in I860. 

* Tbo krailbbla coal of SodUi I.^<»8litre is eitimRted at 4,000,000,000 of tool. 



10 FACTS OF THE CWTTOH FAJONE. 

The greater portion of that amount probably came from tha 
Levant, for the whole of the cotton exported from India fifteen 
years later was 853,920lbs., and 8641bs, of this was sent to 
America, where the cnltivation of this important staple was jiiat 
commencing. In the year 1800 the consumption of cotton in this 
country had reached about 129,tK)0 bales of WOlbs. each, being 
equal to about three weeks consumption in IStiO. 

No good results were achieved by Whyatt's spinning frame, 
and the invention was practically neglected for a generation, 
whether for lack of capital or from imperfect working does not 
appear ; but from the date of the invention of the jenny by 
Hargreaves, and the application of the water frame by Arkwright, 
progrcits was really begun, and has been steadily continued ever 

The great advantage of these frames was the increase of pro-' 
duction, but by their superior work they also enabled cotton to be , 
substituted for linen warp, and thus further economised the cost' 
of manufacture. Trade was rapidly extending and Manchester, 
merchants were growing rich, and to meet Ihe ever increasii^, 
demand they, about the year 1800, put out warp and weft for weav- 
ing, not only to dwellers in their immediate vicinity, but to under- 
takers fpom the surrounding villages, and from Oldham, Ashton, 
Hyde, Buiy, Bolton, and other places. A lounger on the outskirta 
of Manchester would often see an irregular procession of weaver^ 
with their white aprons, coming to town in the morning with calico 
pieces, and returning in the evening with wallets slung over their 
shoulders loaded with warp and weft for the nest week's work. 
And not unfrequently would they turn into a favourite alehouse i 
on the road, and, forgetting that wives and children were anxiously ■ 
waiting their return, would carouse far into the night, and then 
stagger home under burdens increased by inebriety but with 
sadly lightened purses, and a prospect of short supplies until the 
next delivery of gooda 

Mr. Mann tells us that a person engaged for eight hours at 
the spinning wheel could only produce about twelve ounces of 
yarn of a low quality, and that the average cost of spinning would 
be about three shillings per pound. A fair estimate of all thd 
improvements will be formed when wo state that the cotton i 
sumed in 1800 was more than six hundred times as great as at 



COST OF SPINNING. 11 

^e period spoken of, and that the cost of spinning alooe, calcu- 
lated at three shillings per pound, would be nearly thrice as much 
u the total value of all the cotton goods produced ; or, in other 
irordfl, that the improvements have reduced the cost of goods to 
ftboat one-twelfth their former price. One shilling in 1860 would 
purchase nearly 'as much as twelve shillings did at the period 
spoken of by Mr. Mann. 

The invention of the spinning frames necessitated the erection 
of large buildings, and pointed to the application of water or other 
mechanical power, and the exchange of domestic for factory labour. 
There is no difficulty in realising the fact that such a change would 
be regarded with intense dissatisfaction by the jovial and liberty- 
bving operatives of South Lancashire. It is easy enough to rise 
early and to work long hours under excitement, for some special 
object ; but for boys and girls to rise regularly through the bleak 
winter, and trudge a mile or more through rain, or sleet, or snow, 
to be ready for the six o'clock bell, would be a great* hardship. 
When working at home a temporary headache or toothache would 
be a fair excuse for an hour's extra rest, a feeling of listlessness 
would be dispelled by a turn in the garden or up the field path, 
and the accidental call of a friend from a distance would lead to 
an afternoon's chat or a country walk; but factory occupation for- 
bids all these indulgences; a slight ailment must not interfere 
with work, and absence without leave would necessarily endanger 
employment 

And factory work would not only destroy domesticity and free- 
dom, but would also annihilate the capital of the workman. Many 
a man who by hard work and strict economy had become the owner 
of a few looms would, if he lost health, solace himself, and say to his 
wife, ** Well, lass, if aught happens me thou'lt ha' th' looms, and 
they'll help thee along ;" and he would look upon anything which 
lessened the value of this property not only as a misfortune, but 
as a cruel injustice Perhaps the natural repugnance of the 
people to forsake their domestic occupations stimulated the resort 
of manufacturers to the agricultural districts for families for the 
nd^e of their juvenile labour, and to workhouses tor apprentices to 
learn cotton spinning and weaving. Persons .who remember what 
fte workhouses were before the enactment of the new poor-law, 
the name workhouse, or house of industry, was an entire 



12 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

mockery, will not be surprised that tlie transference of ignorant 
youths from abodes of idleness into factories heated .to sixty 
or seventy degrees Fahrenheit, where the labour required con- 
tinual and close attention for twelve hours per day, should 
originate tales of the grossest cruelty ; and that the " herding" 
together of hundreds of persons of both sexes should have been 
pronounced productive of great immorality. Nor is it likely that 
the reports were all fictitious, for it would be difficult even now to 
give scores of orphans into the charge of men whose only interest 
is to extract out of them as much labour as possible, without 
finding plenty of room for complaint; nevertheless thousands of 
parish apprentices have fulfilled their tenns of service and become 
clever workmen, and have seen reason to be thankful that they 
were sent into the cotton districts, instead of being left to alternate 
for life between southern agricultural wages aad the workhousa 
We all dislike flogging at school, and some of us have bad experi- 
ence of brutal schoolmasters, but we learn in after life to see that 
the faults were not all on one side, and all malice is dismissed, and ws 
shake hands heartily in our maturor years with the men who were 
the terror of our youth ; and the experience of the school is equally 
applicable to the period of apprenticeship or any other servitude. 

The progress of the factory system in Lancashire is bein^ 
enacted over again in the silk trade iu the present day. During 
the last half-century the "single hand loom," making one ribboiL 
at a time, has been superseded by the "engine loom," making- 
from four to thirty pieces at once ; and that again by the 
"power loom," adapted for domestic use by the substitution of a 
windlass or a lever for the work of hands and feet at the batten an< 
the treddles ; and many a man who, forty years ago, reckoned hi» 
possessions at a hundred pounds in looms finds his fortune reduced 
to the value of firewood. So strong was the feeling in Coventry 
against the factory system, thirty years ago, that an intelligent 
weaver, in a discussion upon the utility of the application of 
power to machinery, declared that rather than let his children 
to work in a factory he would dash out their brains against the w 
The strength of tiis prejudice burned down the first 'ribbon factory^ 
and has since led to an attempt at compromise between domestit 
employment and the mill. Rows of cottages have been built witl 
loom-shops in the upper story, and a shaft running through 



TURKEY RED DTECCa 13 

irhole of the shops, turned by a steam en^^^e erected in the centre 
}f the row. A charge is made for steam power in the rent, and the 
engineer attends during a given number of hours per day ; but if the 
ireaver desires to continue at work after the engine has stopped 
le resorts to the windlass, which he gets a boy to tura The weak 
3oint in this system is, that the vagaries of fashion render ribbon 
¥eaving an irregular trade, so that in a row of twenty cottages it 
irill often happen that half of the looms are empty. Tet the 
power must be paid for whether used or not, and the weaver finds 
limself saddled with a burden which, under the factory system, 
irould be borne by the employer ; and the consequence is, that on 
he occurrence of bad trade the power-loom cottages are the first 
o be deserted, and thus the landlord loses not only his steam- 
!>ower rent but that of the cottages alsa The remedy will 
Drobably be found by the employer owning the cottages, and 
diarging for power only when the looms are at work, which will 
nake it doubly his interest to keep the tenants employed. 

In 1762 Wilson, of Ainsworth, began to dye Turkey red, and 
in the following year grass bleaching was generally resorted to ; 
but it was a tedious process, requiring constant exposure and 
frequent wetting of the goods for montha In 1774 it was 
ibortened one-half, by the use of diluted acid ; and in 1786 James 
WtLtt brought home from France the invention of BerthoUet for 
chemical bleaching, which reduced the time of the operation to a 
few hours, and released the pastures, which, to a strangers eye, 
bad for a quarter of a century looked like pictures of winter all 
the year round. In 1764 calicoes were first printed in Lancashire ; 
ftnd in 1786 machinery invaded this department also, substituting 
i^linders with continuous patterns for the square blocks of wood, 
5x)m which patterns had hitherto been impressed by hand ; and the 
race of improvement has gone on until as many as fifteen cylinders 
md fifteen different troughs of ccjlour contribute simultaneously 
to the most complicated and beautiful patterns which adorn the 
furniture prints of the present day. 

Hargreaves' spinning jenny commenced in 1767 with eight 
spindles ; in 1770 it had sixteen spindles, but it was only fit for 
veft yams, which require less strength than warp. Arkwri'^ht 
followed closely upon the heels of Hargreaves, and in 1769 pro- 
iuced the water frame, which, whilst drawing out the roving, gave 



14 



FACTS OF THE COTTOX FAJDNB. 



it also the requisite twist to fit it for warp yarn. The drawing or 
elongating was effected by passing the yarn between two eets of 
rollers, the second pair of which revolved more rapidly than the 
first, and therefore elongated the thread in the proportion of th» 
different rates of motion. 

As this machine was an improvement upon, so it practically 
superseded that of Hargreaves, and left him unrewarded for all his 
labours. Arkwright succeeded in finding the necessary capital 
for the erection of mills, and in producing largely enough not only 
to repay his outlay but to accumulate a handsome competency. 

In 1769 he erected a mill at Nottingham ; and iu 1771 be built 
a second at Croraford, in Derbyshire, and increased the produce of 
yam to such an extent that be found it advisable also to procurs 
looms for weaving it. 

The father of the first Sir Robert Peel had attempted cylinder' 
carding in Blackburn about 1760, instead of hand combing toi 
straighten the fibres of cotton, but the difficulty of stripping 
the cylinders by hand caused its abandonment. Hai^jeaves, in or 
about 1773, brought out the crank and comb for stripping the 
cotton from the cylinders in one continuous sheet of fleece, which, 
being contracted and drawn through a funnel, formed a " sliver" or 
loose filmy roll, ready for twisting. Two years later this contriv- 
ance was included in a patent by Arkwright, and poor Hargreavee' 
was again left stranded, Some authorities, however, it is fair U>1 
say, give to Arkwright the credit of the invention, as also of the 
drawing frame, which is connected with it in the patent. This, 
latter machine straightens the fibres by stretching the sliver' 
each time it is passed through, two or more slivers being united ; 
into one before each passage. The sliver is then ready for the < 
roving frame, which being fitted with three pairs of rollers, each 
revolving at different speeds, so as to continue the stretching 
process and reduce the sliver to the requisite degree of fineness, i 
then deUvers it into tall circular tin cans, which are kept 
revolving rapidly, so as to tvrist the sliver or roving sufBciently 
to allow it to be wound upon wooden bobbins. This machine 
enabled spinners to substitute cotton for linen ^mirp yarn, thua< 
achieving a measure of economy whilst supplying a more sati»- 
factory medium for calico printers. Microscopic examination 
shows that the fine and delicate cotton fibre is a hollow cylia- 



CBoMPToys rrasr jnrLS. 



15 



d it is said that the mordaunt used by printers 
drives the colour into the iuterior of these tubes, and thus produces 
fast colours ; but that the colour rests only upon the surface of the 
solid woody fibre of linen, and so more easily washes off 

In 1779 the inventions of Arkwright were in turn eclipsed by 
the mule produced by Samuel CromptoD, of Bolton, a machine which 
derived its name from its combination of the principles of the jenny 
ofHai^reares and the water frame of Arkwright This machine 
draws out the roving, as in the water frame, and when a certain 
length is drawn out, it is then twisted by revolving spindles, and 
wound into a somewhat conical form, called a cop, and is ready for 
the shuttle. Crompton's first mule had only twenty spindles, but the 
principle combining the greatest simplicity with the most econo- 
mical and perfect result yet attained was there, and was capable 
of indefinite extension. The best commentary upon the value of 
this invention b the fact that, whilst the size of the mule has 
been increased time after time, until it has reached twelve hundred 
spindles, producing twelve hundred threads at once, the only con- 
idderable variation from or addition to Crompton's arrangement has 
been the introduction of the self-acting principle — moving the 
carriage backwards and forwards by means of the steam engine in- 
stead of by the hands of the spinner, and securing thereby the same 
exact amount of twist in each length or stretch of yam, instead of 
depending on the judgment of the workman. The movable car- 
riage upon which the spindles are ranged recedes from the rollers 
more rapidly than they deliver the tliieads, and the yarn is there- 
fore stretched and twisted at the same time, in addition t« the 
stretching produced by the increasing velocity of the different 
sets of rollers. The mule in its rudest form sufficed to produce 
what is called 80's yam, but it has since produced usable yarn 
HO fine as to require eight hundred hanks of 840 yards each to 
weigh one pound. 

This machine — much more valuable for its saving of labour 
than the water frame — was not patented; and the cousequeuce 
was that, whilst Arkwright amassed a very large fortune, and 
received a baronetcy from the crown, to be converted ioto a peerage 
in the sou of his partner (Mr. Strutt, afterwards Lord Belper), it 
cost a vast amount of laliour to get from the government the 
t of five thousand pounds for Crompton ; and this sum 



16 



FACTS OF THK COTTON FAMINE. 



was the reward for all his labours, the value of whicli to society 
would be beyond the power of estimate in money. In 1785 the 
inventions of Arkwright also became public property, the validity 
of his patents having been successfully contested — a circumstance 
which ia held by some persons to prove only the malice of his 
competitoiB, and by others that hia genius consisted mainly in 
the clever manipulation of the fruits of other men's labours. 

The coat of apiuniug 80's mule yarn in Crompton'a time was 
forty-two ahillinga; of 60's, twenty-five shillings; and of 40's, four- 
teen shillings per pound ; the cost of the same articlea just prior 
to the cotton famine was one shilling, aevenpence halfpenny, and 
fourpence respectively. 

In 1783 the atmospheric engine was applied to machinery ia 
Manchester, and in the next year Dr. Cartwright, of Glasgow, 
endeavoured to secure progress in the weaving process, so as to 
bring it more nearly into accord with the great advance made in 
spinning machinery. The productive power of the spinner had 
been increased a hundred fold, whilst that of the weaver bad simply 
been doubled. 

With this view he constructed a loom to be worked by ateom 
power. It was a clumsy instrument and brought its author no' 
profit, but it was the commencement of a great revolution. Th«^ 
necessity for improvement was obvious, and men's minds were now 
directed to the subject ; and the fortune accumulated by Ark- 
wright seemed to say that there were prizes as great in store for 
successful improvers of looms as had been already achieved by 
adventurers in the spinning department England was becoming 
famous for her rnachineiy, but the legislature was exceedingly 
jealous of foreigners, and a law was passed in 1786 which imposed 
fines upon persons who were guiliij of exporting it Thus earty 
was the progress of one trade sacrificed to the mistaken idea 
protecting another, as if a trade in machinery would not 
served the interests of England as well as a trade in textile oi 
any other fabrics. 

Cart Wright's loom was never got effectually to work, and of coorM 
brought him no profit, an it did society no positive service; bal 
in 1794 Bell, also of Gla^w, produced a power loom of improved 
pattern ; and two years later Miller, of Preston, tried his fortune 
a the same direction ; but it was not till 1813 (a generation aftelj 



watt's steam engine. 17 

Caitwrigbt's attempt) that a really-useful loom was produced, by 
Horrocks, of Stockport; and this invention, like the self-acting 
mule, received its final form from the late Richard Roberts, of 
Manchester, an universal mechanical genius, the owner of nearly 
a hundred patents, who nevertheless died at last in great poverty. 
One of the chief difficulties in power-loom weaving was the want 
of an automatic dressipg machine. In 1804> Johnson, of Stockport, 
patented a plan for dressing a whole length of warp at once ; and 
two years later this machine was improved upon by M'Adam, of 
Glasgow, and a few years later still was further improved by 
Messrs. Ross & Radcliffe, of Stockport 

The application of the power of falling water to the propulsion 
of machinery would have enabled all the inventions of which we 
have spoken to be utilized, but if water alone liad constitutes! the 
motive power, the manufacture would have been confined to the 
river banks, and have been dependent to a most injurious extent 
upon the state of the weather ; so that the vast extension of the 
last half-century, with its multiplied comforts and enjoyments, 
would have been impossible. But simultaneously with the pro- 
gress of cotton machinery, experiments upon a new motive power 
were being carried on, and in 1785 Messrs. Boulton & Watt pro- 
duced their steam engine — a giant so perfect in his advent that 
five years only elapsed before Arkwright's mills at Cromford were 
turned by the strength of his arma From Hargreaves* jenny to 
Crompton's mule were twelve years, from Cartwright*s loom to that 
of Horrocks were thirty years, but James Watt produced and success- 
fully applied the steam engine at once, and the greatest industry 
of the world was thus unchained; and, leaving the river banks, 
climbed the hills and spread over the moors, reclaiming ihvm from 
waste to produce food for the tens of thousands of operatives, wlio, 
by the help of the new power, were elaborating useful and luxu- 
rious clothing for half the world. 

The engineer of the Bridgewater canal is reported to liavt* been 
so enthusiastic in his profession as to have said that the chief use 
of rivers was to feed canals ; much more reasonably niiLrht an 
enthusiast for the steam engine fissert that the chief use of water 
is to be converted into steam as a motive power, for its utilitv is 
80 vast and its application so varied as to be perfectly asttMindino". 
A pint of water and two ounces of coals will, by the aid of a steam 



18 



FACTS OF THE COTTON- FAMINE. 



engioe, raise a weight of seventy-four tons to the heiglit of one 
foot, and a single busliel of coals will exert aa much force as fifty- 
four horaea. 

By the labour of the steam engine mines are sunk and dnuned, 
coals and metallic ores are raised to the surface, thus providing its 
own food and water; the metallic ores are crushed, the metal forged 
and rolled, planed, turned, drilled, bored and polished, ready to be 
fitted into machines of all kiuds, including the steam engine itself, 
which may therefore be called aelf-producing; by the aid of the steam 
engine, stones are cut and dressed ; clay is ground and compressed 
into bricks; com is converted into flour and kneaded into dough; 
wool, flax, silk, and cotton are spun into thread, woven into cloth, 
and stitched into garments ; and when all these things are prepared 
for use, the steam engine distributes them throughout the length 
and breadth of the land, and carries them across the ocean, against 
wind and tide to the uttermost ends of the earth, spreading civiH- 
aation and increasing enjoyment everywhere. 

But one more invention was necessary to achieve the complete 
independence of the cotton trade. The improvements in spinning 
and weaving furnished immense powers of production ; the steam 
engine gave a wide range in the choice of locality for the trade ; 
the people learned in due time to respond to the factory bell as 
the pious villager does to the Sunday chime : but wintry days were 
short and dark, whilst the fixed charges of the spinner remained 
the same as in summer, and the light of oil and candles was dear, 
dull, dirty, and dangerous. The crowning point of invention wa« 
reached in 1803, when coal gas was introduced into a mill in 
Salford, giving light enough for efficient work independently of the 
fiun, and thus practically doubling the powers of pi-oduction, and 
minimising the danger of artificial light, by compressing twenty- 
three candles into a single jet at less than a quarter of the cost 

■ The progresa of the cotton trade would, in all probability, have 
been even more rapid if it had not been an object of especial car« 
firom time to time with the legislature. In 179S an import duty 
was levied upon raw cotton, and was continued with no less than 
fourteen changes in the rate of duty till its final extinction in 1845; 
so that this giant trade has only been completely unfettered at 
home for twenty years. But not satisfied with taxing the raw 
material, the legislature imposed a ban upon the ornamentation 



GOVERNMENT HELPS AND HINDRANCES. 19 

of calico, in the shape of an excise, first of sixpence, and after- 
wards of threepence per square yard on printed cottons, which 
latter duty was only removed in 1831. Practically, they said 
to the people, " if you will seek to increase your comforts by 
importing foreign productions for manufacture, you shall pay a 
fine for each offence, and when you have suffered the punish- 
ment you may make plain calico if you like ; but if you venture 
to exercise taste upon it, or to gratify the love of colour in any 
way, you shall pay an additional fine to the government" Thus 
enterprise and improvement met with the same treatment as 
misdemeanours, and the taxes imposed made an unnaturally large 
capital necessary for the pursuit of trade, whilst the merchants 
were converted into tax-gatherers, at salaries dependent on the 
competition amongst themselves ; but they were forced to pay the 
taxes, whether they collected them or not; they paid not only 
on their incomes but on their losses also, for if they never got 
paid for goods sold they must still pay the tax, as well as losing 
the goods. It is not wonderful that such legislation led to 
schemes to cheat the government; and employees of the last 
generation of calico printers tell strange stories about the 
excisemen being plied with wine whilst charging the duty, and 
forgetting their own duties in consequence. It is wonderful that 
any trade should flourish at all when subjected to the incubus of 
excise, but it is not wonderful that, morality should give way, 
before the prospect of large profit, by pleasing a corruptible official 



CHAPTEE II. 



■^tTHB of Emjiloyere uid Operativea on Improvemente ot Machinery— A LMgtW 
kgUDBt Miicliiiie-«ima Yams— Machinery Riota in 1779— Measured Mulnew-^ 
The War of 1793 and jto EfftnM npon Trade-'Tbe Wage Quettinn— Mftduuery 
the ScApegmC for Wor—BiuikruptiTOs in 1793~Tbe War of Turifla and the Price 
of Bread— Import Duty on Cotton, and its Effet'ta— Prohibition tn Eiiw.rl Ma- ' 
ehinery — GoTernmanl Nursing— The Btata of Blookads, 1806, and the Orden in 
OounoQ — The Ameriom Enibaigo on foreign Trade — Machinery and Fond Riota 
at Leiceater, Nottingham, Manchester, kc —Economical Errors of EmiJoyers — 
Prejudices agoinut Fnrcigners— Riots of 1826 and 18211— Destruction of Power 
Looma-^ommanGenwnt of Working Clan Dny Schools, and Rise of PoliUcal 
riwllnE. 

Improvkment :b never secured without labour Rnd trouble, It 
has often been asserted that teaching is the hardest work in the 
world, and every thoughtful man knows tliat it is mucti more diffi- 
cult to teach men than to teach children. The potter hath power 
over the clay, but that is before it is burned ; for after the action of 
the fire of experience, or the hardening process of age with igno- 
rance, it 19 very difficult to secure a change, however obvious the 
advantage. Tlie working classes are in these days often very 
severely judged when they oppose obviona improvements, but they 
are not more than two generations behind their employers in their 
strongest prejudices. 

The spinning wheels and primitive looms were commonly 
either the property of the operatives who worked them, or of 
undertakers who fitted up (gaited) the looms, and then occupied 
themselves mostly in superintendence. The capital of the employer 
purchased the raw cotton and the imported fine warp yams of 
cotton, or of home-spun linen, and paid the wages of the operatives. 
Any improvement in looms seemed to the weaver to threaten his 
employment, by needing fewer hands to supply the then present 
demand for goods; to the undertaker it threatened to annihilate 
the vahie of his property ; and to the masters any improvement 
which increased production by a competitor in spinniDg or in. 
weaving seemed as if it would rob them of a market for their 



LEAGUE AGAINST MACHINE SPUN TARNS. 21 

goods, the demand being looked upon by nearly all as a fixed 
quantity. So when the inventions of Hargreaves and Arkwright 
promised to increase the production of yams beyond the power of 
the then looms to weave, the employers of the weavers combined 
amongst themselves in a determination not to purchase machine- 
made yama The intention was to ruin the frame spinners, 
but the effect was to make Arkwright a manufacturer as well as 
a spinner. And when the government had determined to tax 
machine-made calico as if it was of foreign manufacture, and an 
application was made to parliament for relief, this league of 
employers opposed the application. This opposition failed, and 
it became really clear that employers who meant to prosper must 
invest capital in machinery, and then poor Hargreaves' patent 
was pirated without scruple because he was poor, and Arkwright's 
was legally contested and nulUfied four years before it would have 
expired by effluxion of time. It was seen that the race for riches 
would be won by the owners of spinning frames and power-looms, 
and employers who possessed the necessary means entered heartily 
into the contest, and left the prejudices against machinery as a 
legacy to the operativea 

To these latter the future did not look so promising; they were 
afraid of lessened employment, they saw their domestic machines 
losing all value, and they disliked the prospect of factory life, 
with its regular hours and its forced associations with persons 
who were not desirable companions; and, before the new insti- 
tution could get fairly established, the curse of war came upon 
them, and, by shutting up foreign markets, brought about the woe 
and want which they innocently ascribed to the effects of machinery. 
Hargreaves was driven to Nottingham by the destruction of 
his jennies in Blackburn ; Kay, of Warrington (said by some 
persons to have been the real inventor of the water frame), had 
preceded him for' a similar reason ; and Arkwright sought the 
same asylum after suffering the destruction of a mill at Chorley. 

Mr. Mann tells us that " we have in the riots at Blackburn 
(1779) evidence that the use of machinery was producing an effect 
upon the working class." The mob scoured the country for 
miles, destroying all the jennies and other machines with which 
Hargreaves had supplied the spinners and weavers. And at this 
time the middle and upper classes looked quietly on, for they also 



22 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMIN'R 

ignorantly supposed that the only tendency of the power afforded 
by the machines was to contract the demand for hand labour, not 
having yet learned that the improved and cheapened manufacture 
would inevitably cause a corresponding increase of demand. 

But there was a measure to this madness amongst the rioter^, 
for jennies having not more than twenty spindles were spared, 
wbilst all others were either cut down to that same number or 
destroyed. A jenny of twenty spitidles was a domestic imple- 
ment, a larger one would scarcely stand in a cottage. A small 
measure of improvement was allowable, but a great improve- 
ment was mischievous ! Such was the philosophy of the mob 
eighty or ninety years ago, and nt^t of the mob only, for the 
rioters' cause was popular with those above them ; and the destruc- 
tion of Arkwright's mill went on in the presence of a laige body 
of special constables, who appear to have made no effort to prevent 
it. The machinery belonging to Mr. Peel, the father of the first 
Sir R Peel, was also destroyed at Oldham, and he afterwards 
retired to Burton -on -Trent. But amidst all this prejudice, and 
tumult, and riot, the trade still increased. 

The consumption of cotton in 1785 (when Arkwright's 
machines became public property) was 17,992,888 Iba, and in 
seven years after it bad risen to 33,442,032 lbs., an increase of 
nearly a hundred per cent. 

On 2Sth January, 1793, the King (George III.) in his message 
to parliament, informed the members that be had resolved to 
augment bis forces " for supporting his allies, and for opposing 
views of aggrandisement and ambition on the part of Franco, nt 
all times dangerous to the interests of Europe, hut especially so 
when connected with the propagation of principles subversive of 
the peace and order of society." 

In this year the consumption of cotton fell to 17,809,363 Ibi, 
or back to the position of 1785, when a large proportion of the goods 
produced were by the primitive spinning wheel and loom; and the 
exports fell from £2,024,368 toil,733,807, being fourteen and a hi "^ 
per cent. Employment was scarce and wheat was rising in price, li 
the French revolution had effectually frightened tire nation, and 
war being popular could not of course bo supposed to have pwH 
duced scarcity of work, or to have added six shillings per quarter 
the price of wheat. The doctrine that reproductive labour alone a\ 



i 



H THE WAGE QUESTION. S3 

permanently usofiil had not yet found many preachers, and people 
crjuld not understand why tlie cessation of com growing and calico 
making for the employment of killing their customers should get 
them into troniile. The general opinion amongst workmen was 
that the rate of wages was according to the whim of the employer. 
and that it coiilJ only be the new machinery whicli enabled him to 
diminisb tlieir wages or to dispense with their eervices. They did 
not know that as the only reason for the employment of new 
machinery is the extra profit made by it as compared witli the old, 
so a tMinsiderable proportion of that extra profit being saved by 
the employer goes to increase the employment fund, and must, 
tlierefore, in order to realise further profit, be re-inveated, and add 
ttD the bulk of wages paid. It is true that the re-inveBtment may 
hot be wholly made in the department which produced it, that is 
to say, tlie profit got out of spinning may not all be spent in 
spinners' wages, and that, therefore, a temporary diaplacomeut 
may occur ; but whether the profit be spent upon extra spinning, 
or on the production of machinery, or on the building of mills 
or houses, it must pay wages,, must promote the prosperity of 
the operatives, and must increase the demand for all necessary 
id useful articles. They knew only that a larger proportion 
operatives were out of work than before the improvements 
machinery, and they looked no farther for the cause of 
{heir distress. But Wheeler, in his history of Manchester, throws 
a light upon the subject, for he telb us that in 1793 the 
bankruptcies nearly trebled those of the preceding year, shewing 
that the mercantile classes sufferei.1 not less than the operatives 
in the diminution of their wualth, if not of their food ; and he also 
tells us that the peace of Manchester was only maintained by the 
parade of troops with torches through the streets by night Bad 
harvests accompanied the war, and in three successive years the 

>a of wheat ran up from forty-seven shillings and tenpence to fifty 
lings aud eighlponce — seventy-two shillings and elevenpence 

seventy-sis shillings and threepence per quarter. With war 
!es, bad harvests, and the annihilation of foreign trade, it is not 
ronderful that a disposition to riot was frequently manifested in 
orious parts of the country. 

In 171)6 the French, in order to strike a blow at the "nation of 
hopkeepers," prohibited the import of English manufactures, aud 



' 24 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 



thus commenced tlie war of tariffs, whilst tlie liuman war was still 
raging ; and, as if to punish the nations to the utmost for their 
folly, the earth refused its customary fruits, and the price of wlieat, 
which in 1797 had fallen to fifty-two shillings and twopence, and in 
1798 to fifty shilhngs and four-pence, ran up ^aiu in the next three 
years to sixty-six shillings and elevenpence, one hundred and ten 
shillings and fivepence, and one hundred and fifteen shillings and 
elevenpence per quarter. In this last year (1802) old men say 
that the ainpenny loaf was not larger than a man's fist, and was 
nearly as black &a peat bog, and that thousands of people died 
from absolute want of food. 

In 1798 the English goTomment imposed a duty upon im- 
ported cotton, varying from six shillings and sixpence to twelve 
ehillings and sixpence per 100 lbs., except on the productions 
of the East Indit's, which were taxed at four per cent ad vahrem, 
or five shillings and fourpence per 100 lbs. at the then price oi 
Surats. Cotton goods, beiug cheaper than linen, were rapidly 
incroQsing in demand for home- consumption, and this tax did not 
actually diminish the imports, which, indeed, were 7,500.00Ulb8, 
more than in the previous year ; but the power of the spinners 
had outstripped the demand of the manufacturers, and whilst 
the impoil duty raised the prices of raw cotton greatly beyond 
the amo\int of the tax, the prices of yams fell oflf considerably. 
Uplands cotton ruse from twenty-four pence to thirty-three pence 
per pound, Brazils from thirty-one pence to thirty-nine pence, 
and Surats from sixteenpence to twenty-three pence per pound; 
whilst mule twist. No. lOO's, fell from nineteen shillings to nine 
shillings and tenpence per puuucL A large portion both of 
the rise in cotton and the fall in twist was no doubt due to the 
increased demand created by the new machinery, and the facility 
of production by its means ; but all experience goes to show that 
a tradesman cannot be made to invest his capital in taxes at leea 
than a trading profit, which is always many times as much as the 
mere cost of collection. And this is necessarily so, for if a trades- 
man sells goods with the tax paid, and his customer becomes a 
defaulter, the tradesman is in the position of paying taxes upon 
his losses, and he must needs make his solvent customers pay for 
these bad debts, taxes included, in order to save himself irom 



oovERiraEST STTnsixa. 25 

Ii 18 very difEcult, if not impossiLle, to understand the policy 
of the legislature in ita various enactments concerning the cotton 
taauuractiire, for they are as incoDBistent as the vagaries of an 
i^orHDt nioUier towards a child, which she iirst pet«, and then 
acolds, and then peta again, just according to her own humour for 
the time being, and williout regard to the real interests of her 
charge. In 17U2 an act was passed prohibiting the export of 
engraved copper plates and blocks, and imposing a penalty of 
£500, or twelve monllis' imprisonment, for enticing any workman 
engaged in calico printing to go beyond the seas. The operatives, 
regardless of their own interests or inclinations, were to be kept at 
home for the benefit of the employer ; and the employer, in his 
turn, was forbidden to sell the fruits of hia enterprise to a French- 
man or a Dutchman, but was to be satisfied with the prices 
procurable at home. This was tiade in a strait waistcoat, for fear 
that it should be mad enough to ruin itself by finding out and 
occupying the best marketa 

la the next year (17B3), the import duty on foreign muslins, 
calicoes, and nankeens was reduced ; and at the same time a bounty 
wtis given on tlie export of British printed and dyed cottons. Here 
there was in opt-ration, at the same time, the removal of a piece of 
protection by the lowering of import duties, and the enactment of 
another by the gift of a bounty. Surely, if English prints needed 
a bounty to send them into foreign markets, there was not much 
to prohibit the export either of operative engravers or of the 
i produced by them ; for their work could not be in great 
.nd in markets which our finished goods needed a bounty to 
reach. The operative was kept at home to engrave, and the whole 
nation was taxed to make a foreign trade for him and for the calico 
printer ; whilst, on the other hand, the price of the raw material, 
which employed them in common with all the cotton optfratives, 
wa« artificially increased by the import duty on cotton, and the 
Cost of dress was further enhanced at home by an excise on calico 
prints ; when the simple removal of these taxes would in all 
probability have stimulated the whole of the trade, and have 
served the calico manufacturer and printer vastly more than any 
government nursing could do. But the nurse exacted wages 
from its child, for. in 1784, calico printers, bleachers, and dyers 
obliged to take out licences, and an excise of a penny per 



-0 FACTS OF THE COTTOX FAMINE. 

pound was imposed on all bleached calicoes. In the same year 
a t;\x was also imposed on fustians, which so manifestly hindered 
tho trade that it was repealed in the next session of parliament 
These oscillations between goremmeat petting and government 
punishment seem then to hare settled down till ISOi when the 
import duty on law cotton was increased in ratio, without producing 
an inon^ased revenue : and was increased again in 1803, and still 
a^in in 1S03, when it leaehed its highest {wint ; and bom 1809 
was reduced on various occasions, until finally extinguished in 1845. 

In 1S06 the faonous Berlin decree of Xapoleon declared the 
British Islands in a state of bkvkade. and all captured British 
c»is lawful priieis^ and excluded British vessels from trade in all 
the p»>r:5 of France, and all countries under her cootrvd : and every 
vrSoeL vMf whatever nation, which had touched at any British port» 
WAS iHit in the same cate3t^>rr, 

I:i Fehruarr. 1607 three months after this decree, and in con- 
s-\r.:rr.c^ of its promulgation, the ~ orders in cooncir announced 
ihv blockade of the whole Freaoh docninioos^ and forbade any 
r:ri::r.u Tvs:§el from enteriiLj a British port if it had touched at 
any French jMn. and jussiaed the capcor^ of ali Fnench produce ; 
an.: :: rjtrsher decreed thi: n.^ British vessti siA^aii trade with the 
^:n:r.:T. so tbAt ail tnde with Fri;::tw">» or ber iepie&dencies was 
Lf n \ t.rth Tevr>^=d to sn:;igv:lirig^. 

I- :he next yeiir w:ks isjaied :he Ani-erlcaks. emlarw on foreign 
:r.*:: ani tbr irarvcts cc v\>c:.^ f^:I vdF lo ;i:e exient of thirtv 
HI.-.: '::> :: p:::ini>. Tbie vvr»izr> iz vvcii.'il vv«iiiri:sed in force, not- 
^.:": >:,iiii:r:^ tv::::--cs acii'j,si tieci rrvci LcoSxi. Manchester, 
x::.: H:C ii>.rjij^ts. uU ISli. wb-eci :ie ooc'cc i^iiivrts a&run fell 
:r aVvc: iS.*»A'Ay'lSN In iha: vzvjlt. llr. Br.yiLirtam ,ik>w Lord 
Fr. "rr.jk:!:^ :rx:^: eoirrLv>? K-f.n: 'i-c H.'<::i5*e oc Commons^ on 
:-;' >:o::c x" inti? a;:2i •i?i' terriri^* vVCf,ii:i.'c cc "be coiuon opera- 
: s. WV;jt: Tr:j^ oc?z h,i:>ir^x: xxi •w^c*y-^Tc. siullii^ and 
c^: :;.t:~,^? vtrir : -.tjric- atlc :b; :.xx: :c :ije i^* yvr w:fcs of the most 
X -^. : _:•£ ill. i , TiTtii^ :c iWr: *vcjt:vus^ sa^i Lz\ ar^ -quite out of 
:^ :.>::. c : :!:i l*«iur.-;> .f fcT-v;:,^' :,xxi .t cTf-a iiiilk, thev had 
. .^ .1 '^'i :,- 'lr_i :c >. yc::jt:c. %its :>.; sTjk:< vC ihe people, 

: - i-.i:< :1c :r>,rs .« .v-ur:::-. '•.re \v%,c :i;s*e r-:Tcesentations 



MACHINERY AND FOOD RIOTS. 27 

Bad harvests, war taxes, and an inflated currency, which raised the 
prices of all articles, except labour, had all contributed to this ter- 
rible distress, but the operatives saw principally one cause at work. 
Improved machinery had enabled one man to vastly increase the 
prodace of his labour, and they concluded that if the machinery 
was out of the way, there would be more work and more wages for 
each of them« They did not know that the employment of more 
hands for the same result would not increase the purchasing power 
of the public, and that to raise the price of a commodity must 
needs prevent its sale, and so in their instance, whilst robbing the 
world of a large amount of clothing, would still leave the work- 
man in the same miserable plight. How could they know these 
things ? The education of the masses was as yet a dangerous doc- 
trine, their only teaching was from the pulpits, and this teaching 
did not reach one half of the operative classes, and except amongst 
the dissenting local preachers, the universal tenor was " obedience 
to the powers that be, for they are of God," whilst want and 
suffering gave practical proof of the bitterness of the lesson. 

In 1811-12 the powers of nature embodied in improved 
machinery for man's comfort were openly denounced as the cause 
of, and made the scapegoat for, his sufferings. The riots against 
machinery commenced at Leicester, where the workmen supposed 
themselves worse off, because, by the aid of a wide frame, a man 
could make more stockings in a given time than in a narrow one. 
As if the farmer who would be well off by the produce of six 
bags of wheat per acre should be ruined if the same land and 
the same labour gave him ten bags. 

In April, 1812, there was a food riot in Manchester, which was 
quelled for the moment by an arbitrary arrangement of the authori- 
ties to reduce the prices of potatoes from fourteen shillings or fifteen 
shillings to eight shillings per load. A cart with fourteen loads of 
meal was stopped at New Cross, and the meal carried away. The 
cavalry were needed to preserve the peace, and the magistrates had 
to promise full protection to the farmers to induce them to bring 
produce to market for sale at all. 

In the same month a riot took place at Middleton, wIhto a mill 
had been erected for weaving by steam, and the o])ject of the mob 
was to destroy the place. But the proprietors had been forewarned, 
and armed defenders occupied the building, and when the place was 



28 FACTS OF THE COTTOH FAMISE. 

attacked and the windows broken, the crowd was fired upon, tliree 
of them being killed and many more wounded. On the next day, 
the crowd returned to the charge, being then also aimed, but the 
authoriliea were awake, and the factory was now defended by 
soldiers ; and the crowd, foiled in their first object, turned to the 
house of the proprietor, and wreaked their vengeance by setting 
it on fire. Heie they were followed by the military, and five more 
of their number were killed, and many others wounded. Four days 
later (24th April), a mob assembled at West Houghton with the 
declared intention of destroying the power looms which were at 
work at that place. A troop of soldiers was dispatched thither from 
Bolton, who, finding all quiet, returned home again, when the mob 
immediately re-assembled, set fire to, and completely destroyed 
large factory. The operatives undoubtedly believed that the in- 
creased facilities for the production of wealth by improved 
machinery were the cause of their poverty, but thia belief was, it 
was shrewdly suspected, made use of by designing persons to. 
enable jhe government to crush out the new political life whicfa 
was now rising into being, and struggling for development. How- 
ever that matter may be, it is certain that the most susceptible 
prejudice was that against machinery, and that the next &i 
gave evidence of the fearful amount of passion which had heeoi 
excited, and of the fearful retribution exacted ; for, at^cording to 
Archibald Prentice, more than twenty persona were sent to tb«j 
gallows, and one of the poor fellows was so young aa to call upon; 
his mother at the scaffold in the vaiu hope that she could save 
him from a felon's death. 

Amongst employers it was now well settled that the greater! 
the power of production the more valuable the machine, and 
improvement was tolerably certain of immediate adoption, the 
chief care of the inventor being to prevent piracy ; but the know 
ledge of political economy as a science, was still to come. 

The employers petitioned against the com law of 1815, upom 
the plea that its enactment would tend to raise wages, forgetting 
that if more means were expended on food there would remain 
less for clothing, and that consequently every addition to the pried 
of com would k-ssen the demand for cotton and other manufacture^^ 
and throw hands out of employ, aud force those remaining at work 
to accept less instead of demanding more wages for work. 



PREJUDICES AOIIKST FOREIOKERa 29 

The sons of these men when i^tating for the repeal of these 
same com hiws, from 1839 to 1846, thought it Terr foolish of the 
Chartists to declare that ^ cheap food meant cheap wages," and 
foolish enough it was, as the theory of political economy shewed, 
aad as events have since demonstrated ; but the working men 

Chartists were then onlv dressed in the cast-off clothes of their 

* 

employers, {ix their doctrine was a perfect counterpart of that 
announced by the employers in 1815 ; they were just a generation* 
behind in this respect, and in some other matters not quite so far. 

A foreign trade in yarns had sprung up, and it was predicted 
that evil would arise from the exportation of twist ; the assumption 
being that if twist was not exported the demand for calico would be 
increased proportionately, and thus thousands of extra looms be 
employed. It was forgotten that twist was not given away, but 
sold for a profit, and that so long as a profitable trade was done it 
mattered not to the interests of this countrv whether it was in 
yam or cloth, for that if the sum spent by foreigners for yam was 
spent on cl(Ah it would simply employ extra weavers at the ex- 
pense of some of the spinnera And it was also forgotten that to 
prohibit the export of yams might possibly result in setting up 
rival spinners on the Continent instead of bringing extra customers 
for cloth ; just as at an earlier date at home, Arkwright had been 
forced into manufacturing by the refusal of employers to purchase 
hi8yam& 

The same kind of foolish objections were urged against allowing 
foreigners, resident in Manchester, to purchase fustians iu the 
grey instead of in the finished state, and it was even feared 
that some of them might become manufacturers ! What would 
these old manufacturers think if tbey could return and lov>k 
down the long array of German, Greek, and other foreign names 
which now adorns the list of merchants in the Manchester 
directory ? How heartily they would laugh at their own former 
follies, and how glad would they be to see the demonstratit^n 
that the interests of a nation are not pR>moted by exelusiveness, 
but by universal goodwill and fraternity. The foreigners are 
amongst the most enterprising of our merchants, and. whilst 
they do not obtrusively interfere with our local or national polities, 
they are yet found prominent amongst the donors to charitable 
objecta 



so FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

We ought to be careful in our condemnation of the comluct of 
the working classes, and charitable in denouncing their neglect of 
opportunities for improvement, for so lately as 1825 a meeting of 
Manchester merchants adopted the following resolution : — ■' That 
pennanently high prices of corn would be evidently and generally 
injurious; they would either greatly depreciate the condition of 
our manufacturing population, or, by raising the wages of lubour, 
materiatiy increase the facihties for successful rivalsliip with 
productive industry abroad ; and the declining condition of our 
trade which would then ensue would eventually entjiil on the agri- 
culturists, in common with every other class of the community, 
the greatest suffering." Here was still the old fallacy that dear 
corn meant dear wages, notwithstanding the fact that every bad 
harvest had, by lessening trade, given the operatives into the 
hands of the employers at almost any wages which it pleased them 
to pay. So difficult is it to unlearn an erroneous doctrine, even 
when demonstrably false. 

The years 1823-4-3 were remarkable for heavy speculations, 
which turning out unprofitable, resulted in the failure of fifty-eight 
country banks, and of course brought trade to a standstill position, 
not only in the cotton districts but in all parts of the kingdom. 
Subscriptions were opened in Lancaj^hire, and food was supplied to 
the destitute, but the people not understanding the true cause of 
their distress, again made machinery the scapegoat. In April, 
182C, a mob broke the windows of a factory at Accrington, and 
grossly ill-used the manager when he attempted to speak to 
tbem. On the next day, manufacturers returning from Man- 
chester on the coach were received in Blackburn with showers 
of stones. Five days later (24th April), the mob gained admtssioa' 
to Messrs. Sykes' mill, at Accrington, and destroyed sixty power- 
looms, and the dressing machine, and also injured the steam 
engine. They then marched to Rough Hey, and there destroyed 
twenty looms, and thence to White Ash, where eighty more were 
demolished. At Blackburn, a similar course was followed, and many 
looms were destroyed before the arrival of the military, who killed 
one man and dangerously wounded two others. On the 25th, the 
soldiers were fortunate enough to save the mills of Messrs. Turner, 
at Helmsbora On the 26th. two hundred and twenty looms were 
destroyed at RawtcnstallandEdenfield. A similar act of vondalisiQ, 



DESTRUCTION OP POWEK-LOOMS. 31 

M>b place at Messrs. Aitken and Lords's, near Ramsbottom, uliere 
a collision with llie military cost the lives of four men" and one 
woman. Seventy-four looms were destroyed on the some day at 
Sumnieraeat, and fifty-one cotton and some woollen looms at Bacup. 
On 26th, a meeting of the unemployed was held in St George'H 
Field's, Manchester, and the five or six thousand people there 
present were urged to destroy the power-looms as the cause of 
tlieir distress ; hut. at this meeting common sense found an eipo- 
nent in tlie person of a working-man, named Uodgins, who told 
them that the only possihle result of Euch violence would he that 
they would suffer under the swords of the military, and that not 
the slightest alteration would he niatle in the system of which they 
complained. The parish was bound to support the distressed, 
and if the officers did not grant assistance, the applicants might 
appeal to the magistrates, who would order them relief. Till ail 
these legal resources were tried, every attempt to obtain their 
purpose by other means was illegal. This speech and tlie an- 
nouncement by the late A. Prentice, to the oflect that the first 
subscription of eight thousand pounds being exhausted, a new one 
had been commenced that day, and on the morrow, 20,0001hs. of 
l^acon and lOO.OOOlbs. of meal would be ready for distribution, 
sufficed to keep the peace, and the greater portion of the crowd 
retumeil quietly to their homes. 

What they wanted was food, and whilst they believed that the 
new machinery had robbed them of bread, they were willing to 
spare even the robber, if the necessary bread waa supplied. 

In 1829 a money panic, arising from the withdrawal of one 
pound notes from circulation, had the effect of lessening employ- 
ment and lowering wages, and of course produced serious discon- 
tent, and again the rage against machinery was excited. 

On 27th April, all the windows in Mes^. Brock le hurst's factoiy 
at Macclesfield were broken. On 29th, a number of weavers at 
Rochdale, who had turned out against a reduction, went round to 
those who remained at work and demanded their Uiuttles, certainly a 
most effective mode of stopping the looms ; and ncit day the passion 
assumed what was now the estuhlished form, and the machinery in 
two factories was destroyed. Sixteen of the rioters having been 
trrested and committed for trial, an attempt at rescue was made 
sod resulted in the deaths of six persons by the military on guard. 



32 FACTS OF THE 0OTT0:r FAMHre. 

At a meetiDg of hand-loom weavers in Mancliestjjr, on 3rd May, it 
was resolved to request the pDwer-loom weavers to strike rather than 
submit to a reduction. Next day a mob broke into a mill in Mather- 
atreet, turned out the hands, and cut to pieces the warps in the 
looms; broke the reeds and all else which was easily destructible, and 
tossed the cloth into the street, through the broken windows. From 
thence they went to Pol lard -street, and destroyed forty-six power- 
looms and ninety-two dandy-looms (looms turned by a windlass at the 
end of each.) They then returned to the factory whence they had 
turned out the hands, and there destroyed fifty-three more looms, 
knocked out more windows, and tossed warps and webs into the 
canal In Lud gate-street they were not satisfied with destroyii^ 
the power-toums, but having accomplished all possible internal 
mischief, they then set fire to the building. A troop of soldiers 
prevented any further destruction, but for two days longer provi- 
sion shops were sacked, and forced contributions of money and food 
levied at private houses. 

During all the alternations of prosperity and adversity com- 
prised in this short review, the political element bad been constantly 
growing up amongst the working classes, Lancasterian, Church, 
and British day schools had also begun to work; and although social 
and political economy formed no part of their instructions, yet they 
did to thousands of people supply the means which led to self- 
cidture ; and any violence against property henceforth perpetrated 
by great masses of men may safely be credited quite as mucli to a 
sense of political inequality and injustice a.s to the old prejudice 
against machinery. It is true that amongst the uneducated, 
and in the trades where machinery has yet to win its way, 
the old battle will have to be fought over again, as it was m 
1835 in Coventry, when steam power was first applied to the 
weaving of ribbons ; af<l as at present with the brickmaking 
machine, which promises great economy in the cost of houses, 
but has yet to fight ita way amongst the class which most needs 
its help. But in the plug riots of 1842, the object was almost 
wholly political, it was an attempt on the pari; of the Chartists tn 
stop all work until the legislature should concede the doctrine of 
universal suffrage in the election of the House of Commons ; and 
those who came to tlie determination thus to secure a share in law 
making, sought to impose their wills upon other people by knocking 



BISE OF POLITICAI. FEELING. 33 

out the boiler plugs and stoppiug the machinery. So also in 1 848, 
when the "citizen King" of France fled to England as plain 
William Smith,and France once more announced herself a Republic, 
with Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity for motto, the operatives of 
this country were fired with emulation to put down the "tyrants" at 
home; and any mischief which was perpetrated against machinery 
in the riots at that time, is not to be set down to the prejudice 
against improvements ; but is to be looked upon simply as a measure 
of lynch law, a pimishment for crimes which do not appear on the 
statute book of the realm, but are yet marked in the minds of some 
working men, who in this way enact the part of judges and execu- 
tors of their own sentences. Simply a change in the fashion of 
fdly, the reader will say ; and this is quite true, for the perpetra- 
tion of violence seldom if ever answers the good intended, whilst 
it is always in itself a positive evil, and the fruitful parent of 
evils to come. 

Now that the great mass of the youthful population are able to 
read, and the penny newspaper can be relied upon for teaching with 
tolerable fairness and clearness the true causes of the distress which 
it may be our lot from time to time to suffer ; we need no longer 
fear any general rising against improved machinery, nor any physical 
force demonstration against a government which must always bow 
to a strongly expressed and general public opinion. 



CHAPTER III. 



CompamtivB Increase of Pojiulation, 1S01-I8GI — Inonawe of Real Property— Miian- 
f»Oturinii uid Agricultural Hundred* — CloMeii of tlm Population — Comp»rBti.e 
InoruuM of Vwioui CliiMoa— Efft-cts of thu Exdat od Paper— ProKrew of Manu- 
facture, 1830 -1880 -Wage* in 1844 and 1860 - Influenoes of Faotoly Life on 
Fliyncil and Moral Health— Olil and Modern Mills— Plurality of Tenure— llie 
Slun-t-time AjpUtloa — Richard Owtler— llie Factorius Education Act— Miui- 
clieatur Meetings — Comparative Mortality of Largo Town* — Infant Murtslily in 
Manchiiatur and Liverpool— Ilclative Pro^reaa of Cotton, Silk, and Woollen Manu- 
f actum) — Inimi){ratiou of Silk Opumtivaa — Jealousy of Old Hands — Bubsidiary 
Trailea — Relative ProKreu of the Cotton Industry in England and America- 
American Tariffs— Yankee 'Cutenesa— The French Treaty, 1860— Prejudice at 
Covonlry- Importa of Silk Goods— The Flan Trade— Mr. Bailey on the t^otton 
Trada — Ameriean and Indian Cotton — A Century of Frogrtca — The Wisdom of 
Figuns. 

Tub importance of the cotton industry will be fully appreciatetl 
by the reader when the progreas of Lancashire ia compared with 
that of England aod Wales daring the same period. For the 
3ounty has no pecnliarity other than this industry to account for 
its greater progress ; on the contrary, many counties exceed it in- 
fertility of soil and in healthiness of climate ; and it is a very 
common circumstance for men who have acquired fortunes by 
trade in Lancashire, to remove and become landed proprietors in 
the midland or southern counties of England. By these means 
mueh of the wealth gained in Lancashire is distributed over the 
oountry, so that large as is the excess of progress, it would appear 
I still larger except for this migration. 

The progress of population in Lancashire, compared with that 



of England and Wales at each census s 
it lowing U 



3 exhibited in 





21 


u 






51 


18 






3T 


le 
u 






M 


IS 






W 


ts 





INCREASE OF POPULATION. 



35 



An increase of population is, however, not iBcousiatent with an 
increase of pauperism, but a considerable portion of the escesB 
of increase in Lancashire has been by immigration from other 
counties; and when immigration is consiiierahle it ia a very fair 
proof of prosperity, for operatives only throng where they expect 
to improve their circumstances. And if we refer to the returns of 
real property at different periods, our idea of the prosperity of 
Lancashire will be fully borne out. Here are Ihe returns of the 
_ . juiQual value of real property assessed for property tax in England 

r Wales and in Laucaahire re-spectively from 181 5 to 18(iU : — 

-.---. H-ll par cKDt. 





Ei.(Uma«.dW.l«. 


lumoMblm 


1815 . 


. £5l,7yO.H7EI . 


. £3,087,77* 


1843 . 


85.802,735 . 


7,756,228 


1H5I 


94.609,108 . 


8.fll0,«95 


18SU . 


. 112,SU2.749 . 


- 11,289,373 



Thus ia 1815 Lancashire contributed one-fourteenth of the property 
tax, in 1851 it contributed one-eleventh, and in 18<iU one-tentli, 
exclusive of the income from railways in each case, for the last four 
years cannot have added much to the real property of Lancashire. 
But the results of the cotton industry will he rendered still 
more apparent by reference to a table prepared by Mr. Henry 
Ashworth for a paper read at the Friends' Institute, comparing 
the progress in the different hundreds of Lancashire itself. 



ttuL PoorairTY Abkuheu 
Ani 
dred of LeyUnd . . 
„ Lunsuale ■ . 

„ AmoandernoM 

„ BiBokburn . . 

„ iMfoTd . . . 

„ WeatDorhy . 



u Periods. 



£5,774 
8.50n 
10.aiW 



£243.»IO a\ 
■116.407 „ 
615.951 „ 
989.785 ., 
4,05M,931 „ 



3,8()l,i85 3.76b,943 ,,10,666 „ 
^7.343 £10,036,879 £0,939,637 
Readers who are acquainted with Lancashire will not need to be told 
i.hat the progress is about in proportion to the area occupied for the 
purposes of manufacture and commerce in each case ; that, in fact, 
e stride made hy the Salford hundred is due to the cotton 



36 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 



manufacture, and that of West Derby to the same cauae, tf^ether 
with the additional fact that Liverpool is the grand port of entry for 
the raw material, and for the departure of manufactured goods. 

And the character of the demand for labour in Lancashire will 
be seen by tlie following table, which compares the distribution 
of population per thousand, into six classes in England and Wales, 
and in Lancashire respect ivi;ly, according to the census of 1 8til : — 



BaTIO of TBI POPDI.I 


TIOH FE 


TirouaiHii, ih Six Cuula. 




EiwUnd wri W>la. 


Lwiowhln 


Diftmnoe 


1, The profeanionJ 




24 




U 


10 Iqm 


a. The clomoMic . 




. 6li9 




sn 


. 48 leM 


3. Tbe coinmerciil 




. ai 




41 


. 13 mon 






. ICIO 




4U 


. 60 lew 


G. The iDdaxtrial . 




241 




351 


. nOmnre 


6. Tliaiiiduftniw . 




S5 




- 30 


. 6 1es«. 



1 ,U0O 1 ,000 

The paucity of the professional class is simply indicative of the 
fai't, that in a dense population more work can be accomplished by 
one man, than in a district where the same number of persons 
occupy a larger area. 

But the smaller number devoted to domestic occupations, seeing 
that the dependents ou cotton comprise about one-half the popula- 
tion of the county, shows an excessive demand for female labour 
of at least ten per cent over the avenge of England and Wales, 
which demand takes its sulijects from home during the whole day ; 
end if the large number of females from other counties, who con- 
stitute the domestic servants in the cotton manufacturing towns, 
could be eliminated, the comparison would be still more telling. 

The increase of the commercial class is the natural and inevit- 
able consequence of a lai^e trade ; the commercial men are carriers 
who take the risk of profit and loss ; and the capital invested by 
tlieni in goo<ls, and the intense activity of this class in finding mar- 
kets and supplying them with produce, has done much tu increase 
the manufacturing industry of Lancashire. But the peculiar condi- 
tion of the county, and the secret of its great progress, are shown in 
the smalt proportion of the population devoted to agriculture, and 
the larger proportion engaged in industrial occupations, Rc^meiu- 
bering that tlte cotton population is only one-half of the county, 
ten per cent in excess of the whole county, means twenty per cent 
mure in the cotton districts than Uie general average of the whole 



i 



CLASSES OF THE pnPULATlOS. 37 

mntry, devoted to indufitrial occupation in the peculiar manu- 
fnclure. It woiiW be wonderful, indeed, if such a fact did not 
tell upon material progress. 

But there is a dark as well as a light side to the picture. The 
demand for fuTnale and juvenile labour leaves very few girls of 
working age at buraej and domestic duties are nut learned in youth 
so as to be made available in married life ; and hence results 
much ignorant extravagance, and consequent domestic unhappiness. 
Under the domestic class are included three hundred and seventy- 
six thousand eight hundred and ninety-three scholars, being 153 
per cent of the p«ipulation, or 0'4 per cent lower than the average 
of the whole country, which is equal to double that amount in the 
manufacturing districts ; where the general prosperity ought to make 
the balance in favour of, instead uf against, educational progress. 

Bearing in mind that the increase of population in Lancashire 
from 1851 to 18(jl was twenty per cfnt, the following figures will 
1 what directions there has been excessive activity, and who 
we profited most by the last decade of prosperity. 

laOlBUB FEB CEKT OF VARIODa C[.AeaEll FnOU IS01 TO IS61. 

\i botelkmpcr* 2B per cant. 

lycrs. joincn, &c S9 

LetHrprcM priiilera 'M „ , 

MerchinU 41 „ 

Brnkvrg 43 „ 

Ci«l miners 45 „ 

Cnmmrn:l>l cterki 49 „ 

P«per mikan ........ 60 „ 

En^ne and tool makcrB 5(1 „ 

Briekmakeri 68 ., 

Railnay ofiicialB H3 .. 

Iron miner* 133 „ 

CoachmeD in private ramilicB ISO 

Agnnta 18,^ „ 

Iron makern •22'i „ 

Qardenen in private familiiia ..... fi32 „ 

These figures deserve more than a passing glance. Druuken- 
nesa has probably not increased, but the fact that the incretise of 
hotelkeepers has outstripped the growth of population, indicates con- 
siderable general prosperity. Tliis prosperity is further evidenced 
by the progress of the building trades, which have done more than 
provide for the mere growth of population, for their progress would 
seem to indicate an extra expenditure of from five to ton per cent on 




38 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

hottse and warehouse accommoilation during the decade. The extra 
increase of letterpress printers is doubtless due to the removal of the 
stamp duty on newspapers and the excise on the manufacture of 
paper; and it is satisfactory to know that there has been an increase 
of seventeen per cent above the average in the class who are em- 
ployed mamly in the diffusion of knowledge ; and this fact, taken 
in connection with the excess of thirty per cent in the increase of 
papermakers, shows that if this latter class is to be ruined by the 
French export duty on rags, they have enterprise enough to enable 
them to fight a good battle, and to die hard. The increase of 
merchants, brokers, commercial clerks, and railway officials, all 
show the extra capital invested in trade, the intense activity in 
- the pursuit of wealth, and the greatly increased facilities for com- 
mercial intercourse. The engine and tool makers have increased 
two-and-a-half times as fast as population, so that they must have 
supplied machinery not only for the increase of population, but 
Lave renewed the old machines where the course of improvement 
required it, and have done also a large export trade ; and the iron 
miners must have produced six times as much metal in Lancashire 
as they did in the previous decade. But the most singular reve- 
lation of these figures is, that five hundred and sixty-eight persons 
have been added to the list of private coachmen ; that on an 
average one additional man per week has set up a carriage during 
the ten years from 1851 to IStil ; whilst eighty-seven persons each 
year, or nearly 1-79 every week, have also commenced to keep 
private gardeners. This is demonstration that, beyond the general 
prosperity, great wealth has accumulated in the hands of one 
person in about each two thousand of the population. 

The manufacture and export of cotton machinery will tend to 
reduce the advantages of the home spinner and manufacturer to a 
minimum in neutral markets, confining it to the skill exhibited in 
management, and the comparative working power of the operatives 
at home over those abroa^l. That foreign spinners and mannfactureis 
do tread pretty closely upon the heels of those at home, is proved by 
the fact that during the cotton crisis Russian and Swiss yams and 
French calicoes, were sold in the Manchester market. The keen com- 
petition existing in some branches of the trade is also well illustrated 
by a circumstance which was brought under the notice of Mr. W. 
E. Gladstone (the chancellor of the exchequer), during the agitation 






E7FECTS OF E3CISE ON PAPEB. 39 

the repeal of the paper duty. A cousitlenible trade is done from 
^LiDchester in sewing and darning cottons to America, north and 
south, to the Levant, and elsewliere. The sewing cottons were for- 
merly exported wound upon wooden reels or bolibins, which nsually 
contained three hundred yards each ; but gradimlly the practice 
which calls a thirty-four inch cloth a yard wide, obtained to hucK an 
extent in sewing cottons, that a reel supposed to contain three 
hundred yards, was often found to have only one or two layan 
of cotton upon it, so that in fact wood was sold for cotton, 'llie 
(Vmnan spinners wound their cotton upon small cards of paste- 
board, 90 that the purchaser could see at a glance what he got for 
liis money; and the natural consequence was that the English 
spinner must use pasteboard also, or lose the trade. But pasteboard 
in England paid an excise of three halfpence per pound and five per 
cent additional Now the card in use, t<^ether with the waste in 
cutting it into shape, weighed nearly as much as the cotton wound 
upon it ; and aa the tax was doubled by the profits of the paper 
maker and the pasteboard maker, the difference between the cost 
of these cards in England and in Germany was about threepence 
per pound, or about ten per cent on the selling price iff the cotton; 
and when this cotton got to America, itwasBuhjected to an import 
duty of twenty-five per cent ad valorem, which, reckoned on the 
cost and consequences of the excise, raised the difference in favour 
of the German spinner to twelve and a half per cent, and of course 
gave to him the foreign market Crochet and darning rattons, 
packed in pasteboard hoses, suffered in a similar manner ; and the 
export trade of one Mancliester house fell off from a hundred thou- 
id gross per annum to nothing. 
With perfect freedom of trade, Lancashire has nothing to fear 

im any competitors, for it is the cradle of enterprise and the 
home of inventions ; it is supplied with cheap iron and coal, and 
filled with skilful workmen ; and can afford to pay the best price for 
raw cotton, because its perfect machinery reduces the cost of its 
manipulation to a miiiitnum. But if governments interfere with 
trade, either by taxing imports, excising manufactures, or encou- 
raging colonies in the imposition of indirect taxation, they disa- 
range the natural order of things, foster unhealthy production, and 
develop all sorts of obstructions to progress, whicli nobody could 

■esee; but which are no sooaer established, than they claim the 



FACTS OF THE COTTOX TXMTSE. 

privilege of vested iDterest^ and boirever mi^hievous in practice, 
cost tDOch labour and expeoM to get rid of. The agitadoo far the 
repeal of the adverusemeot, the penny stamp, and the paper dotiet, 
is prubably the cheapest on record : but it cost foorteen jeais of 
C(»itioui>us laluur on the part of its promoters, and Boone fonr 
thumtand pounds in money cootribations. 

Mr. David Cb^wick gives the following figures as representing 
the pn^resB of manufacmFe in tbirty years : — 

if 30 . . »H. 773 563 

1S60 . . t.tm. i^l.7i9 . . luenaae, 3S< pereent. 

And the consumption of cotton was as follows, viz. : in — 
1S40 . . 53S,l«.T43na. 

ie.% . . 891.400,000 .. 

I860 . I.IUO.OOO.OUO „ . InereaMoeariv 100 percent. 

The nuipber of spindles employe<l in I/tncasbire and Cheshire in 
1850 and ISoU is given in the miscellaDeous statistics of the 
government, as follows : — 

17,099.131 23,6iy,l67 

And Mr. Chadwick says the number of spindles required to work 
up the cotton consumed in 1860 would be about thirty-three 
millioDS, turning off about 32lbs. of yam each on an average for 
the year. The manufacture of spindles, we are told, procet-da at 
the rate of tbiee millions per annum ; one and a half millions 
being the increase for home use, half & million for replacement, 
and a million for export ; so that the machinery sent to supply 
our competitors is two-tbirds of the amount of the increase far use 
at home. Lancashire spinners will need to look to their laurels if 
they mean to remain victors in neutral markets. 

The improvements of twenty years in various departments, as 
measured by increased production and increased economy, are given 
by Mr. Chadwick as follows : — 

lucnuB of iimiluctlati. Sailng of Ubnui. 

In wiltnwInB and blowing mkchini 
In carding machiuBS . 
In drawing frameB 



lubbing and roiinji^ 
pinning anil donbling, 



■I 



WAGES ra IS40 AND 186% 



It is estimated that thirty millions of spindles in 18G0 would 
- :rD off as much work as thirty -seven millions would have done 
!:j tS40. BO that whilst the increase in spindles haa been seventy- 
six per cent, the increase in production has been one hundred and 
nineteen per cent -, and instead of these improvements displacing 
operatives, as the prejudices of the peuple led them to suppose 
they would do, the manufacturers have bad from time to lime to 
import thousands of families from the agricultural districts for the 
sake of their juvenile lahturers ; and wages, instead of depreciating, 
Itave advanced between the years 18t4and ItdiUfroni ten to twenty 
per cent, whilst the hours of labour have been materially shortened. 
The rates, as given by Sir. Chadwick, are exhibited in the following 
table: — 







PwnAtfM 


Wags of willuir tenter 


8*.U>L 


»^0d- 


Lap nucbine unKt - . . 


ii*. Od. 


iU-taUt. 


Clwd Mrippen and grinden 


t?*-fld. 


IBHoJOt 


Drawiiig-liuie Cenier. 


h-Ud. 


. 11*. Ud. 


blabbibK (rune teukr . . 


9i.Ud. 


. lli.«d. 


BaiiDg-fnmc teubir . 


9* Cd. 


. III. 6d. 


*vi»<"r 


!3> 6d. 


. SO*. Od. 


Piecer 


lis Od. 


. 13* Od 


JnToiile pieoer .... 


6t6d. . 


S^Vd. 



Tliese were the averagi; wages at the two periods named, but Mr. 
Henry Ashwortb, late the president of the Manchester Chamber 
of Commerce, makes the following statement : — Prior to 1842 an 
uperative spinner earned four shillings and sevenpence for spinning 
SOlbs. of No. TO's yam off a mule of four hundred spindles. In 
1859 the wage for the same quantity of TO's yam was three 
shillings and elevenpence-farthing. But in the former year the 
neti earnings of the apinner were twenty shillings per week, whilst 
in the tatter they were thirty sbillingii and lenpence. The increased 
size of the mules, and the increased speed at which they were 
worked, produced a so much larger quantity aa to account for the 
difference. So that, almost without effort on his own part, often 
even in spite of his opposition to improved machinery, the genius 
of invention and the capital of the employer, had forced upon the 
fine spinner a fifty per cent rise in his weekly income; forcing 
him at the same time also to contribute to the enjoymenu of 
1 civilised world, by a considerabk reduction in the prices 



43 



TACTS OF THE OCPTTOJf FAHIKE. 



of tasteful garments. The reduced cost of the production of a 
week, as compared with the cost of the same quantity prior to 
ISil, was twenty-three shillings and tenpence; of which sum the 
operative got ten shillings and t«npence, leading thirteen shillings 
for extra assistance to the spinner, interest on the extra capital 
invested, and forji^uctions in price to the consumer. 

A good idea of the rate of improvement in epinoing is given 
by the late J. Kenneily. of Manchester, and exhibits the progress 
in speed resulting from the approach to mechanical perfection 

Huikt jpoB par tpiadlt par d^, 
IEI£ IBM ia& 

Yam No. 40'!,. SO 5*75 . . 21b 



Ttro Ko. 4U"< 



7id. 



It Li thus evident that speed had almost reached the maximum 
consisient with safety in 1830, since which period the extra 
production per hand, is chieSy du* to the increased size of the 
machines. 

In connection with the particulars above recited, it will he 
interesting to show the proportion of men. women, and children, 
usually employed in a mill which does both spinning and weaving 
and for the following tables we are indebted to Mr. D. Chadwick :— 



dnHofimik. 

Stukeri. cneiiieen, lodge keeper* 

warcboonimvn. machiuUu, >nr 






0.tt..n mixing -i-d blowing. 
Cunliiig wid pnrpurioK . 
Sclf-ncliiig mnlE BpiDiiiiig . 
TIiiusiIe apinniiig, winding, ai 

warping 

riiwer-liMim weaving 
Ucaming, twilling, and sizing 



And the average total wages throughout the whole of the depart 
ments, weekly, was in 1859, as follows : — 



£S7. I7«. M £IS7. I 



PACrOST UFK JUni HEALTR. 



43 



The average individual wages beiog — for men, eigliteen sbillings 
&aii sixpeDce ; women, tea shillings and twopence ; boys, seven 
shillings; and girls, five shillings: making a general average of 
ten shilling and threepence-halfpenny for each person per we^. 

Much has been written at various timci about the unhealthiness 
and immorality of factory life, and there was doubtless considerable 
truth in the first part of the charge as applied to the system of 
work pursued thirty or forty years ago ; for some of the old mills 
are far from pleasant places to work in even now, after all the im- 
provements of a generation and A half of the greatest activity which 
the world ever saw. Low ceilings, rooms inconveniently crowded 
with machinery, so as to prevent proper cleanliness ; an atmosphere 
of from seventy to a hundred degrees, saturated with the vapour 
of oil, and tinctured with the results of metallic friction, can never 
he particularly healthful ; and if. therefore, we look hack to a tin)e 
when there was no government inspection, when the sliafting of 
machinery was unfenced. and it was common to work fourteen or 
fifteen hours per day, and not unfrequently all night, as well as all 
day, we shall have no difficulty in admitting the unbealthin(%ss of 
the occupation. With ntgard to the second part of the charge, 
which asserts that factor)' life is immoral, it is clear that the con- 
liuct of workpeople, in f8ct<:)ries and elsewhere, will always depend 
very much upon that of their superintendents and overlookers. 
There is no necessary connection between immoral conduct and 
the working of a hundred persons in the same room; on the con- 
trary, if the superiors set a proper tone, there is a sort of semi- 
public opinion, which is quite as operative, if not quite as powerful, 
as that which in a nation restrains a government from wrong-loing. 
But if we look back to the time when popular education had not 
commenced, and remember that youthful workhouse inmates from 
every part of the country were sent to be apprenticed in Lanca- 
shire ; it may readily be admitted that the passions of ignorant 
overlookers, operating upon workhouse material before the estab- 
lishment of union schools, would often produce cases of cruelty ; 
and that orphans, whose legal guardians were poor-law olliciuls, 
situate fifty or a hundred miles away, would, in the absence of 
proper supervision, out of the factory as well as within its walls, 
not unfrequently fall into immoral courses. 

Btit it is not the interest of an employer to occupy an unhealthy 



u 



FACTS OF THE COTTOJI FAMINE. 



mill, for tlie lowered vitality of his workpeople would lessen their^ 
production and his profit A subBtantiallj-buili mill, with pleoty 
of room and light, and the best machinery, is as profitable to thfl 
master as it ia agreeable to the workman, for whatever keeps tb6 
workman healthy and cheerful enables him to give more attentioii 
to his occupation, and to turn off more and better work. Indeed, 
men often care more about being employed in a good mill thaa 
about the exact price per pound for spinning, or per piece for 
weaving, for they know practicaUy what is the effect of each i 
dition upon the weekly wag& A fair estimate of the improvement 
in mills may be formed by a comparison of the insurance rate* 
upon the two classes ; for the elements which measure the 
exposure to fire, such as crowded machinery. low ceilings, &a, 
are also the elements which are injurious to health. The old 
mills are charged about fifty per cent more than those which hava 
been built since 1860, and which conform to the best mwlel. 

The old mills in towns are now, for the most part, occupied 
under plurality of tenure; each occupantof a room having just risen 
to the dignity of an employer, and making up by his own personal 
work and strict supervision for the smallness of his capital, the age 
of his machinery, and for other serious dtsadvant^es. It is common 
to see an announcement on the outside of an old mill to this effect, 
"a room to let with power." The steam engine is the property of 
the landlord, who engages and pays the engineer, and charges in 
the rent to each occupier of a room for its services, as well as for 
fuel, wear and tear, &c. We lately lookeii through one of thesa 
old mills, and found on the ground floor and in the basement, two 
machine- making firms ; on the first floor up stairs a wood turner 
and a sewing machine-maker; on the second floor a hraid manu- 
facturer and a coach lace manufacturer ; and in a shed at the back 
a coffee roaster. One steam en^ne turned the shafting for the 
whole of the tenants; but apart from tliis peculiar dependence^ 
each man was as much master in his own place as if he occupied, 
the whole of the mill The engines in these old mills are Uk« 
horses, which, wlien no longer suited for the purposes of their first 
owners, come to do hack work for the public ; they are as \iseful 
as ever, and aflTord the great convenience of their help to pc-ople 
who, a abort time before, nover thought of being able to command 
them. The man who used to sweat the day through at a foot 



THE SHOET-TIME AOITATIOX. 



now puts a strap upon the shaft of his lathe, and has nine- 

f tendia of his work done by a dumb servant ; the owner of half a 

I imen galloon or fringe looms gets a shaft run through his shop, a 

dram and crank attached to each loom, and occupies a floor, or half a 

dotir, ID an old mill, and dispenses with what was formerly the prin- 

ciptd work of the weaver; and by and bye, if things go well with 

i him, he will build a place suited to his growing wants, and leave 

) the old room to the next aspirant for mastership. 

' To a stranger, the temperature and peculiar odour of a cott^m 

mill or weaving shed are very disagreeable and oppressive, and the 

'. noise of the machinery distracting; but when once inside, if the 

place be kept clean and well ventilated, the feeling of oppressive- 

I ness is soon lost; and it isqniteevident, from the conversation of the 

. hands, that a proper pitch of the voice overcomes the incessant noise 

I of the machinery. The carding and blowing rooms used to be very 

uuplea.sant workshops, hut late improvements have effected wonders 

, even here. They arc no longer full of small fibres of cotton, which, 

[ floating in the atmosphere, filled the nostrils and entered the mouth 

at every inspiration. This cotton dust is uow, by means of a metallic 

lube, with a revolving fan to create a strong current of air. carried 

into the outer atmosphere, and entirely dissipated. 

We have stated that it was a common practice in former years 
to work mills fourteen or fifteen hours daily; and frequently, during 
huxy times, with relays of hands, all night as well as all day. This 
practice, which depreciated health and caused many accidents, when 
liitigue prevented the vigilance necessary to avoid contact with 
. uufenced shafting, led philanthropists and working men into an 
agitation for a restriction of hours by legislative enactment. It is 
undoubtedly bad policy to restrict a trade by the imposition of cus- 
tiiriis or ctcise; but a government would neglect its highest duty if it 
li not interfere in any caae where helpless women and children 
11.' being sacrificed, and the race depreciated by enforced and pro- 
kiuged toil If any sensible man be asked whether children of six, 
seven, or eight years of age, ought to he kept at work in a close room 
fur fourteen or fifteen houra per day, where the utmost vigilance is 
reipiired to escape injury from the machinery; or whether it is wikb 
to keep pregnant and delicate women so long upon their feet, there 
can be no hesitation as to his reply; hut it is one of the conditions 
ip&rable from organised working in masses, that the system is 



46 



FACTS OF THE COTTOS FAMISE. 



deranged, and misctiief results from the least irregularity. System 
could take no account of tender years or of delicate health ; the 
engine was there, the machines wore ther*. the material was there, 
and the produce was in demand ; once enmiled upon the stafi^ 
therefore, the operative — man, woman, or child — must attend from 
the starting to the stopping of the engine. Here was a difficult 
position, the evil inflicted wa.s patent, but how could it be dealt 
with i Man is his own master and able to take care of himself, 
but women and children are under the control of men, and the 
prospect of gain is so alluring, and the approach of danger from 
overwork is so gradual and imperceptible, as to render disinte- 
rested oversight desirable, in onler to prevent the abuse of power- 
to the injury of society. 

Long was the struggle for the Ten Hours Bill, and bitter the 
opposition of many of the manufacturers ; nor was tJieir opposi- 
tion at all to be wondered at The trade was hardly yet free from 
government impositions upon the raw material and the printed 
cloth ; foreign competitors were coming into the market, and here 
was a proposal to lessen the value of the investments in mills and 
machinerj', by lessening their annual production. OjuM trade never 
be let alone ? If men did not like to send their wives and children , 
to work tbey might keep them away, but what had the govern- 
ment to do with it ? Sorely grown men were the best judges of the 
interests of their own families, and the masters wanted no govern- 
ment spies about their premises. But many of the working men 
were like drunkards, who would be very glad to have the Utune 
Law to keep drink out of their reach, but who cannot resist the 
temptation whilst they can procure it ; and the leailers of the 
• working men were for the most part thoroughly disinterested and 
in earnest in the work. They were not cotton operatives alone, but 
men connected with various trades, who spent ttieir days at work, 
and their nights in agitation. They kept up a regular oi^nisation, 
and sent out, principally from their own body, honorary lecturers 
and deputations to public meetings, composed of men who would 
fre-juently, after a day in the workshop, walk ten or twelve miles 
out and homo to attend a short-time bill meeting. Tens of 
thousands of pamphlets were issued, and every session saw heaps 
f petitions to parliament, with memorials and deputations to the 
executive government And the operatives were not entirely 



A 





BICHABD OASTLSB. 

dp from tbe middle and apper classes. Sub^criptioDS 
we TBisetl in varioiu pBits of the conntij, aad vooi^t all classes, 
in aid of the expen8€& 

Tbe late Ricbard Oastler threw himself so thoroughlj into the 

movemeat that be was familiarlj called "The &ctoTj king," and 

portiait« of bim, with a factorr child l^etween bis ki>ee^ adorned 

.' the cottage walls of thousands of opentireflL He tiavelled through- 

[ cot tbe manafacnuing districts, and his handsome figure and 

1 pomrerfiil oratory reoderwl him a general favourite. The Earl of 

I Sbaftesbury, then known a» Lord Ai^bley. also took up tfa^ cauje, 

{ and attended manv meetings, and fotight out the battle maofnlly 

in parliament His lonlship is long used to shaking hands with 

I labour, but never waa be more beartilj received than in Lanotshire 

. during this agitation. 

ITtic Ute John Relden, M.P., and the late JoGcpb Brotherton, 
MJ*,, were the only niano&cturers, so br as we know, who joined 
tbe working men in favour of the short time bill ; but they, who 
had both been operatives themselves, worked hard both in and oot 
t of parliament, from the commencement of the agitation to its close. 

(Of coarse, there were some opponents amongst the working 
dass — a few *Tgtirons- minded men who feared that if the govem- 
I awnt once set its foot inside the mill, its interfereuce would be a 
growing evil ; and others whose greediness for gain overcame evei^- 
other feeling ; and a third class who forgot their own manhood and 
tbe true intervsts of their wives and children, in obsetjuiousncss to 
the masters. There were also among the working men violent 
> partizans, with whom the opposition of the masters would be a 
sufficient reason to secure the-ir support fur any proposition. 
These men demanded that it should be made a crime to run the 
engines f>r more than ten hours per day. which requirement, if 
adupte-J, would have limited the possible production of the country, 
and bave been a practical boun^ to foreign manufacturers, who 
were subject tu no such restriction. But tlte great majority <>f 
workmen felt themselves victims of a system to which tliey con- 
tributed by their labour, but which they coiild not control, and 
ihev asked parliament to take awny their power of self-destruction. 
The legislature in this, its first concession to the agitation of 
Srkinj^ men, judged wisely ; and whilst restricting the labour of 



48 



FACTS or TH^ COTTON FAMCTE. 



five hours per day, left the men to take care of theirifieives, and the, 
employers to run their mills as long as they chuse; provided tba 
eitra hours were due to the laltour of up-grown men alone. And, 
the government, having got inside the mills, did not rest satisfied: 
but their interference has not been an unmixed evil ; they obliged 
the shafting, wherever dangerous, to he fenced otF, so aa to prevent 
accidents, and have thereby saved many lives. The late Sir James, 
Graham, ■whilst secretary of state for the home department,, 
brought in and carried a bill to oblige every factory master, who, 
employed children under thirteen years of age, to provide for thei^ 
iustniction during the lialf days when they were not at work. 
This bill was also fiercely contested by the manufacturers, aided 
by supporters of the doctrine that education is the business of tha 
paient, and ought to be tlie result of voluntary effort alone. 

A town's meeting was called in Manchester during the mayoralty 
of the late James Kershaw, M.P., to oppose it. but resulted in the 
adoption of an amendment in favour of the bill A second meeting. 
was tried in tiie Free Trade Hall, under the presidency of W. B,, 
Callender, alderman ; and was addressed by Reva. Dr. Halley and 
Dr, Massey. When the author rose to move an amendment in 
favour of the bill, a scene of the most indescribable confusion 
ensued, and the meeting broke up without any definite result. 
And now that the Short-time Bill, and the Factories Educatioa 
Bill have been acts of parliament for upwards of twenty year^u 
their promoters may fearlessly appeal to their former opponents foi-, 
a favourable verdict as to the results of both measures. Indeed^ 
it will now be very generally conceded, that if it would pleasa 
parliament to generalise the Factories Education Act, so as to 
make it cover all employments where children are engaged, and 
to subject the teachers of all factory schools to an examination to 
prove their fitness for the task of teaching, they would confer a 
very great boon upon the country. The reports of the factory 
inspectors show that where the spirit of the education act haa 
been observed, the results have been most gratitjing ; and that 
the educational progress of the half-timers does not differ very, 
much from that of the whole-day attendant.^ at school ; whilst 
mnnufacturers bear witness that children who have passed through 
well-conducted factory schools, are generally better- conducted work- 
men than the hands who are casually picked up. 



COSTKyiESCE FOB WORKPEOPLE. 49 

In tliG mtKlern mills light and clennliness are prominent f'.atures; 
the rooms are lofty and well ventilated, and are kept well Hme- 
irasbed ; the floors, in consefjuence of the small overflow of oil being 
trodden in by the bare feet or slippers of the woikers, Ipok like 
p<>lisbe<Joak; whilst the pride of tbeengineer keeps bis engine Imr- 
iiished as if it was a drawing room toy. Nut nnfreqiiently a liath is 
provided, into which the wayte water from the engine is turned, so na 
to supply a hot bath at any time for tbe health or convenience of tlie 
workpeople. Ovens are also frequently attached to the furnaces, eo 
that workers who come from a distance may enjoy the luxury of a 
hot dinner without loss of time, and a room is commonly set apart 
f(ir the convenience of dining. In some instances, the dining room 
or the factory schoolroom is occupied in the evening by mutual 
instruction classes, and in some large establishments the proprietors 
pritronise co-operative stores, which are established and managed by 
the workpeople, and thus cultivate the good feeling of their hands 
hy substantially promoting their material interests. These features 
are well worthy of imitation, for they cost the employers very little 
flxeept goodwill, but they prove to the workmen that their masters 
have a care for them beyond their weekly work and wages. 

The visitor to a modern mill will not remark any peculiarly- 
nDheallliful appearance amongst the operatives. They are paler 
in complexion than outdoor labourers, and not so muscular in 
build, and their clothing is necessarily adapted to the temperature 
in which they work ; but tbe bills of mortality do not compare 
unfavourably with other districts, and serve to demonstrate that 
ilie labour is not unhealthful; and it is not uncommon in the 
rooms which are principally occupied by females to find enjoyment 
in the midst of work, and the noise of the machinery overpowered 
by the singing of a favourite hymn or a popular ballad. Indeed, 
the popularity of factory employment is so great that domestic 
service is at a discount, and the bulk of the domestic servants in the 
cotton districts are immigrants. Wages for female domestics 
vary from eight pounds to twenty pound.s per annum, and good ser- 
vants are difficult to procure at these prices. Even these wages, and 
the presents by which they are often accompanied, fail to tempt gitls 
from the associations of factory life, with its evenings of freedom 
for visits and gossip ; and this popularity of the factory is probably 

beat reply to persona who think QibA factor; work is unhealthy. 



I 




50 FACTS OF THE COTTON FASTINE. 

That there is great mortality in large towns we know from Dr. 
Farr, of the General Register Office, who, in his supplementary, 
volume on the mortality of England and Wales, from 1851 to ISGO, 
says: — ".In the ten years, ISol-GO, the deaths in thirty large towna 
in Englajid, with an aggregate mean population of 2,541,630, ( 
prising seven London districts and the principal provincial town 
districts, averaged 71jI94 a year, while the average, according to 
the rate in healthy districts would have been only 38,i59 — aa 
annual loss of above 32,000 lives in much less than a seventh of the 
population." But this mortality is not peculiar to the cotton district^ 
but seems to occur generally in densely populated places. " If the 
mortality of all England be arranged in five great groups, the fol- 
lowing result appeal's :— where the mortality was li, lo, or IC per 
1000 living, the population was only 86 to the square mile ; where, 
the mortality was 17, 18, or 19 per IflOO, the population was 172' 
to the square mile ; where the mortality was 20, 21, or 22 per 1000,. 
the population was 255 to "the square mile; where the mortality 
was 23, 24, or 23 per 1000, the population was 1,128 to the square 
mile ; and where the mortality was 26 and upwards per 1000, tlie 
population was 3,399 to the square mile," Yet, says Dr. Farr, if 
an adequate water supply and sufficient arrangements for draining 
and cleansing be secured, the evils which make dense districts so 
fatal may be mitigated, and he instances the fact, that Bermondsey 
is much loss densely populated than St James's, Westminster, and. 
yet that the mortality of Bermondsey is considerably greater. So the 
Westminster districts of St John's and St. Margaret's have only an 
equal density with St. George's, Hanover Square, but the mortality 
in the former is far heavier than in the latter. It is clear, there* 
fore, that other circuni stances besides mere density of population 
contribute to this heavy mortality, and Dr. Farr remarks that " at 
45 to 55 years of age, the mortality of London men is not far from, 
double that of men at the same age in the healthy districts of the 
country." The mortality of men in London is much higher at 
every age than that of women, and he speculates that ill -ventilated 
workshops may have something to do with this, and .so may indul- 
gence in spirits and other stimulants. But we learn that the work- 
men in all large towna suffer as much aa and often more than the 
workmen of London, and that from 25 lo 55 years of age, the work-^ 

1 of Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, and Newcastle-upoa-Tyna; 



KFAXT UORTAUTT. 




<]ie at a still greater rate thao the workmen of London. Here again, 
although tiic raortalitr la fearfully grvat, and ought to oxcit« pro- 
minent and csirefiil att«ntioD, we team that it is not peculiar to the 
cuttoD (listrict& But in infant mortality, whatevinr the cottoo dis- 
tricts as a whole may show, UaDchester and Liverpool ought to 
blush for shame, and to seek for speedj improvement. In ibe lea 
years, 1S51-60, the mean annual mortahty amongst infants under 
fire years of age was 10149 per cent in the city of London, east 
division; 10219 in Nottingham; 10*52 in St Giles'; 11725 in 
Mutchester di^nct ; and 13198 in Liverpool district ; whilst in the 
more healthy districts of England the mortaUty waa hut little over 
four per cent ; and amongst the children of the clergy a little owr 
three ; and amongst the children of Peers a little over two per cent. 
Let us hope that the lessons of domestic cleanliness, of thrift, and 
of ingenuity lately taught in the sewing schools, may realize, as 
one of the indirect blessings of the cotton famine, a saving of infant 
life, resulting from improved sewing and cooking, from a higher 
mora] tone, and from the increased means left at command for 
other comforts. 

The ccQsos returns enable us to exhibit the textile industry of 
Lancashire in the three branches of cotton and flax, woollen and 
wonted, and silk, as they existed in ISOi. 



I 



PMxm Earurso opoa TamLR FxBuica a Lis<u«iuks, 18Ct. 

CattOD and fl» . 173,008 I10,66S SSS,''?* 

Silk 9,933 16,699 3(t.6i3 

WooUm and Wonted . 9,403 6,424 15,836 

1W,-133 a33.7S9 4^6,131 



Assaming the motlerate estimate that each of these workers 
represents an average of two-and-a-half jiersons, then 1,065,303 
individuals are directly dependent upon these occupations in Lan- 
cashire. The returns of the Central Relief Committee account for 
533,750 cotton operatives, but the cotton districts include parts 
of Cheshire, Derbyshire, and Yorkshire, and the returns probably 
include the subsidiary trades, such as djers, calico printt-rs, &c. 
The census returns enable us also to compare the relative progress 
f Uiese throe branches of trade in the ten years ending Itttil. 



PACTS OF THE COTTOH PAMCTE. 

a WOOLLEI MuiCrACTUEK, 

CoCldu , . S8T,0T6 356,191 2* percent — 

Silk . . 29,793 aS,421 — U per cent 

Woollen . iu,e99 12.071 10 per CBnt — 

Thus, whilst tlie cotton manufacture increased rapidly, aud 
woollen moderately, tbe manufacture of silk seriously declined, 
A Beriea of failures in the silk crop, together with political 
troubles in India, China, and Italy, sufficiently account for thia 
decline, and it is not wonderful that tbe silk manufacturing 
districts of Warwickshire should have sent flocks of iminigranta 
into the cotton factories of Lancashire in 1859-60. The deli- 
cate and trained hands of the ribbon weavers would be a great 
gain as compared with the raw juvenile labour from the agri- 
cultural diatricta, for the ribbon weavers would have only one 
difficulty to surmount in order to become first-class cotton opera- 
tives. The speed of the machinery (120 picks or crossings of the 
shuttle per minute) would " mither " them, and the excessive aoisa 
would make them " mazy." But the employers hail another diffi- 
culty to cope with. The cotton operatives are excessively jealous of 
strangers, and generally harbour the suspicion that the introductioa 
of new hands is a preparatory movement to a reduction in wages, 
and they don't hesitate to "send the intruders to Coventry;" whilst 
Bomeof the less scrupulous will not be satisfied by imposing this worst 
of all solitudes (silence in the midst of company), but will get up all 
sorts of petty annoyances and practical jokes, until many of the poor 
fellows feel that they would rather return and starve at home thaa 
be persecuted to death elsewhere. To such an extent did this feeling ' 
of jealousy go in 1859-GO, that employers who needed fifty o 
hundred extra hands were obliged to introduce them stealthily, one . 
or two at a time, in order to avoid a general turn out The policy of 
the established weavers is to try to manage more looms by means 
of helpers found ajid paid by theraselvi^s, instead of admitting 
additional regular workmen ; but this course does not suit the 
manufacturer, because it often results in a worse quality of cloth. 

But some thousands of the former wanderers through the green 
lanes anil rich woods of Warwickshire, are now located in the stony 
valley of Roasendale, or on the bleak hill sides of East Lancashire, 
having exchanged the call of fickle fashion for the more certain, 
regular, and substantial cotton manufacture. 



i 



SrBSiniARY TRADES, 



53 



The tendency of the cotton trade aeema to be towards aa 
increase of female employment, for the ratio from 1851 to 1861 
increased to the extent of forty-four in every thousand ; the propor- 
tion of females in 1851 being five hundred and twenty-five, and in 
ISCl, five hundred and sixty-nine in a thousand hands ; and it is 
proluible that the cotton famine, by dri«ng a large numl>er of men 
to out-<Ioor employment, will have further increa.ied this proportion. 

In addition to the persons employed directly in the manufacture 
of cottun goods, there are upwards of twelve thousand persons 
engaged in dyeing and calico printing ; and a further subsidiary Ust 
is given by the census as follows : — 



Packers of cottnn ^ 
'W&rehoaBemeii 
CotloD and calico dt 
CotloD WMle dealer 



7,640 

There is also a remnant of hand-loom wearers still existing, mostly 
of Irish origin, and engaged in weaving checks, ^ngharas, and 
fancy dresses, and numbering about fifteen hrmdred persons. They 
occupy attics and cellars, principally in the vicinity of Rochdale 
Road, Manchester, and earn when in full work seven or eight 
shillings per week, but they vibrate between the employers' ware- 
houses and the Poor-law Union Offices contijiuatly. 

The Reports of the Factory Inspectors give the number of 
cotton factories, the number of spindles, and the amount of the 
moring power existing in 18G0, and we have added the same infor- 
mation for 1850, so as to show at a glance the progress of ten years. 



r 



TtOS FlCTOBlES, SprXOLO, 


Loo SB, tiro 
iT Two Fbv 


Movrao PowEB 


'" Lasicjubis*. ^ 1 




IBM. 


leao. 


,_^ <i*.SkJ 


No. offactoriei . . 


1,235 


1,979 


60[^™nt. /«■*<, ClJ 


No. ofspindlaa . . 


I3,S55,-197 


21.530,533 


M 1 


No of power-looTiB 


17S.947 


300,423 


73 .. 1 


Poirir in horSBB . , 


50,286 


S05,8i7 


300 „ 1 



It will he interesting to compare the progress of the cotton 
uauufacture in England and America. To America we have been 
tebted for the bulk of our raw cotton for a long period prior to 



54 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 



the civil war iu that country ; and America has been a good 
customer to us for cloth produced from the cotton sent to us in 
a raw state. Why should not they have worked up for them- 
selves all which they needed, instead of sending it six thousand 
miles out and home to be manufactured ! They have tried but 
have not yet succeeded. Their manufacture commenced about 
1810. so that practically we had about thirty years start of them. 
In 18(52 the number of apindlfs employed in America was — 

In New York and ibe Nuw England States . . . 4,820.953 

In tlia Weatera Stnteg 60,000 

la tbe Suntliem States 1G4,00U 



The Eugliah manufacture is, therefore, six times as large as the 
American, and this progress has been assisted by a large export 
trade to America, in the face of a tariif of twenty-five percent. 
It is, therefore, clear that there la occupation in America which 
pays better than the manufacture of cotton, even with the power 
to charge thirty or forty per cent more than the natural price 
of the articles produced, and the secret is not difficult to fathom. 
America grows com in hor Western States almost without labour, 
and in such profusion that it is sometimes used for fuel on the rail- 
ways, whilst in England it is worth from thirty-eight shillings to 
fifty shillings per quarter. The Eoglish demand for com makes it 
a more profitable crop to the Western States of North America' 
than manufacturing can ever be, and England can only pay for 
com in manufactures or in gold ; and if she pays iu gold she must 
first pay for the gold with manufactured goods. It is, therefore, of 
little consequence whether the English merchant first does a 
trade for gold and a second trade for com, or the American mer- 
chant first trades for manufactures and then for gold, the result is 
the same — American com reaches England and English manufac* 
tures reach America, to the mutual benefit of both nations. And 
if the American taritf was removed this exchange would be mucli 
larger, because all which is now paid for tariff charges, and air 
which American manufacturers are now enabled, in conscquenot— 
of t!ie tariH to charge extra upon their own productions, would 
remain in hand for the purchase of extra quantities of goods, wbicht 
would create a demand iu England for extra com. And the 
or Morrill tariff of seventy per cent is simply leave given to the 



' YANKEE 'CUTENESS. 65 

American manufacturers to charge eighty or ninety per cent more 
for their goods than they are worth, for the sake of collecting a 
small revenue upon imports. The American people are, therefore, 
taxed upon cotton goods, first, by the government, upon imports, 
for the purposes of the nation ; and then by the manufacturers 
for their own purposes, in the proportion of the home produc- 
tion to the imports. Yankees are generally supposed to be pretty 
cute : how long will they thus bolster up a manufacture, the 
measure of whose prosperity is also a measure of the adversity of 
other employments, upon whose vitals it lives and fattens ? With 
such an amount of protection it will cause no surprise that in 
November, 1862, all available hands at Lowell were fully employed, 
and the savings bank deposits larger than ever, whilst hundreds 
of thousands of operatives in Lancashire were out of employ ; for 
the war had created an extra demand in America, whilst imports 
were virtually prohibited. 

And when the time comes, as come it must, when either by 
abolition of the tariflf, or by increased home competition, this 
protection ceases, there will be a season of distress and suffering 
amongst the manufacturing population of North America which 
must be experienced in order to be fully understood. 

The following table will shew the condition of the silk trade in 
Lancashire at three periods, and will sufficiently illustrate the 
uncertainty of employment in that department of industry. 

Havds £iipix>ted in tub Silk Mills of Lancashire at Thrkb Febiods. 

Spiniiing and 
Spinning. Weaving. Weaving. Other hands. Total 

1850 . . 2,887 1,G47 3,638 136 8,208 

1856 . . 1,332 4,s65 4,361 — J0,5o8 

1861 . . 2,943 6,277 693 118 8,931 

From these figures it is evident that in the first period there was 
a large increase of silk weaving, concurrently with a considerable 
decrease in spinning. In the second period of five years, the mills 
which combined both processes have nearly disappeared, but with- 
out any corresponding increase in the mills which are devoted to 
the separate processes. The number of hands employed had in 
1861 fallen in five years back almost to the position of 18.")(). 
Opponents of free trade set do\vn this great depression to the oj)l ra- 
tion of the French Treaty of 18G0, negotiated by the late R. Colxlen, 
M.P., which abrogated all import duties on French manufactures ; 



{ 



oC ?ACTS OF THE COTTOS FAIUSE. 

but unfortiuiatcly fur this tliewry. the eilk trade was almost aa 
ilrjjrvM(;d in France as in England. It is true tliat the accumu- 
laltil stock of the Frencli factories, being otdy subject to tLe cost 
of fmgiit, was sent over in large quantities to try the new market, 
and wa4 sold asi old stock often ia at niinoaaly low prices ; but tba 
later imports have been considerabtT lees in quantity, whilst suc- 
Cf-VMive r»lurog of the silk crop and the political troubles of the 
si Ik -producing couatrics, sufficiently accouut for the depression of 
the trade. The great increase of alpaca wool and the euterprifie of 
the Vorkahire manufacturers have alsi) supplied a light, cheap, and 
beautifully gloaay substitute, for the satins and lutestrings, whose 
prices, notwithstanding the depression of trade, have ruled too high 
for the wear of ordinary people. But the French treaty has been 
the scapegoat in the silk trade, as improved machinery was for- 
merly amongst cotton operatives, for the troubles of the people ; 
and this pr-jjudice was so strong in Coventry, that at the death of 
the late Bight Honourable E Ellice, who had sat in parliament for 
the borough for nearly forty years, he was replaced by a man who 
had been rejected at three or four previous elections, who avowa 
himself a thorough protectionist, and whose speeches at the elec- 
tion were chiefly remarkable for boasting his possession of a talk- 
ing parrot, whose vocabulary enabled it to " damn the Whigs ; 
and the more recent death of Sir Joseph Paxton has added another 
of the same achoul of pnliticiaua to the legislature, for the same 
borough. Probably the constituents of these gentlemen woulj, 
hardly agree with them to re-enact a law to pay the farmer eight 
or ten shillings more than Is necessary for his corn, or to make aujT' 
of the foreign-grown luxuries which now enter into the enjoymeutfl; 
of the common people dearer, by the imposition or increuse of > 
toma' duties ; they would only prevent us from purchasing cheap 
ribbons from the French and the Swiss manufacturers ; perfectly 
unconscious that if other constituencies followed in the same cours^ 
their command of the market for ribbons would not benefit them, 
because any extra price secured would be absorbed in the extm 
coat of other protected articles to the general injury of the whole 
country. But whatever has been the effect of the French Treaty 
upon the silk trade in general, it is clear from the Trade and Navi- 
gdtiou Returns, that the Coventry people cried out before thejf 
WtJTO hurt. The imports of ribbons have been as follow : — 



IMPORTS OF SILK GOODS. 57 

Ihforts of Abbohs duriko FiYB Yeabs. 

1860. 1801. 1862. 1863. 1864. 

5S0,7951bt. 854,223lb4. 525,095tb8. 566,618Ib9. 644,151 }b<<. 

So that after the first effort, which cleared out the accumulated 
stock of years, and which accounts for the fact that bonnet ribbons 
of French manufacture were bought retail at about the price of raw 
silk, the imports fell back to their old mark, and have since ad- 
vanced only about three per cent. 

If anybody complained, it should be the broad silk weavers of 
Spitalfields, for the imports in their class of goods have largely 
increased, as the following return will prove : — 

lupoBTB OP Rroad Silks. 

I860. 1861. 1862. 1863 1864 

539,9471bs. l,140,267tt>8. l,475,715n>8. I,504,848lb8. l,812,588n>8. 

But the public will certainly not complain that the French Treaty 
has lowered the prices of silk dresses ; nor will the silk throwsters 
complain that they have been enabled to export an increased 
quantity of their productions. The total exports of home thrown 
silk have been as follow : — 

ExroRT of Bbitish Thsowh Silk. 

I860. 1861. 1862. 1863. 1864. 

435,8181bs. 538,034n>8. 647,109tb8. 461,770Ib8. 468,591 lbs. 

ExpoBTS OF Silk Twist akd Yarn. 
461.584ibs. 452,723Ib8. 620,401 tfos. 462,308tt)8. 522,953R>s. 

An effort was evidently made on both sides of the channel, to test 
the effects of the Treaty of 18G0, and it results in a small increase in 
the silk trade in both directions, except in broad silks, where it is 
evidently our interest to purchase from France rather than manu- 
facture ; but after the reductions yet to be made in the French 
Tariff, the tide will be more in favour of the English producers. 

There are one hundred and one woollen factories in Lancashire, 
situate principally on the borders of Yorkshire, and the progress 
of ten years is exhibited in the following table : — 

Habds employed in Woollen Factories at Three Periods. 
1850 .... 8,816 

1856 .... 9,409 

1861 .... 9,227 

So far as Lancashire is concerned, therefore, the woollen trade 
made very little progress in the decade ending witli 1801, and oven 
receded during the last five years of that time, and its condition 
prevents any surprise at the removal of the flannel market during 



So FACTS OF THE COTTOS FAMINE. 

the past year (l8Gi] from Roclidale to Halifax. Trade in all tlie- 
great textile fabrics appears to sympathise with the centralization 
principle; as the retail dealer in anv given article, iDstcad of looking^i 
for a spot where no tthop in hia trade exists, looks rather for a place 
where tradesmeQ of the same class thmog, so that be may at once 
share the casual custom ; so the manuiacturer who is Qearest to tha 
central market seemn to stand the best chance of success. Perhaps 
the electric telegraph, by rendering the transmission of orders and 
consultations with principals iDdependent uf distance, has some- 
what lessened this a^lvantage ; but promptitude of delivery is most 
important, and railways, however useful aud well-mauaged, ara 
not independent of time in their operation.^. 

It will be noted that the number of hands engaged in the 
woollen mills does not agree with a former table, giving tbe ni 
bers engaged in the woollen trade \ and the explanation is that the 
woollen trade to a rauch greater extent than the cotton manufac- 
ture, is a domestic occupation, and the two thuusand eight hundred 
and forty-seven pereons who do not appear in the mill returns are^ 
doubtless, employed at home. During the cotton famine many 
cotton looms have been employed for the manufacture of Orleans^ 
Cobourg, and other worsted fabrics, which are made of cotton' 
warps with worsted weft ; and it is probable that this trade willi 
become permanently located in Lancashire, so that the next 
census may toll a different tale as to progress, and Manchester 
may become a market for what are familiarly cjilled Bradford 
goods. This course would be very convenient for Manchester 
merchants, many of whom find it profitable at present to keep: 
warehouses in Bradford as well as in Manchester. 

The flax manufacture has never quite lost its hold on Lanes- 
shire, although cotton has succeeded in supplanting it for almost ait 
ordinary purposes. During the cotton crisis it has, doubtless^ 
raised its head again, and done good service at a time of utmost 
need. In 1861 the position of the trade was as follows : — 



F1.1Z Mills is Labcabhiiii, 



Bpinning . 
Wenvbg . . 
Spiuniog sod n 



SIR, BAZLEY ON THE COTTON TRADE, 



59 



The rapid progress of population and of production, accom- 
lianied by a substantial increase of wages, will lead naturally to 
the inference that in ordinary times pauperism must be very low, 
and this inference ia quite borne out by experience. The cost of 
relieTiDg the poor throughout England and Wales is equal to a 
(■oil tax of five shillings and ninepence halfpenny per annum on 
the whole population, but in Lancashire it is equal to three shillings 
and sixpence only. The assessment for poor rate throughout 
Sbgland and Wales is equal to one shilling and cightpence in the 
pound, whilst in Lancashire it is only one shilling and threepence, 
aod in some of the most distressed districts it was from tenpence 
to one shilling and twopence in 1861, which, so far as employment 
was concerned, was a fair average year. 

Mr. Thomas Bazley. M.P.,formeriy chairman of the Manchester 
Chamber of Commerce, says, in a paper read in 1862 at the 
Society of Arts. " The last year of ftiU occupation for the cotton 
tnule was 18(>0. I'be number of spindles then employed was 
ftbout thirty-two milhons, and the number of looms employed 
would be about three hundred and forty thousand. The produc- 
tion in the machine-making trade had doubled within ten years- 
Bleach works, print works, and dye works, had been largely 
extended during the same period. The fixed investments, includ- 
ing the value of land and rights to water, amounted to not leas 
than sixty millions sterling, to which must be added a working 
capital of twenty millions ; add to these again the value of mer- 
chants and tradesmen's stocks at home and abroad, the value 

^^pf raw cotton and subsidiary materials, and of bankers' capital, and 

Bmb grand total of capital employed in the trade will not be less 

H^^D two hundred millions sterling. 

■'■' In 1860 the total consumption of cotton in the United King- 
dom was two millions five hundred and twenty-three thousand two 
hundred bags, consisting of — 



tl.094bagi weeklyof American.or . . . 
S,963 „ Egjptijtn or liraxlliui, oi 

3,461 „ Eu8t and Weit liidLui, ui 



it of die wbole. 



I the value of this cotton was ^33,520,!)19-, but the value 
ftbe Indian portion did not exceed i£l,52(J,yii), instead of 



CO 



FACTS OP THE COTTO*! FAMIKE. 



£2,7G0,546, wLich was the average price of the whole quantity, 
and this difference of £1,239,*>27 was solely due to the inferior 
quality of the material supplied by India. 

The consumption of IStil was largely maintained by stores 
accumulated from the growth of previous years, and from the 
working up of old stocks, but there waa an important change 
in the sources of supply. Tlie total consumption was two 
million three hundred and sixty-three thousand six hundred and 
twenty-eight bags, composed as follows : — 

34,792 bogt weekly of American, or . , . 77 per cent arihe whole. 
3,7^6 „ Eg^rptian or BniKiliati, or 8 „ „ 

6M& ., East and West Iniliui, or It ., „ 

49,4M X 52=2,303,628 100 

Not choice, but dire necessity, brought about this increased con- 
sumption of Indian cotton, for the masters knew that the production 
of yarn and cloth would be far less in quantity, and of greatly 
inferior quality, and the hands knew that it needed extra toil for 
greatly diminished wages; the caUco printer complained that the 
hard and uneven cloth spoiled his patterns, and the tradesmen and 
consumers refused to believe that cloths which felt so thin to 
handle were produced out of the accustomed counts of yam and 
weft with the usual number of picks to the square inch. 

Mr. Bazley compiled from the Board of Trade returns the follow- 
ing tables, showing the production, home consumption, and exports, 
for I860 and 1801 :— 



Export! nr m 



':l 



J 



£o6,l 19,653 
28.880,347 
£85,000,000 
And Mr. Bazley divides these grand totals as follow :- 



£50,654,79! 
27,445,20S 



Valaeofra 
Wagei, int 



ilton, dyea, oila, &a. 
t, and profit 



£85,000,(100 £78,000,000 

And he again divides the second item in the last estimate into — 

Oparatlvea' wagua £:>6,B04,433 £32,194,448 

Capilalist's iateruat sad profit . . . 22.000,000 18,000,000 



£48,804.438 



4,448 



A CENTURY OF PROGRESS, 



And Mr. Henry Ashworth sums up tlie progress of the cotton trade 
and of the county of Lancaster in a very few words, or to speak 
more truly in a very few figures, tliua — 

In neo Dr. PerciTal lUted the Totue of one jeu'a production >[ £300,000. 
Id 1S60 Mr. EsKlcy „ „ „ „ £95,t>0ii,000. 

Ill 1769 tlie colloD imported into the Uaited Kingdom *iis . g.BTi), 0110 lbs. 
In I860 „ „ „ „ „ l,O83,6UU,00()ttM. 

In 1784UieT»lneof lib. of No. 42'Byiirn waa 10». lid. 

In 180O „ „ „ Ob. lid. 

In 1'86 the value of lib, of Ho. lOO't jam was 38b. Od. 

In 1660 „ „ „ Ss. fid. 

And the effects of this giant industry upon the port of Liverpool 
and the county of Lajicaster are thus tersely stated ; — 



In ITSO thsaom 
In 1660 

In 1693 tb« real 
Is 1SI5 , 

In 1851 „ 

In 1860 , 



recBiTod for dock dues at LJverpool was 
property asseBsed for Und-tai Id Lancashire 



£!,BSO. 
fHMIT. 

£9J,a«. 

£3,067,774. 
£8,610.695. 

. £il,4&3,S51. 



And the cause of all this immense development is seen at a glance 
in its final result ; it is the possible economy of cotton, as com- 
pared with its competitors — wool and flax. In the normal condition 
f the cotton trade, as it existed in 18G0, Mr. Ashworth says: — 
lib. of Snnnel would coit . . . . 3«. Id. 



. orliD< 



1. *d. 



IRi. of calico „ . . . , IB. Od. 

"What a world of wisdom is contained in those three little 
it has taken the ingenuity of a century to develop it ; 
iver men without number have spent their days in toil, and 
leir nights in thought, to facilitate the operation ; the world has 
t lieen scoured round, first for the material to work upon, and then 
to find consumers for the productions ; each man pursuing what he 
deemed to he his own interest solely, has yet been yoked inevitably 
to the car of progress ; inventors increasing the powers of produc- 
tiiin, or the facilities for distribution, and seeking patent prices as 
their reward ; employers investing capital, organising and super- 
intending labour, in order to share largely in its fruits ; merchants 
traversing the ocean and the desert to find out the markets which 
would leave the largest margin between the buying and the sell- 
g prices ; retail dealers holding stock ready for the consumers, and 



62 FACTS OF THE CX)TTON FAMINE. 

hoping to grow rich by payment for the convenience provided ; all 
self-seeking, although all not succeeding in their designs ; yet all 
combining, whether knowingly or not, by their constant efforts to 
secure good bargains for themselves, and by their competition with 
each other, to aid in the grand result of increasing the means of 
human enjoyment, without increasing the toil necessary for the 
purpose. The possibility of this economy has built up the cotton 
industry ; whilst the inventive, organising, productive, and mer- 
cantile enterprise employed in it, have done much to educate the 
people of this, kingdom, and to carry civilisation to every country 
upon the earth. 



CHAPTER IT. 



mod Punctiulity a Feature of Lancashire Life — Effects of IKscipline on 
Woriq^eople— Trades Societies— Strikes for Wages— Effects of Strikes— Policy of 
Employers — Proposed Reconstruction of Trades Societies— Advantage of JRapid 
Accomulation of Capital— The Employers of South Staffordjthire and the Dis- 
diarge Note— The Strike at the Manchester New Prison— The Architect and the 
Hodman — Proposal to give the Workman an Interest in Profits— Api»lication of 
the Principle — The Limited Liability Act — Co-operative Stores and Relief 
Committees. 

The discipline of the cotton mill has spread its influences beyond the 
walls of the workshop, and regularity and punctuality have become 
essential parts of Lancashire life. A public meeting commences at 
the exact time for which it is called, business engagements are 
kept to the minute, terms of credit are short and payments 
prompt. A stranger introduced into the Manchester Exchange at 
one o'clock on a Tuesday, sees a crowd of well-dressed and brisk 
looking men, who appear to be shaking hands and passing com- 
pliments with each other, for an hour or an hour and a half, and 
then to go home to dinner ; and he is astonished to learn that in the 
short space during which he has been looking on, business engage- 
ments have been entered into, without any exchange of written docu- 
ments, and without the use of a single stamp, to the amount of a 
million sterling. And this association for business purposes begets 
an esprit de corps for common objects which is often available and 
most valuable in matters of international commercial intercom se. 
Since the adoption of tlie doctrine of free trade as the national 
policy, the merchants of Lancashire can by means of the Man- 
chester Chamber of Commerce, bring their concentrated intellect 
and eners^y to bear, in extending the system with its blessings to 
other nations, with the full knowledge that those blessings will be 
reflected in their consequences to this country, thus blessing both 
the receiver and the giver. 



64 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 



And the effects of manufacturing discipline bave not been less 
upon the workpeople than upon their employers. The habit of 
working together has taught them to associate for other purposes, 
and the necessity of Bubmission to strict rules within the mill, haa 
k'd them to make rules for their own guidance in matters which 
seem to concern themselves more immediately. The old error under 
which men believed that it was within the power of employers to 
pay whatever wages they pleased, together with the feeling of 
indivitlual weakness, led to the construction of societies of worki 
to resist reductions ; and the task of regulating wnges which the 
government had tried at various periods, and had failed to ac- 
complii?h, fell into the hands of working men. Although the 
conviction which led to the establishment of these aocieties is 
. considerably modified, yet associations for the protection of wages 
are still in active existence in the cotton trade, and whilst occasion- 
ally useful in healing differences, quite as often do much mischief. 
by interference which is uncalled for and unacceptable. Tlie days 
of machine breaking, in the ignorant belief that now machines 
permanently lessen employment, are over in the cotton trade ; moat 
of the improvements of the last twenty years have been either to 
economise waste, or to increase the size of the machines ; and as the 
greater part of the labour is " piece work" (and is paid for at so 
much per pound for spinning, or so much per piece for weaving), the 
hands do not object to an investment of capital to increase the size 
of the machinery provided there be no proposed reduction of wages 
involved. But as manufacturers do not always consent to spend 
extra capital without extra returns, these improvetnents occasionally 
cause dissensions, and "strikes" for wages follow. During the rapid 
progress of invention in the last half century, it has been necessary 
for au employer, who wished to keep up with bis competitors, to 
allow something like seven and a half per cent per annum on the 
cost of his machinery, for depreciation or renewal, else he would , 
very soon be out of the market The immense increase of tha 
trade has rendered this course imperative, for the proprietor of a 
new mill would of course seek to stock it with machinery contain- 
ing all the latest improvements; and then older establishments 
would be obliged to follow, in order to be upon equal terms with 
the new man in the market Thus inventions and improvements, 
which if brought out in connexion with a trade of leas expansive 



STRIKES FOB WAGSSL 



65 



power, might htve waited, as Wvatt*s original spinning machine did. 
for a generation before being utilised, have in the la»t half century 
only come to supply actually existing wants, and have genejr:%Ily 
therefore found eager purchasers. The difference in the machi- 
nery alone, as between one mill and another, has often resulted in a 
difference of production, and consequently of wageit, to the extent 
of ten per cent, where the nominal piecework prices were the same: 
and a mill in which one employer has realised a large fortune, has, 
by simple neglect of improvements which have made their way in 
the market, speedily ruined its next occupant 

Bat the chief strikes for wages originate either when the 
workmen think that trade is good enough to allow an advance, 
which advance the employers are not willing to concede ; or when 
employers find trade unprofitable, and seek to turn the scale hv 
lessening the cost of proJuctiun through a reduction of wages, 
which reduction is resisted by the workpeople. Whatever may l>e 
the causes of strikes, there can be but one opinion of the results 
which they produce, viz., that they are disastrous to trade by waste 
of capital ; injurious to health and morality, by the privation of 
food, by hindrance to education, by idleness, by dissipation, and by 
temptation to crime ; and injurious to society by the ill-foeling 
which IS generated between employers and their workpeople. The 
mere money loss which is incurred is sometimes enormoua 

A paper on this subject was read by the author, before the 
British Association, in 1861, from which the following table is 
extracted. 

ExAMPUB OP UinuccEaBFUL Strikes, with EsnifATi op Loes to Sociftt. 



X 



of TowB. 



Ko of 
UaiKb. 



S 






AmiMint 
fi u . c ' of Laim 



r>\>flt at SulMchp> 

per miit One-fourth 
ou CApitaL WagoiL 



Tot.U 



Prop ton • • • 
FkdibAm . 
CHtberoo . 
BUckburn and district 
Ashton aud district 
Colne . • . : 
Bolton. 



15,000 
800 

3,000 . 
40.(100 I 
22,l>00 I 

1,500 ' 
12,000 



38 

29 

6 

3 

6 

50 

6 



15 



£ 
4?7,:i0t1 
17,4'1) 
13.500 
90.000 
99,(00 
56,2,W 
54,(»00 



£ £ 

92.625 106,875 

5.770 . 4.350 

2,925 3.375 

19,500 22,5« 

21,450 24.750 

12,lb7 M.(»62 

11.700 I3,5(M» 




£ 
627.(V0O 

?4.520 
19.800 
I3-\(hO 
I4;),2i>0 
8-».4i*9 
71MHH) 



I - 



189,412 ;i, 110.219 



6G FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

The only explanation needed is that some of thcae strikes were 
amongst weavers and some amongst spinners, and all within ubuufc 
five years; and that the average capital employed in assumed at 
sixty -five pounds per hund, in order to get at the employers' lo^ea. 

But the loss here set down is by no means the total loss 
sustained by society. The lost wages would, if the people had 
kept at work, have passed through the hands of shopkeepers, 
making an average of fifteen per cent gross profit, and one half of 
tlie profits of the employer would also have passed through the same 
course ; 80 that we have to add to the total given in the table, the 
sum of one hundred and twenty-five thousand nine hundred and 
sixty pounds as shopkeepers' losses. Then the other half of the 
profits of the employer (eighty-two thousand and seventy-eight 
pounds), and the savings of the shopkeepers, say one quarter of 
their profits (thirty-one thousand four hundred and ninety pounds), 
would have been invested, and so added to the permanent employ- 
ment fund ; and at the rate of sisty-five pounds per hand would 
have required one thousand seven hundred and forty-five more 
workpeople ; so that the result to the workpeople themselves, 
besides the present loss, is like the annihilation of a wliule villaga 
The demand for the labour of one thousand seven hundred and 
forty-five extra hands, who, apart from the strikes, would have-' 
found wages and homes, is gone ; the covers at nature's board, 
sa Mr, Malthus would have said, have been wilfully removed ; ' 
80 that, if this extra number be provided for at all, it must 
be by a workhouse allowance, or a levy upon the plates of 
the other workpeople, i.e., by a reduction of wages. The money 
loss of the workmen by strikes may be further illustrated by 
the following table, also extracted from the paper above alluded 
to. It is assumed that fifty weeks will represent a working year, 
and that the wages of a week will represent two per cent of the 
wa^ea of a year. If, therefore, a strike for five per cent succeeds, 
after a duration of any of the terms set forth, its results will be 

I roughly exhibited thus: — rivir.ofWort 

I. 



roughly exhibited thus 
The loM of 1 li 



wagM will reqniro to make it op 




EFFECTS or STBIKK3. 

But as money is worth five per cent at interest, it follows that if a 
strike for five per cent lasts twelve and a half months, aoi) then 
3ua!«^8, and if the increase of wages be maintained for tweuty 
. '^ara, the workman will then have lost in interest much more than 
M- has gained in wages, and thai, therefore, no part of the losa of 
iK'h a strike can ever be made up ; because if he could have 
worked for the lower sum during the year of strike, and could 
bave invested instead of spending the money, the year's wages 
would have grown into almost three years' wages by the time ia 
which the money gained by the strike would make (ip for the loss 
of a single year's work. If such be the results of a successful 
strike, what shall we say of the four-fifths which are failures, 
especially when we learn that wages in the cotton districlA 
undergo a sort of general adjustment, on an average, every 
three or four years ? We may safely affirm that it is uttt-rly 
impossible for the loss by a strike for a small amount ever to lie 
recouped to the workpeople. General adjustments of wages occurred 
in 1853, in 1857, aod in 1860, and another will probably take 
plac« in the present year (1865), so soon as employment becomes 
again general Some well intentioned people encourage workmen 
in combined resistance to reductions of wages, under the impression 
that it is their only resource, and that, apart from strikes, they 
would become simply slaves of their employers. If these persons 
would place themselves in the position of a raauufactiirer who 
employs live hundred workpeople, and who has looms prepared for 
two hundred more waiting for hinds, they would soon tell a different 
talc. The capital is invested in the building and machinery, 
and is waiting for workpeople before a return can be secured. 
How, in a time of good trade, when all the best workmen are 
engaged,, must such a mm act i Evidently the only course by 
which his looms can be got to work is by offering an advantage in 
w^ea And in a large and thriving trade, there are always exten- 
sions in pn^ross in some locality. And, as it is only in a time of 
good trade that advances of wages can possibly be secured, this ele- 
ment of extension might be made to answer all the purposes of m 
successful strike, without any of its expenses or injurious conse- 
quences. For instance, if the associations of workmen were to act 
simply as registration offices, collecting information of the state of 
le and wages from the various districts; then, on the occurrence 



I 



ti 



FACTS OF THE COTTOS PAMKE. 



of a misunderstandiDg, a portioD of the workpeople could leave at 
once, if it were possible to get placed elsewhere with advaotagSL 
Aasuming this possibility, the removal of a Dumber of haods, after 
proper noiice given, would test the ability of the employer in (f ue»- 
tioD to give an advance, or to abstain 6-om a reduction, for he would 
naturally prefer to give up a portion of his profit to lodng ths 
whole of it by the loss of his workpeopla And, if the removal of a 
portion of the hands served only to get their places supplied by 
other? at the same price, the fair conclusion would he that a 
Btrike could not have been successful And so also, if the informa- 
tiun as to the state of trade showed that no advantage could be 
gained by removal, the &ir conchision would be that the wages 
paid were the best which the market could give, and that it would 
be folly to strike for an advance. It is quite true that there may 
be short periods when large profits are making by the employeiB 
generally, without any immediate advantage to the workpeople, 
but this can only be for a short time and when hands are plentiful 
in the particular department ; for capital will immediately flow in 
that direction, and new machinery will be rapidly prepared which 
will absorb all the hands and make a rise not only possible hut cer- 
tain, if the good demand continues. The interest of the workman, 
as of all the world, is that capital should accumulate rapidly ; if it 
accumulates in the hands of the workmen, and is thriftily managed, 
it will promote employment, and give a chance of improved wages ; 
if it accumulates in the hands of shopkeepers, it will likewise pro- 
mote employment ; and if it accumulates in the hands of masters, 
it will still promote employment and increased wages; and the 
more rapidly it accumulates the more demand fur labour will 
there be. and the higher will he the rate of wt^es. Wages, 
measured by the weekly income, have risen during the last tweuty- 
five years in the cotton trade, from fifteen to twenty-five per 
cent, whilst the hours of labsiur are less by nine per week. 
This result has been accomplkhed not by strikes bat in spite 
of them; for amidst all their evils they have occasionally, by 
stimulating genius in the prodiiction of self-acting machinery, 
done some good also. But whilst this ameliorating process 
has been going on, strikes by workmen and lockouts by employers 
have sicrificed some four million? sterling, which, if it could 
have been saved and used, would by this time have required 



nfeubc 



POUCT OF EHPLOTEBS. G9 

than a hundred thousand extra hands. Some persona will 
contend that the above iofereoce is not true, because, as they say, 
if the strikes had not happened, over production would have forced 
oa short time working, and would thus only have spread the 
assumed loss of capital over a large surface. But these persons 
forget that what they call over production lowers prices uuUl 
profits disappear, and thus induces shippers to i>eek new markets, 
which, when once found and established, make an enlarge*! per- 
manent demand for pnxluce and provide for increased employment 
Over production thus, by a reduction of prices, cures itself; and the 
greater the reduction the wider will be the range of increased coa- 
sumption. And if the n«w markets are not permanent, then capital 
vill seek other means of productive investment, aud will still lind 
employment for extra men, although in a differenl trade, which in 
U create new customere for the trade from which the capital 

been withdrawn. 

In December, iHQi. some three hundred employers in the 
lod counties agreed that, on the occasion of a strike, they 
would not take on new hands without requiring a "discharge note" 
in each case from the last employer. The workmen denounced 
tliis step as gross tyranny, and as calculated to reduce the working 
man to the condition of a serf The employers replied that the 
step was only adopt«d to remedy the tyranny of the workmen, and 
related two instances as samples of the treatment to which they 
had been subjected. They were as follow : — First, a contractor 
was engaged upon some heavy brick works uear a canal, so he 
had his bricks brought to the place in barges, aud set his labourers 
to wheel them to the works; the bricklayers, alleging that this 
was a violation of their trade rules, insisted that the bricks should 
be unladen on the canal bank, and then picked up one by one, and 
carried in hods to the site where they were needed. Second, a 
builder was engaged in erecting a chimney at a large railway sta- 
tion ; and just when the shaft was ready for its stone base, the 
masons, sixty in number, went off on a drinking bout; so the 
bricklayers, after waiting some time in vain for the return of the 
masons, set the stones themselves, aud went on with the building 
of the shaft. When the masons returned they at onco struck 
work, and declared that not another stone should be set till the 
ney had been pulled down again to its base, and the stone 



^^^uni 



PBOPEETY OF THE WORKING CLASSES. 



89 



whose nominal capital amouDted to about £2,000,000, a large pro- 
portion of the shares in which had been subscribed by working 
men. 

In 1861, the mortgages to building societies in Lancashire 
amounted to about £220,000. The bulk of this sum consists of 
deposits by the lower middle, and the upper stratum of the 
working classes ; and wheu taken in connexion with the fourteen 
thousand and sixty-eight owners of the £3,800,498 in the savings 
banks, and about half a million sterling owned by about twelve 
hundred and fifty friendly societies, and probably half as much 
more owned by trades' societies, shows an amount of prudent 
forethought and practical frugality for which few people give the 
working classes credit; and which must be productive of important 
resalts. 



CHAPTER VI. 



MuixJiHtpr in 1833— Sir J. P. Kaj'-Shattleworth on the B>bit« uul Sanitwy Can 
Una of tbo Pnor — CeUsr Dw^Iings and TTpbos — Caiines of PaupcriiBi— tmiinii 
m«itsfromI832tol831~TheGaa«ortaftnd W»(«vorki— Tbe Public Puta- 
The FmLibniT — Ptogmnflavenwol from 1730 to I8K1— The D-xJu and l] 
Kulwaf— EducattifiD Aid Society of Mui(ilie>t«r— B«mnil«7 EducatiiHi— Tl 
Union of tuiUtUtoi, Lancuiture nnd ChcaiuTB, 

Dr J. P. Kay (now Sir J. P. Kay-Shuttleworth, Bart), writing i 
I83S, Hays of the home of the Uanchestor operative^" Hume hi 
little other relation to him than that of shelter — few pleasurea a 
there — it chiefly presents to bim a scene of pbyitiual exhn'istii 
from which he Ls glad to tiscupe. His house is ill- furnished, ua 
cleanly, often ill -ventilated, perhaps damp ; bis food, from want i 
forethought and domestic economy, ia mea^n^ and innutritio'is ; li 
generally becomes debilitated and hypochondriacal, and unless eu] 
ported by pnnnple fulls the victim of diissipation. Those who «i 
employed in tht procesn of npianiwj. and espccJally of fine Mpii 
ning (who receive a high rate of wagos, and who ara oluvatcd n 
aiccoimt of their Hkill), wv more attentive to tbeir doiaesti 
iirTangomcnts.have better furnished bouses, arc consequently in< 
re^lar in their habits, and moru observant of tliuir duties th 
thoae engageil in other branches of the manufacture. 

"The population employed in the cotton farturica rises at firO 
o'clock in the morning, works in the inilUt fmoi six tit) cigbt, niKi 
retamfl home fnr balf-an-hour or forty mimi(«-4 u> breakfast. Tlti^ 
meal generally ronstsu of tea or cotTei?, with a little brvnd. Oafej 
meal porridge is aomotimoif, but of late rarely, UHed. and cbiefla 
by thu men; but the stimulus of lea is p4«ferrM), especully \m 
the women, The tea b atmust always of a bail luid •omctiioM tm 
a delutenooa quality, the iufuaion in weak, and littUi or no inUk ifl 
added. The opt^ratires return to the miiU and workshop* nntS 
twelve ti'cliick, wb»n an btpiir is allowtnl fur dinuur AmnngM 
I Uioac who obuii) tho lower ratos of wages thlx moal gcavralljl 



CHAPTER VIII. 



Incredulity about the American War— Teat of Prices — The Paper Blockade — Specu- 
kktionB in Cotton — Stoppage of Mills — Rapid Increase of Pauperism — State of 
Ash ton, Preston, Stockport, and Glossop, in February, 1862 — Newspaper Com- 
ments — Free Labour Cotton — Outside Help for Operatives— Surat Cotton — A 
Mouth's Addition to the Recipients of Relief — Comparative Condition of Chief 
Unions in November, 1861 and 1862 — Cotton Mills and Poor Rates — Condition 
of the Small Shopkeepers — Itinerant Singers — The Distress in France — North 
and South — Test Labour in Manchester. 

Upon a population, containing half a million of cotton opera- 
tives, in a career of rapid prosperity, the profits of 1860 reaching 
in some instances from thirty to forty per cent upon the capital 
engaged ; and with wages also at the highest point which they 
had ever touched, came the news of the American war, with 
the probable stoppage of eighty-five per cent of the raw material 
of their manufacture. A few wise heads hung despondently 
down, or shook with fear for the fate of "the freest nation 
under heaven," but the great mass of traders refused to credit a 
report which neither suited their opinions nor their interests. 
Whatever might be done amongst the despotisms of the Continent 
of Europe, members of the Anglo-Saxon family in North America 
would never fight ; their fathers had expatriated themselves for the 
sake of freedom, religious and political ; they had thrown ofiF the 
yoke of the old country on account of unjust taxation, they had 
declared against all orders of nobility, and affirmed the equal 
rights of all to self-government; they might bluster and boast, and 
even destroy a few lives 'in a surface (parrel, but fight in real 
earnest they never would. Such was the very general feeling on 
this side of the Atlantic ; and it was believed that even if they did 
fight, the South would still be very glad to sell their cotton, and that 
if our manufacturers went on carefully all would be well There was 
a four months* supply held on this side the water at Christmas 
(18G0), and there had been three months' imports at the usual 



THE "PAPEB BLOCKiBE." 



113 



rate since that time, and there would he the usual twelve months' 
supply from other sources ; and by the time this was coDsumed, 
and the five months' stock of goods held hy merchants sold, all 
would be right again. 

That this was the current opinion was proved by the most deli- 
cate of all barometers, the gcalo of prices; for during the greater part 
of the year 18G1 the market was dull, and prices scarcely moved 
upwards. But towards the end of the year the aspect of affairs 
b<.'gan to change, speculators in cotton were more than usually 
active, and the prices of raw material began to rise in the market 
without any corresponding movement for manufactured produce. 
nie Federals had declaretl a blockade of the Southern ports, and, 
although as yet it was pretty much a "paper blockade," yet the 
newly established Confederate government was doing its best to 
rentier it eflective. They believed that cotton was king in Eng- 
land, and that the old country could not do without it, and would 
be forced, in order to secure its release, to side with those who kept 
it prisoner. ' 

Mills began to run short time or to close in the month of 
iber, but no noise was made about it ; and the only evidence of 
lything unusnal was at the boards of guardians, where the appli- 
cations had reached the mid-winter height three montlis earlier than 
usual The poor-law guardians in the various unions were aware 
that the increase was not of the usual character — it was too early 
for out -door labourers to present themselves ; atill the difference. < 
was not of serious amount, being only about three thousand in the 
whole twenty-eight imiona. In November, seven thousand more 
presented themselves, and in December the increase was again 
seven thousand ; so that the recipients of relief were at this time 
twelve thousand (or about twenty-five per cent) more than in the 
January previous. And now serious thoughts began to agitate 
many minds ; cotton was very largely held by speculators for a rise, 
the arrivals were meagre in quantity, and the rates of insurance 
began to show that, notwithstanding the large profits on imports, 
the blockade was no longer on paper alone. January, 1862, added 
sixteen thousand more to the recipients of relief, who were now 
seventy per cent above the usual number for the same period of 
the year. But from the facts as afterwards revealed, the statistics 
boards of guardians were evidently no real measure of the 



lU 



FACTS OF IHB COTTON FAIOKE. 



distress preyailing, Tlie worst workmen, who would naturally 
be the first to fall out of employ, aud the improvident — who, what- 
ever the amount of their wages, are always penniless before the 
next pay day — would have no other resort ; but the savings banks 
and the loan funds of co-operative societies were supporting many 
unwilling idtera; whilst tlie contingent funds of friendly societies 
were being drawn upon to keep good men in membership, by being 
used to pay their overdue subscriptions. The trade societies, which 
make allowances to members out of employ, were also supporting 
Uiose of the machinists, the bricklayers, andthe joiners, who, being 
usually employed in cotton mills, were thrown out by their stoppage. 
The month of February usually lessens the depondentfl on the poor- 
rates, for out-door labour begins again as soon as the signs of spring 
appear ; but in lBfJ2 it added nearly nine thousand to the already 
large number of extra cases, the recipients being now one hundred 
and five per cent above the avert^e for the same period of the year. 
But this average gives no idea of the pressure in particular localities. 
If all local troubles could be aver.iged throughout the kingdom, we 
should not have many heavy burdens to bear, but it is the pinching 
of the boot in particular spots which causes lameness, and it is no 
relief to bo told that it is long enough or broad enough in general. 
At Ashton the excess of pauperism was two hundred and thirteen 
per cent, at Stockport two hundred and sixty-three per cent, at 
Blackburn two hundred and seventy per cent, at GIossop three 
hundred per cent, and in Preston no less tlian three hundred and 
twenty per cent of the usual amount. 

Even these figures are defective as guides to the pressure of 
local distress, for they refer to unions ; but poor-rates were not 
levied at the same amount throughout an union, but every separate 
township or parish levied for its own wants ; and there is often a 
diffei'ence of two hundred to three hundretl per cent in the amount 
of the poor-rate in the different townships of the same union. 
It is not wonderful, under these circuiQStauces, that aid extraneous 
to the poor-law guardians should have been sought, aud that 
benevolent persons who valued the independence and respectability 
of the operatives should have been found to orgaiuse soup kitchens, 
and to get up relief funds in the places where the pressure was 
heaviest. The cottou operatives were now, if left to themselves, 
like a ship's crew upon short provisions, and tliose very unequall;^ 



NKWSPAPER COMMEtrra 115 

tributcd, and without chart or compass, and no prospect of 
getting to land. In Ashton there were three thousand one 
hundred and ninety-seven ; in Stuckport, eight thousand five 
hundred and eighty-eight ; and in Preston, nine thousand four 
liundred and eighty-eight persona absolutely foodless ; and who 
nevertheless declined to go to the guanliana. To have forced 
the high-minded heads of these families to hang about the work- 
house lobbies in company with tlie idle, the improvident, the 
dirty, the diseased, and the vicious, would have been to break 
their heaving hearttj, and to hurl them headlong into despair. 
Happily there is spirit enough in this country to appreciate nobility, 
even when dressed in fustian, and pride and sympathy enough to 
space even the poorest from unnecessary humiliation ; and organi- 
sationa spring up for any important work so soon as the necessity of 
the case becomes urgent in auy locality. Committees arose almost 
sitnultajieously in Ashton, Stockport, and Preston ; and in April, 
Blackburn followed in the train, and the guardians and the relief 
committees of these several places divided an extra six thousand 
dependents between them. Themonth of May, which usually reduces 
pauperism to almost its lowest ebb. added six thousand more to the 
recipients from the guardians, and five thousand to the dependents 
on the relief committees, which were now sis in number, Oldham 
and Prestwich (a part of Manchester) being added to the list. 
Pauperism at Oldham was now one hundred per cent in excess of 
the same period of 1861, whilst seventy-five per cent additional 
were dependent ujKin the relief committee ; and, notwithstanding 
the action of these committees, the average pauperism of the whole 
of the twenty-eight unions in the cotton districts was one hundred 
and thirty-one per cent in eicess of 1861. 

The newspapers were loud and incessant in their denunciations ^ 
of the apathy of the manufacturers in general, and especially so of 
the apathy of Manchester ; and appeals from anonymous pens for 
help in tlie most distressed districts were almost continuous. In ' 
places where subscriptions had already been commenced, great 
indignation was expressed against d few well-known rich men, who 
discountenanced the proceedings, and refused to give. And the cas- 
t.igations of some of the newspapers, whose writers evidently knew 
but little of the subject, were very severe, because master spinners 

j[ m^uf^urera had not in years past turned cotton farmers, and 



IIG 



FACTS OP THE COTTOS FAMIKE. 



provided themaelvea with a staple, infitead of depending upon the 
broken reed of slave institutions. How many of tliose writers, or 
the approvers of their articles, would, if all their capital was engaged 
at home and making a reasonahle profit under their own superin- 
tendence, give up their own occupations, and invest and hazard it in 
distant lands, to be managed by strangers, in order to provide for 
a contingency which might never occur? Mr. Thomas Clegg, of 
Manchester, interested himself for many years to introduce cotton 
from West Africa, and regularly announced on his bill beads that 
he was prepared to supply cloths made of free-labour cotton. And 
how many applications does the reader suppose that gentleman 
bad from the trade for free-labour calico during ten years ? Not 
one I People want cheap calico ; and to secure cheap calico manu- 
facturers want cheap cotton, whether free or slave-grown ; and it 
may safely be affirmed that, if the annihilation of elaveiy had 
depended upon the people of tbis.Cbristian land paying knowingly 
one farthing per yard extra for free-labour calico, slavery would 
have gone on for ever. There are of course hundreds of thouaanda 
of individuals who would willingly submit to privations for so noble 
a purpose, if it was continually kept before them ; but the essence 
of trade is profit, and extended markets are secured by cheapness, 
and therefore the pursuit of cheapness for profit supersedes every 
other motive in tirade. 

The month of June sent six thousand more applicants to Bue 
for bread to the boards of guardians, and five thousand additional 
to the six rehef committees ; and these six committees had now as 
many dependents as the whole of the boards of guardians in the 
twenty-eight unions supported in ordinary years. The cry of dis- 
tress which attracted most notice in the newspapers issued in tha 
mouth of April from Wigan, where there was no rehef committee 
at work until the month of July following. The population of the 
Wigan union is ninety-four thousand five hundred and fifty-nine, 
and the number of cotton operatives about eight thousand; 
the men of that town being principally employed as oollierB. 
At the time of " A Lancasliire Lad's" appeal to the Lord Mayor of 
London, pauperism was only some twenty-two per cent higher than 
at the same period in 1801, so that a local effort ought certainly to' 
have borne the pressure at that time; for Preston was Buffering 
far more severely, and aa yet bore her own burden. Pauper 



Wht 



I 



OUTSIDE HELP FOR OPERATIVES, 117 

■was there three hundred and thirty per cent in excess of its usual 
amount, and seven hundred and sixty-tliree per cent in excesa, if 
we include the numbers relieved by the locally formed committee. 
The alarm of Mr. Whittaker was rather, early, but the need 
not far off, and to Ids efforts was owing the early help rendered 
the Mansion House fund, from which was eventually distributed 
about half a million sterling. 

In the month of July, when all unemployed operatives would 
ordinarily be lending a hand in the hay harvest, and picking up 
the means of living whilst improving in health and enjoying the 
glories of a summer in the country, the distress increa*d like a 
flood, thirteen thousand additional applicants being forced to appeal 
for poor-law relief; whilst eleven thousand others were adopted Ly 
tlie seven relief committees ; Wigan being now added to the num- 
ber, with seven thousand three hundred and fifty-eight recipients, 
representing nearly one-half of her operatives. Mr. Whittaker'a 
cry had not been without cause, but the home responMe had not 
been so prompt as it ought to have been ; but in that town, as in 
Manchester and elsewhere, pressure and proffered help from the 
outside had forced on the movement which was so politic and 
even so necessary. In August tlie flood liad become a deluge, at 
which the stoutest heart might stand appalled. The increased 
recipients of poor-law relief were in a single month thirty-three 
thousand, being nearly as many as the total number chargeable in 
the same month of the previous year, whilst a further addition of 
more than thirty-four thousand became chargeable to the relief 
committees. An increase of nearly two hundred per cent of the 
ordinary distress at this season in one short month 1 How could 
any man with a knowledge of the facts, and any thought for the 
future, contemplate for a moment the laying of such a burden on 
the contributors to the poor-rates in the distressed districts ? In 
Preston the pressure was now nearly one thousand one hundred 
per cent in excess of ordinary pauperism. More than twenty- 
seven per cent of the whole popuktion absolutely without the 
means of procuring the commonest necessaries of life ; one person 
in every three and a half met in the streets being without the 
possibility of earning a dinner, however willing and anxious for 
work. A large portion of the poor-rates of a district are paid by 
«liDpkcepeis, and we know that shops increase so long as the 



118 FAtTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

profits to be obtainerl will afford the merest living, after rent and 
taxes are paid ; and the prudent man always calculates theae liabili- 
ties to the utmost nicety before engaging in hia enterprise. Thus 
rents adjust themselves to the trade and profits of a locality, and 
in a place where taxes are ordinarily high, rents are lower than they 
would otherwise be. Any sudden and serious increase of taxation, 
therefore, upsets the tradesman's calculations, and feeds the Court 
of Bankruptcy. Now the average distress of 1862. in Preston, would 
have required about eight times the ordinary poor-rate, for more 
than half the operatives were entirely out of work, and the 
remainder were not making above half time; and therefore, the 
wages and profits of the town, and the consequent receipts of the 
shopkeepers, would be reduced by from one-half to two-thirds. The 
returns for September showed a further addition of twenty-four 
thousand to the recipients of relief from the guardians, and ihirty- 
aeven thousand to the dependents on the various cororaittees, whieh 
now numbered seventeen, the month of August having added 
Bolton, Burnley, Bury, Chorley, Garstang, Giossop, Hastingden, 
Macclesfield, and Rochdale to the'list. Facilities for the formation 
of local committees were afforded by the central executive at 
Manchester, which was appointed in May, and was now getting 
slowly to work and trying to reduce the chaos of relief committee* 
into something like working order. Distress throughout the 
whole of the unions was nearly seven hundred per cent in excess 
of the ordinary pauperism, and still the numbers of claimantit 
were increasing by thousands per day. 

Com was cheap and plentiful in the land, and honest and 
skilful hands were ready to work and earn it ; clothes were needed' 
throughout the country, but tliey could no more be made without 
cotton than the Egyptians could make bricks mthout straw ; com 
could not be bought without something to give in exchange, an^ 
the usual medium was absent, and the labour and the com could 
not, therefore, be brought together. Most of the cotton on band 
at this period was of Indian growth, and needed alterations ol 
machinery to make it workable at all, and in good times 
employer might as well shut up his mill as try to get it spim ol 
manufactured. But oh I how glad would the tens of thousands 
unwilling idlere have been now, to have had a chance even 
working at Surats, although they knew that it required much 



A month's addition to recipients. Hi) 

harder work for one-third less than normal wages. Sural, caused 
the neglect of the literary institutes, for the hands said that it 
was such incessant work to keep the ends pieced up, that tliey 
were fit for nothing hut to go to bed when work was done, and 
hence the free raemberahips offered during the distress were not 
generally taken advantage of Another month is past, and October 
has added to the number under the guardians no less than fifty-five 
thousand, and to the charge of the relief committees thirty-nine 
thousand more ; i.e., twice as many recipients added in one month 
as the total number chargeable a year before ; and even Manchester 
feels the necessity of something more than the aid of the district 
provident society, which is siipplenienting the work of the guar- 
dians, for pauperism is six hundred per cent in excess of ordinary 
years. Three other relief committees have also been organised — 
Barton-upoD-Irwell, Chorlton, and Salford. 

The relief committees in Chorlton and in Salford had at this 
time about two thousand recipients between them. In Manchester. 
it would no doubt have been possible to have done wit hout a relief 
committee, if it had not been desirable to save honest and proud 
workmen from th^ humiliation of appearing amongst the idle and 
the profligate before the Union Boards ; but even in Manchester 
a double poor-rate would he a serious infiiction upon smalt shop- 
keepers, and even more so upon small cottage owners, who fre- 
quently during the crisis found themselves without rent enough 
> pay the taxes demanded of them, and the repairs which were 

sded. 

And now dread winter approaches, and the authorities have to 

1 not only with hundreds of thousands who are compulaorijy 
Be, and consequently foodless, but who are wholly unprepared for 
i ^e inclemencies of the season ; who have no means of procuring 
needful clothing, nor even of making a show of cheerfulness upon 
the hearth by means of the fire, which is almost as useful as food. 
All surplus clothing has been sold or pledged during the summer 
to meet the pressing necessities of the time, and now a greater 
necessity arises, and there is no chance of independent provision 
for it. The month of November adds forty-four thousand to the 
depondeuts on poor-rates, and a like number to the cases of the 
twenty-three relief committees. The newly-organised districts of 

r Fylde, Leigh, and Todmorden having contributed nearly four 



120 CACT9 OF THE COTTON FAMINE, 

iLousand to the recipienta Again, an addition in a single month 
of nearly twice the whole number usually chargeable to the guar- 
dians of the twenty-eight unions. The habit of poor-law guardians 
is to criticise keenly all the sources of an applicant's income, and 
to apply unpleasant tests to keep away as many as possible, and bo 
to economise the expenditure of the rates ; but here were tens of 
thousands of starving operatives, who would rather have sat upoa 
cold hearths, through pinching wintry frosts, and have waited, 
brooding over their sorrows, till the sharp pangs of hunger drove 
them to desperation, than have passed througli this ordeal. Sub- 
committees bad to be appointed for pvory locality, and house-to- 
house canvassing was obliged to be done, as if for a contested 
election ; and gossipy people had to be aakcd about the condition 
of their neighbours, in order to find out the respectable necessitous, 
cases, and to bring them into connexion with tlie means of relief 
By such means alone was Mr. Farnall enabled to report, that in, 
the midst of the direst distress which the county of Lancaster ever 
saw, the health of the people had not materially suffered ; and to 
the work of these visitors was no doubt owing the absence of 
famine fever ; and to their perseverance thousands of persons itt- 
all probability owe the preservation of their lives. 

The total number of persons chargeable at the end of Novem- 
ber, 1862, was, under boards of guardians, 258,357, and on relief 
committees, 200,084 ; total ISB,**! ; or eight hundred and sixty- 
four per cent throughout all the unions more than were chargeable, 
at the same period in 1861, and they were more even at that time 
than usual, for mills bad begun to close in the September previous. 
But, as already stated, the average pressure gives no ailequate con- 
ception of the real state of atfaira, for average poor-rates could not 
be laid, but each township must bear its own burden. The statistica 
of the central executive, which are made up for unions, do not 
adequately represent the full measure of suffering, for the law did 
not allow union rating, and only about one-half of the ordinary 
expenditure came out of the union common fund, nevertheless a 
reference even to the union pressure will be instructive and 
useful 

The following table is compiled from the returns of the hono- 
rary secretary, and will show the great contrasts exhibited by 
different unions : — 



COHPAa^TIYE CONDITION OF CHIEF UNIONa 



121 



Fur CenUges of FopolAtion 



ReUered bj Ouardiana 
Balierad brOiuurdiani, and Relief Committeea, 
Nuvouibar, 186L NoTraibor» 1862* 


2-6 


Warrington . 


45 


8-8 


Lancaster . . . , 


4-7 


2-6 


. . . The Fylde . . . , 


6-0 


8-05 . 


Clitheroe . . . . 


6-7 


8-4 


Blackbnm . . . , 


8r8 


1-04 


GloMop 


85-9 


1-4 


Aflhton-onder-Lyne . 


41-8 


4*8 


Preston 


47-6 



Thus whilst in Warrington, Lancaster, The Fylde, and Clitheroe, 
where the cotton operatives are a very small portion of the popu- 
lation, the distress had only just doubled the ordinary number of 
recipients of relief; in Blackburn, Glossop, Ashton, and Preston they 
had increased from ten to forty times the numbers at the same 
period of the previous year. And if we look to the average of 
the whole year 1862, we find the recipients of relief to have been 
as follows: — Blackburn, 17*4; Glossop, 15'3; Ashton, 17*9; and 
Preston, 261 per cent of the population. Even if the extent of 
the pressure could have been foreseen, how would it have been 
possible to levy rates to meet such circumstances as these 1 
Blackburn needed six times, Glossop fifteen times, Ashton six- 
teen times, and Preston six and a half times its ordinaiy rates for 
the purpose. How could cottage owners and shopkeepers have 
borne the demand ? And what of the small employers, whom the 
previous five or ten years had enabled to commence business, and 
who now, by no fault of their own, but in obedience to a national 
policy, were thrown idle, whilst their machinery was rusting, and 
all fixed charges were going on just as if they were profitably 
employed 1 What would have become of them ? The mills of the 
cotton districts pay no inconsiderable portion of the poor-rates, 
and whilst employed as in ordinary times can very well afford it ; 
but now their machinery was motionless, the atmosphere which 
floated over them was as cloudless as in an agricultural district ; 
their busy hum was changed, to solitude, but the taxes ^to be paid 
by their occupiers were doubled, tripled, quadrupled ; nay, even 
multiplied ten, in some cases fifteen times. 

The following return of the assessments upon mills in the cotton 
districts, exclusive of The Fylde, Garstang, Macclesfield, Saddle- 
worth, and Skipton, was obtained in 18G1 : — 



'\^ 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 



r AsBUHUENTa TO Pool Rate. 



Cotton 


ii[11b nit«d 


t U» than £500 por tnnoro each 


£! £5,361 




„ 


above £5U0, and nuder £1.000 


204.939 






„ £1.0110, „ £2.n00 


107.392 






,. £3,(m, „ £3.000 


49,4S9 






., £3.000, „ £S000 


3.i598 



Add for sixty or aevoaty snuiU mills, not inoladed id rettmi, My 10,1100 

£732.778 

The total aaaesameiit of the unions included in the above 
returuawaa.atthe same date, £5,451,618; so that the mill property 
exceeds thirteen per cent of the whole ; and if we add to the above 
amount the assessments upon cottages owned by employers, it may 
sately be said that the whole will amount to fifl«en per cent of the 
total aasessmcnt for poor-rates, and of course in the chief towns the 
per centage ia miich higher. It will also be seen from the above 
Btatement that more than one-third of the whole of the mill property 
consists of small establishments rated under five hundred pounds 
per annum each, and the owners of these establishments will 
comprise more than one-half of the employers. It will be evident, 
therefore, that the majority of employers in the cotton manufac- 
ture are like employers elsewhere, not men rolling in wealth but 
hard-working struggling tradesmen ; living and working for the 
most part from hand to mouth, or accumulating, by a long course 
of industry, moderate fortunes; that only the few here, as else- 
where, rise to eminence and acquire great wealth ; and even in 
these cases it is often by speculations, in wliich much capital ia 
risked, and which turn out ruinous almost as frequently as pros- 
perous, A further illustration of the position of the majority 
of the employers will he obtained by reference to the numbers of 
mills assessed at the various rates. The total number of mills 
included in the above return is one thousand seven hundred and 
eleven — of these one hundred and sixty-seven are assessed at from 
£1,000 to £1.500, and eighty-one at various sums exceeding 
£1,500, so that only two hundred and forty-eight employers are 
assessed at sums exceeding £1,000. * 

It ia hard to have to suffer without being conscious of any 
fault to deserve it; terribly hard for honest and willing workers to 
see their little ones crying for food, and to have no chance of earn- 
ing it for them. Here were nearly half a million of people, indos- 
trious, prosperous, and for the most part happy, suddenly struck as ' 



ITINERANT SINGERS. 



1S3 



were with paralysis, and rendered thoroughly helpless. Effort 
on their part was useless, for the cause of the disease was ^ar 
beyond their reach, whilst the only safe remedy would require 
years of exertion, with a large expenditure of time and money, and 
meanvhile much and patient waiting and suffering must be endured. 
There were not wanting men who saw, or thought they saw, a 
short way out of the difficulty, viz., by a recognition on the part of 
the English government of the Southern Confederacy in America. 
And meetings were called in various places to memorialise the 
government to this effect. Such meetings were always balanced 
by counter meetings, at which it was shown that simple recognition 
would be waste of words ; that it would not bring to our shores a 
single shipload of cotton, unless followed up by an armed force to 
break the blockade, which course if adopted would be war ; war in 
favour of the stave confederacy of the South, and against the 
free North and North-west, whence comes a large proportion of 
our imported com. In addition to the folly of interfering in the 
affairs of a nation three thousand mites away, the cotton, if we 
succeeded in getting it, would be stained with blood and cursed with 
the support of slavery, and would also prevent our getting the food 
which we needed from the North equally as much an the cotton from 
i8 South. The advocates of recognition were reminded that the 
of w^es to the cotton operatives was at the rate of from ten 
to eleven millions sterling per annum, whilst two years war with 
Russia cost us about a hundred millions of money, and from thirty 
to forty tliousand lives, and that self-interest and honour alike 
demanded our perfect neutrality. These meetings and counter 
meetings perhaps helped to steady the action of the government 
(notwithstanding the sympathy of some of ita members towards 
South), to confirm them in the policy of the royal proclamation, 
to determine them to enforce the provisions of the Foreign 
diatment Act against all offenders. 
During the rapid decrease of employment, and before the 
absorption into sewing and disciplinary scbtiols, many 
/ere resorted to by the workpeople to eke out a living, 
the most common amongst those who were fond of music 
singing in the streets of large towns. Tlie special corresijondent 
he Manchester EitaTniner and Times thus describee them in 
streets of Manchester : — 



124 FACTS OF THE COTIO!? TAMJSE. 

" Now, when fortone has laid sncii a load of sorow upon the 
working people of Lancashire, it is a toacfaing thing to see so many 
w<>rkless minstrels of hamUe life ' chanting thor artkss nxes in 
sinipie guise' opon the streets of great towns, aznoogst a kind of 
life they are little used ta There is something refj toodiing, too, 
in their manner and a{q)earance. They mar be ill-dbod and 
footsore ; thej maj be hongry, and sick at heart, aod forlorn in 
countenance; bat they are almost always dean and whc4esomA- 
looking in peraon. They oome singing in twos and threes, and 
S'jmetimes in more numerous bands, as if to keep one anoth^- in 
o:»UBtenanceL Sometimes they come in a large £unily aD together, 
the men with their different musical instruments, and the females 
with hymn books^ The women hare sometimes children in their 
amis, or led by the hand : and thev sometimes carrr music books 
f«:>r the men. I hare seen them. too. with little handkerehiefs of 
rude provender for the day. Their &ces are sad. and their maimers 
very often Angularly shame>£M?ed and awkward : but any careful 
ol*senrer would see at a glance that these peic^e were altogether 
unused to the craft of the trained minstrd Kii the streets. Their 
clear, healthy complexion, though often touched with pallor, their 
simple, unimportunate demands, and the general rusticity of their 
appearance, shows them to be 

To v<ar % xxaatc, cvK ly:w\f v«- cviftr»* : 
Wb-Tcn fftzciae caaiyx neccocC* to £hiL ; 

"The females, especially the youn^r ones, generally walk 
trrliiiii blushing and hiding themselvet? as much as possible. I 
Lave seen the men sometimes wjJk hackw^Lrus. with their faces 
towards tboge who were advancing, as if ashamed of what they 
wvre doinsr. And thus thev go wailing liashfuliv thn:»ugh the busy 
-rrr-ri>, whilst the listening crowd kx4s on ibem pitvingly and 
w. .i:-ieriniilv. as if tht-v were so manv huriiTv sbei>herJs from the 
r^i yiiitains of Calabria. This fl^xxi of stRiiig^ miustrels has partly 
jr -wned the slang melv.«di«L'S and the monotoitous strains of ordinary 
-:r*rv: musicians for a while. The profej^ioual glt-eman has * paled 
l!« ii^enecttial fire' bef'.Te thes<;- iiiximf:;; s^^upj^t'.r^ I think there 
L-r .rr was so much sacre«i music htarxi ujv^u :l.o streets of Man- 
•:L'^t*rr a^ during the last few months. With the exception of a 



rnNERAKT SINGEBS. 125 

favourite glee, now and then, their music consists chiefly of fine 
psalm tunes, — often plaintive old strains, known and welcome to 
all, because they awaken tender and elevating remembrances of 
lifa ' Burton,' ' French,' * Kilmarnock,' * Luther's Hymn,' the 
grand 'Old Hundred,' and many other fine tunes of similar 
character have been floating in the air of our city, almost daily, 
for weeks gone by. I am sure that this choice does not arise from 
the minstrels themselves having craft enough to select * a mournful 
muse, soft pity to infuse.' It is the kind of music which has been 
the practice and pleasure of their lives, and it is a fortuitous thing 
that, now, in addition to its natural plaintiveness, the sad necessity 
of the times lends a tender accompaniment to their simplest 
melody. I doubt very much whether Leech's minor tunes were 
ever heard upon our streets until lately. Leech was a working 
man, bom near the hills, in Lancashire ; and his anthems and 
psalm tunes are great favourites among the musical population, 
especially in the country districts. Leech's harp was timed by the 
genius of sorrow. Several times lately I have heard the tender 
complaining notes of his psalmody upon the streets of the city. 
About a fortnight ago I heard one of his most pathetic tunes 
sung in the market-place by an old man and two young women. 
The old man's dress had the peculiar hue and fray of factory upon 
it, and he had a pair of clogs upon his stockingless feet They 
were singing one of Leech's finest minor tunes to Wesley's hymn : — 

" And am I bom to die, 
To lay this body down ? 
And must my trembling spirit fly 
Into a world unknown ? 

A land of deepest shade, 
Unpierced by human thought ; 
The dreary region of the dead 
Where all things are forgot. 

"It is a tune often sung by country people in Lancashire at 
funerals ; and, if I remember right, the same melody is cut Upon 
Leech's gravestone in the old Wesleyan Chapel yard, at Rochdale. 
I saw a company of minstrels, of the same class, going through 
Brown -street the other day, playing and singing: 

** In darkest shades, if Thou appear, 
My dawning is begun. 

" The company consisted of an old man, two young men, and 



121 



FACTS OF THE COTTOS FAJnNE. 



her,' 
weel ; 



,bree young women. Two of the women had chilJren in thuir 
arms. After I had listened to them a little while, thinking the 
and the words a little appropriate to their condition, I 
beckoned to one of tbe young men, who came ' sideling' slowly 
up to me. I asked him where they came from, and he said 
Ash'n.' In answer to another question, he said, ' We're o' one 
Family. Me an' yon tother's wed. That's his wife wi' th' chylt in 
■ma ; an' hur wi' ih' plod shawl on's mine.' I asked if the 
ui was his father. ' Aye,' replied he, ' we're o' here, nohbut 
My mother's ill i' bed, an' one o' my sisters is lookin' after 
' Well, an" heaw ban yo getten on V said L * Oh, we'n done 
but we's come no moor,' replied he. Another day, there 
was an instrumental band of these operatives playing sacred music 
close to the Exchange lamp. Amongst the crowd around, I met 
with a friend of mine. He told me that the players were from 
Stalybridge. Tbey played some fine old tunes, by desire, and, 
among the rest, they played one called ' Warrington.' When 
tbey bad played it several times over, my friend turned to me and 
said, that time was composed by a Rev. Mr. Harrison, who was 
once minister of Crosa-street Unitarian Chapel, in Manchester. 
And, one day, an old weaver who had come down from the hills, 
many miles, staff in hand, knocked at tbe minister's door, and 
asked if there was a ' gentleman co'de Harrison Uved theer ? 
' Yea' ' Could aw see him V ' Yes." When tbe minister came 
to the door, the old weaver looked hard at hira, for a minute, and 
said, ■ Are yo th' mon 'at composed that tune co'de Warrington t 
' Yes,' replied the minister, ' I believe I am.' ' Well,' said the old 
weaver, ' gi' me yor bond ! It's a good un !' He then shook 
hands with hira heartily again, and saying ' Well ; good day to yo !' 
he went his way home again, before the old minister could fairly 
collect his scattered thoughts." 

The distress was most intense in Lancashire, because of the 
great concentration of the trade in that county, and because the 
heavy portion of goods are made almost exclusively thtre ; but the 
cotton manufacturing districts of France sutiered in a similar 
manner, and the difficulty had there also to be met by similar 
charitable efforts. 

The municipal council of Rouen made a subscription at tbe 
end of 1861 (before any step was taken in this country), and in 



THE DISTBESS IN 7IUNCE. 



127 



i bTember, 1862, a oew fund was subscribed, under the auspices 
of the president of the Cliamber of Commerce, and the preitideut 
of the Tribunal of Commerce ; and a circular was issued, appeal- 
ing to the benevolence of the public. From it we learn that one 
hundred thousand persons were then dependent, and were expected 
to increase to one hundred and fifty thousand. '■ On all sides, in 
the cities, in the villages, and in the country districts, painful com- 
plaints are being heard, and the communes have come to their last 
resources. The small shopkeeper is at the end of his means and 
credit, and the master cannot continue an impossible labour." 
The committee announced that it would receive gifts of all kinds, 
and employ a portion for works of public utility, in order to give 
the speediest possible satisfaction to the laborious habits of the 
workmen, in order to preserve for them that moral dignity which 
deserves the esteem of all, and in order to render fruitful for the 
country the sacrifices which each imposes upon himself, by coming 
to the aid of misfortune. 

Tlie Times, in its second notice of " Lancashire Distress," after 
the publication of the balance sheets of the Poor Law Unions, up 
to Michaelmas, 18G2, seemed to support the view of Professor 
Kingsley, that the poor-rates were not sufficiently relied upon. 
The article quoted the average number of out-door paupers 
relieved during twenty-six weeks, as one hundred and nine 
thousand, at one shilling and twopence three farthings weekly 
per head, or in round numbers, as £G,750 weekly, and reminding 
its readers that the number had increased to more than two 
hundred and thirty thousand, left them to make their own calcu- 
lations for the future. 

If averages were worth anything in the calculation, and the 
public could have been assured that the distress had reached its 
culminating point at Micbaelma^, 18(12, the reasoning could not 
have been objected to, but the dependents upon guardians and relief 
committees in the last week in September exceeded I^ TiTnea' 
maximum by more than forty thousand, and before the end of the 
year more than doubled the numbers named in the article alluded 
to, whilst the allowances were Jonsiderably augmented to provide 
r the winter, aud were then supplemented in tens of thousands 

f cases by relief committees. Our facetious friend Mr. Punch, 
oisnotalowtolayhis-acorpion whip upon the backs of deserving 



128 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

sinners, and who sometimes, in his anxiety to prevent wrong-doing, 
castigates the innocent, saw the matter in rather a different light, 
and wrote — 

HANDS AND HEARTa 

NORTH. 

There are hands by hundred thousands 

In the crowded North, 
Empty, idle, yet for labour, 

Not for ahns, stretched forth. 
Hands all thin and white and bloodless, 

Free from stain or soU, 
Hands struck hdpless, yet so willing 

If they could to toil ! 

Hands that failing fitting labour. 

Cannot long forbear. 
Or to clench in desperation. 

Or to fold in prayer. 
Whirr of working wheels is silent, 

ChimnejTS smoke no more : 
Famine and her sister Fever 

Knock at every door. 

« 

SOUTH. 

Here are hearts by hundred thousands 

Full of ruth and pain. 
Till those hands struck sudden idle 

Are at work again. 
Humble hearts whose mite is ready. 

Hungrier mouths to feed : 
Haughty hearts brought low by thinking 

Of their brothers' need. 

Hearts that only seek for channels 

Wherein best may go 
All these streams of human kindness 

Charged to overflow. 
Then to work through clay and gravel. 

Dull rock, thirsty sands. 
From these brimming hearts make passage 

To those failing hands. 

On 7th December, Mr. Famall reported to the central executive 
that for the last eight weeks the out-door relief alone had cost 
^13,734. 2s. 4d. per week, whilst the weekly expenditure of the 
relief committees was ^19,157. 6s.^4d., or nearly five and a half 
times as much sus the sum quoted by The Times at Michaelmas. 
The then rate of expenditure, compared with that of the previous 
year, gave the following results as to the assessment required in 
each of the following places : — 



TEST LABOUR IN MANCHESTER 



129 



Ash ton-ander-Ly ne 

Blackbam . 

Burnley 

Bury . • . . 

Glossop 

Haslingden 

Manchester (township) 

Oldham 

Preston 

Rochdale . 

Stockport . 

Todmorden 



October and NoTember, J 862. 

s. d. 

11 4J 
7 71 
5 4} 

4 6 

12 8i 
9 3i 

5 8^ 



8 21 

8 2 

6 5} 

6 8J 

6 4f 



The year 1861 


a. 


d. 





7 


1 








91 





8f 





7i 





61 


1 


Oi 





94 


I 


li 





8J 





SS 



105 



In addition to the allowances of the guardians the relief com- 
mittees were spending one and a half times as much, so Ihat the 
real pressure at that date is represented by the above sums, 
multiplied by two and a half. And still no ray of light broke 
through the dense cloud which shut out the future ; no prospect 
of the end of the fratricidal struggle in America, whilst there was 
deep disappointment as to the anticipated great increase of raw 
material from India; the unemployed were still increasing by 
tens of thousands per week, and to prevent them from growing 
desperate, were obliged to be drafted into elementary schools, and 
set to teach each other, under superintendence, like children. 
These schools lasted two and a half years, and varied in their 
attendants from four thousand three hundred and seventy-nine 
in November, 1862, to one hundred and thirty-five thousand six 
hundred and twenty-five at the highest point in March, ISO^S, and 
lingered on till the end, when, in June, 1865, there were still one 
hundred and one men and boys, and five hundred and forty-seven 
women and girls in attendance. Of this total of six hundred and 
forty-three, five hundred and thirty-six were in the district of 
Ashton-u nder-Lyne. 

In the month of December, 1802, the total numbers relieved 
were — by the guardians, 250,588 ; and by relief committees, 
236,207 — total, 485,434 persons, or twenty-four per cent of the 
whole population of the district. Philanthropists who are anxious 
to improve the condition of society, have for many years made a 
stock argument of the fact that twenty thousand persons rise in 
London every morning who do not know how or where they will 



130 



FACrg OF THE COTTOST FAMISK. 



breakfast ; what would these geutlemen say if, by some aiidden cala- 
mity, tliia army of outcasts should be multiplied by three hundred^ 
and eeventy-five, so that almost every fourth person met in the 
crowded Strand or in bustling Cheapside should be in that pitiable 
position 1 What would the House of Commons say to any request 
from such a crowd of petitioners ; would it not be to ask and bavel 
Yet the ttame proportion of tbti inhabitants of the cotton districtA' 
were, for months, in this terrible plight ; and with the exception of 
the riobi at Stalybridge, not a single- serious breach of the peace 
occurred. Complaints enough there were, especially before the 
oeutral executive had got thoroughly to work, but they were all 
directed against the "labour test" of the poor-law guardians. 

At a meeting of operatives held in Stevenson Square, Man- 
chester, 2Gth June, 1862, Mr. Thomas Evans, of Mancbester, pro- 
posed the following resolution :— " That it is the opinion of this 
meeting, that it is unwise and imjust to compel honest working 
men to perform that kind of labour which common felons are 
required to perform, because it is neither advantageous nor wise, but, 
totally opposed to the true interest of society ; and the tendency 
of such a course of policy, if continued, will be to demoralise ani, 
weaken the noble independence of the people, which is the gloiy 
and honour of this great nation." He did not object to a labouTi 
test; but he did object to that s^iecies of labour which d^raded a^ 
man. He complained most particularly of the mode of grinding 
com in the workhouses. The men who were put to the work had 
to do a certain portion in a day ; they did not see the com measured 
before it was pujb. into the milt; neither could they see it while , 
they were grinding ; they were put into a kind of box where they 
could see nothing but the ceiling, and knew nothing of the pro- 
gress of the work, or the tricks that an unjust overlooker might 
serve them. As at present dispensed, the poor-law was a law to , 
keep the poor, poor. 

Mr. Job Billclitfo, Manchester, seconded the motion. He con- 
tended that every man ought to have pay commensurate with the. 
labour performed ; the system at present adopted was to get as 
much labour out of a man as possible, at a cost of the smallest, 
amount of roliff, in the shape of victuals or money. 

The resolution was passed. 

Mr, J, Finnigan moved the next resolution: — "That this 



TEST LABOUR IN MANCHESTER 131 

meeting is of opinion that the relief at present given by the Man- 
chester board of guardians is totally inadequate to meet the wants 
of the people in the present crisis ; therefore, it is expedient to 
form committees immediately in every ward, for the purpose of 
findin§ out all those really deserving cases who are silently suffering 
the pangs of hunger, and to do all that is possible to raise funds in 
their behalf The meeting also trusts that the central relief com- 
mittee of the gentlemen of Manchester will further this benevolent 
movement by their advice and generous subscriptions." He believed 
that they had not yet arrived at the worst ; and that it was most 
important for immediate steps to be taken for the relief of the suf- 
fering poor. He endorsed almost every word uttered by the two 
preceding speakers in reference to the labour test — its impolicy, 
its immorality, and the cruelty of the infliction. 

The Mr. Thomas Evans, who moved the first resolution at this 
meeting, was sent on a deputation to the guardians, and there 
threw out the suggestion, which was afterwards so extensively 
adopted, first by the guardians of the parish of Manchester, and 
afterwards by the various relief committees, to establish the school 
instead of the labour test. It is certain that before many months 
had passed over, the labour test would have broken down, from 
the sheer impossibility of finding work for the great army of de- 
pendants ; but none the less credit is due to the man who pointed 
a way out of the difficulty, early enough to prevent the chaos and 
the danger to public security which must otherwise have come 
to pass. 



CHAPTER IX. 



Proj^rem of Pr^ffton, 1851-61— Condition in 3(Uy, 1862— Oi^gmniMtion of ReHef Com- 
Buittee Vwite to the Poc*" — The Soup Kitchen — Out-door Work for the Guar- 
diaru -IncTeaHe fd Black lium— Large Proportion of Small Employers — Condition 
of ( '«>'0[>»;rative Stores and Joint-Stock Companies — The Political Relief Com* 
mittee — Sfiecimens <rf Panpers — Mr. Famall^s Report — Condition of Wigan — 
Vbiit Ut Amy Lane— Stockport To Let — Operative Beggars — Lord EgerUm and 
the Public Works — Mr. Famall on the State of Aahton. 

In the ten years ending 1861 the population of the Preston union 
incTeaficrl fourteen per cent, and that of the borough nineteen per 
cent. Of this population thirty-two per cent of the adults were 
en^^agod in the cotton manufacture, and twenty-two per cent in 
mechanical arts and trades, and in domestic service. In May, 
1802, there were twelve thousand and seven looms idle, out of 
a total of twenty-seven thousand one hundred and forty-eight, 
whilst about eight thousand others were working only three or 
four days j)er week. Out of one thousand two hundred and sixty- 
scv(;n inul(?s, six hundred and four were standing, and three 
hundred and eighty-two working short .time. The number of 
liands out of employment was given at this date, by the relief 
coTninittco, as ten thousand seven hundred and thirty-one ; who, 
with tlioirdcpendants, would amount to about twenty-two thousand 
j)( rsons. Tlie out-door paupers in 18G1 were three thousand one 
InuidnMl and seventy ; whilst in April, 18G2, they had risen to 
ten thousand eight hundred and ninety-five, being an increase of 
two hun(h(*d and forty-throe per cent, and they were still rapidly 
incre.'Lsi!ii(; and the relief committee's books contained at the same 
date th(5 names of nearly seventeen thousand persons. Many of 
these were* cases where the guardians' relief was supplemented, 
an<l it is therefore difficult to get at the total number who were in 
receipt of n^lief The board of guardians were actively promoting 
eTn])loyinent for their dependants, and had about one thousand 
men ut work levelling and improving "the moor," one hundred 



ORGANISATION OF RELIEF COMMTTTEK 133 

at "the marsh," and one hundred and fifty at the "stone yard." 
The approach to Preston by railway from Manchester is very 
beautiful, and the labour of the cotton operatives has added in 
no small degree to its interest, by laying out a large plot of land 
on the river bank as public walks and gardens; and admirers of 
the Ribble scenery in future generations will remember with plea- 
sure the gift of the benevolent donor, and the work of the poor vic- 
tims of the cotton famine. These men were working each two days' 
per week at one shilling per day ; and this labour, by making them 
feel that they were usefully occupied, kept up their spirits, and 
made them bear their privations even with cheerfulness. The men 
of Preston knew how to bear trouble, for in 1856 they had inflicted 
half-a-year s starvation upon themselves and families by a strike, 
during which they did not fare even so well as at the present time 
imder the relief committee and the poor-law guardians. 

About -£17,000 had been withdrawn from the savings bank 
since November, 1861 ; and the self-acting mule spinners and winders 
trades' society had distributed about £700 amongst their own mem- 
bers. The relief committee commenced its work in February, and 
in May the local subscription had reached ^7,500, the names of 
four of the richest inhabitants being absent from the list. A 
volunteer band of one hundred and twenty visitors was organised, 
and the borough being divided into wards, a cgmplete system of 
visitation was established and carried on. 

A spinning and manufacturing company, with a nominal 
capital of £20,000, was commenced in 1861. About £14,000 
was subscribed for, principally by working men, up to Christmas, 
and the shares were then being taken at the rate of ten or twelve 
per month ; but in five mouths afterwards only four shares were 
taken, and the payments upon those already subscribed were 
obHged to be wholly suspended. 

The co-operative store received, in March, 1862, about £160 per 
week, and in May had fallen to XI 00 per week. A reading-room 
at this store, well supplied with newspapers and periodical literature, 
was opened freely to all visitors, and served a very good purpose 
to the unemployed. The receipts at the London Road store had 
fallen from £43 to £33 per week. The Oddfellows were paying 
the subscriptions of their defaulting members by drawing upon 
their contingent funds ; whilst the Foresters were suspending 



134 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

subscriptions entirely. Some of the lodges of Druids bad not money 
to pay their sick members. The burial societies were all suffering 
heavily in their subscriptions, so. that in the event of death it 
very frequently happened that any funeral allowance was a 
pure honorarium. The special correspondent of the Manchester 
Examiner gives some characteristic anecdotes of the experience 
of the relief committee. A visitor called upon a destitute family, 
and found the man sitting alone, pale and silent. His wife had 
been "brought to bed" three days before, and the visitor inquired 
how she was getting on. " Hoo*s very ill," said the husband ; 
" and the child, how is it?" said the visitor. " It*s deed," replied 
the man ; " it deed yesterday." He then rose and walked slowly 
into the next room, and returned with a basket in his hand, in 
which the child was decently laid but. " That's o' that's laft on it 
ncaw," said the poor fellow. Then putting the basket on the 
floor, he sat down with his head between his hands, looking silently 
at the corpse. 

The loss of infant life is large in our manufacturing towns in 
the best of times ; but experience alone can realize the deep 
melancholy of the strong man, who without active occupation, sees 
the partner of his life passing through nature's sternest trial, when 
he is totally unable to supply even ordinary comforts; and with 
tliorongh independence of spirit finds himself helplessly cast upon a 
charitable dole, for the crumbs which support life, and even for the 
decencies of burial for his dead. 

The visitor called on a family often persons, where four children 
were under ten years of age, and five were capable of working, and 
when all were in employment, the joint income was sixty-one 
shillings per week. This family had been dependent on relief at 
five sliilliiigs per week, for nine weeks. When the visitor called, 
the weakly wife and one or two daughters were w^ashing in the 
inner room, and the whole place had a tidy, clean look, although 
it was washing day. The mother had suffered severely from 
inflammation, and yet, in spite of long-continued ill health and the 
iron tooth of poverty, there was rarely seen a more frank and 
cheerful countenance than that thin matron's, as she stood wringing 
hiT clothes and telling her little story. Tlie liouse belonged to 
tli<ir late employer, whose mill had stopped some time ago. 
Being asked how they managed to pay the rent, she reiilied ** why we 



VISITS TO THE POOR. 

-^BDDOt pay it, ami we connot pay it, and he doesn't puah us for it. 
•Au gtieas he knows hu'll get it sometime. But we ow'n a deal o' 
I beside that. Just look at thU ahop book. Au'm noan 
freetened at onybndy seL'iu my a<;eownts. An' then there's a great 
doctor's bills i' that pot theer. Thoose are o for me. 
Ther'U ha" to be some wark done afore things con Ije fotched up 
Eh ! aw'l tell yo what, it went ill again th' grain wi' niy 
husband, to goo afore th' board ; an' when he did goo he wouldn't 
lay ao mich. Yo known folk doesn't liko brastin' off abeawt 
^eirsel o at once, at a shop like that An thinli sometimes it's 
T weel that four ov eawrs are i' heaven — we'n sich hard tewin 
jailing) to poo through wi tother jn,st neaw. But aw guess it'll 
lOt last for ever." A visitor called upon a family where no appli- 
Cation for relief had been maile, but some of the neighbours had 
laid they were "ill off." The visitor finding them perishing for 
rant, offered some relief tickets, but the poor woman began to cry 
md said " Eh ! aw dar not touch 'em ; my hnsban' would sauce me 
! Aw dar not tak 'em ; aw should never yer th' last on't" In a 
dirty pent up comer of a dark and damp entry, a low door stood 
led into a low, gloomy-iooking hovel, not more than three 
jpards square, and without fire in the grate. No sunshine could 
Wrer reach there, nor any fresh breezes disturb the pestilent 
Vapours that wlto festering in thu slug^sh gloom. In one corner, 
ft little worn and broken stair led to a room of the same size above, 
lirherc there was some straw for the family to sleep upon. The 
Bimiture "consisted of two rickety chairs and ii little broken deal 
Ifcble, reared against the stairs Viecanse one leg wa.i gone. A quiet 
looking, thin woman, of fifty years uf age, aat ther& She had 
Iniried five children, and had now six living with her in that poor 

Kice. They had no work and no income whatever, except from 
e relief committee. The poor widow pointed to the cold corner 
iiere her husband had lately died- She said " he had been oot o' 
Wark a long time afore he deed." 

A call was made at a little provision shop, where the stock 

Km«isted of a miig of buttermilk and four or five glass bottles, and 

Sie shop furniture of two or three deal shelves, (ind a doleful little 

mnter. The family consisted of man, wife, and five children. 

he man was a spinner, and the wife had managed the little shc^ 

fust before short-time working, four of their children had h 



136 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMSTE 




for montlis, and one of the iad^ had lost two fingers at the factory, 
and so beeu disabled. The shop stuff hfid oozed away, partly on 
credit to the neighbours, and partly to live upon themselves, until 
at last they were forced to apply for reUef. After tbey had been 
on the parish for a few weeks some envious neighbour had reported 
that the stock had been sold, and the money bunked, and had thus 
robbed them of a fortnight's allowance, until the calumny was 
inquired int^i and refuted. 

Another coll was upon an Irish family, seven in number. The 
mill at which they used to work had been stopped about t«i 
months. One of them had found about three months' work else- 
where, and the old man got a few days' work occa«onally. F(» 
ten months past they had been relieved at the rate of five sbillinga 
per week, and this sum, with the little occasional work, and the* 
sale of the furniture piecemeal, had formed tlieir dependence. At. 
the time of the visit, there was not a vestige of furniture in the 
cottage, except the chair upon which the old woman was sitting. la 
reply to a question she said — " I did sell the childer's bedst«ad 
for two sfaUlings and sixpence, an' after that I sold ih' bed frma 
under 'em for one shillin' and sixpence, just to keep 'em from 
starvin' to death. The cbilder had been two days without mate 
then, an' faith I couldn't bear it ony longer." The visitor bad 
called regularly for sixteen weeks, and on this occasion saw a fire 
in the place for the first time. One i'amily of operatives were all 
fervent lovers of mu^ic ; and, wliilst in full work, had scraped up 
money for a piano, and they clung to it to the last, and were advised 
by the committee not to sell it ; hut, after a long struggle, it went 
after the remainder of the fumiliire — the mental solace gave way 
to provide bodily sustenance. 

Describing the soup kitchen, the writer already quoted says : — 
"Entering the yard, we found the wooden sheds crowded 
with people at breakfast — all ages, from white-haired men, bent 
with years, to eager childhood, yammering over its morning 
meal, and careless till the next nip of hunger came. Here and 
there a bonny lass had crept into the sliade with her basin ; and 
there was many a brown-faced man, who had been hardened by 
working upon the moor, or at the 'stone yard.' 'Theer, tliae's 
shap't that at last, as how V said one of these to his friend, who 
had just finished and stood wiping bis mouth complacently. ' Shap't 



i 



THE SODP KITCHEN. 



137 



replied the other, 'aye, lad, aw can do a ticket an' a hafe 
(three pints of soup) every mornin'.' Five hundred people break- 
fast in the sheds alone, every day. The soup kitahen opens at five 
in the morning, and there is always a crowd waiting to get in. 
Tliis looks like the eagerness of hunger. I was told that they often 
deliver three thousand quarts of soup at this kitchen in two hours, 
lie superintendent of the bread department informed me that, on 
'iat morning, he had served out two thousand loaves, of 3 lbs. lloz. 
There wai a window at one end, where soup was deiivered 
fctnich as brought money for it, insteai.1 of tickets. Those who came 
I tickets — by far the greatest number — had to pass in single 
I through a strong wooden maze, which restrained their eager- 
, and compelled them to order. I noticed that only a small 
portion of men went through the maze, they were mostly women 
d children. There was many a fine, iutelligent young face hurried 
blushing through that maze — many a bonny lad and lass who will 
be heard of honourably hereafter. The variety of utensils presented 
showed that some of the poor souls had been hard put to it for 
8 to fetch their soup in. One brought a pitcher, another a 
wl, and another a tin can, a world too big for what it had to hold. 
S*o mun mind tli' jug.' said one old woman; ' it's cratkcd, an' it's 
line,' ■ Will yo iJring me some V said a little, liglit-haired 
;, holding up her rosy neb to the sonp-master. ' Aw want a 
k'poth,' said a lad with a three-quart can in hia hand. The l>ene- 
Tolent-looking old gentleman who had taken the superintendence 
of the soup department as a labour of love, told me that there bad 
been a woman there by lialf-past five that morning, who had come 
r miles for some coffee. There was a poor fellow breakfasting 
he fihed at the same time, and he gave the woman a thick shive 
bie bread aa she went away. He mentioned other instances of 
e same humane feeling ; and lie said — ' After what I have seen 
kthem here, I say, "Let me fall into the hands of the poor."' 

"They who, tudf'fvit, feed the breattlesa. in tlie tr&VKtl of digtren ; 
They who, taking from a little, give to thn» who still have hw ; 
They who, needy, yet i»n pity when they liwk on greater need ; 

ThenB we Charity'a dinciplee— thone are Mercy's khib indeoi 

" In my rambles I was astonished at the dismal succession of 
ititute homes, and tho number of struggling owners of little' 
lopa, who were watching their stocks sink gradually down to 



ISS FACTS OF THE COTTOX FAMXE. 

Ti' ••!i!n:Z. and Wking despondingiy at the cold approach of panper- 
i<r.i. I was astonished at the strinir? of dwellings, side by side, stript, 
ir. re or less, of the commonest household utensils. — the p:«or little 
bire houses, often crowded with l-.-i^ers wh'>se homes had been 
Iroken up elsewhere: s.,^metimes CD^wdet three or four families of 
«ir •> lit working pe»>ple in a d.^ttage of half a cr>wn a week rental ; 
sie-rDin J anrwhere. on benches or on straw : and afraid to di>ft* their 
cl tiles at night time Kvnuse i>f the ci.^KL Now and then the 
wovklv \-isitor comes to the d«x"kr of a house where he has re^jiilarlv 
call L He lifts the latch, and rinds the dx^r L.vked. He looks 
in :\: the window. The house is empnr and the people are gone — 
tiiv Lord knows where. Who can tell what tales of sorrow will 
havo their rise in the prt-ssiire of a time like this, — tales that will 
livvor be written, and that no statistics will reveal In one 
cottage, where we stopped a few minutes, the old woman told us 
tLiit, in additiv^n to their own familv. thev had three vormi: women 
living with them. — the orphan daughters of her husbanJs brother. 
Tlivv had b<:^n out of work thinv-f j-ar week^ and their uncle — a 
vtn.' p^v*r man — had K-en oblige 1 to take them into his house, 
* till s:oh times as thev cotild afford t»> pav f..T kxliT.n's somewheer 
..---/ Mv conirkani'U asktVi wL-th-cr thev w^-rt- all o'lt of work 
'-•ill ' Naw,' rt-piie-i t:::: old w.:.::.;\:. : •■iiv on \ni Las C-tton on 
t ^ r:oi» a few .lays for t' sick th^t is, in the rlnoe of s»>me sick 
'. '.- :: . H.os wonohin' i*tK' oiiri-r.a'^-in. at "Y:: Fic--'n."* iThis 
:- 'h- i:ame thov civc to M<:><r>. Stairs-::; at. i F:r>v"> mill" 

■ Wo otillol at a o'tago in Evort*::. Garion^. It w:is as c!ean 

. - a gontlotuan's mrl:-ur: l'*:t th=-:re v%t.< i:-^- fv.mitr.re in si^rht. 

xoort a table, an*!. XTt^.n th^: ta'-lo. a r.no V-».:>h :: f:\sh hawthorn 

i i <- ni. st*i:k in a pint rig r.ll o: w:\t r. Hor^. I hear! again 

th. •■ niinon >t.-~v. — thvv hail Vo.n sev-ml ii::itl'> -nt of work: 

... . a • ..^-.i. .»:■: _ v." i.,i«I •... -..vl vi^,'» .J. "......«.> 'N.\Lt.>. lor 

^ - - -' '-' T r, . *•'.-• ""y-"'* • f-r.' n '•■v *■'-:*,- ' ^i V ~\" I'***- -t^^r but 

....«<th^..^ *^ •-•- •• - A-A m «■■ -* k A-» » '• ««>.« *.»..*■.«. «..» k... ««»«. *V&W V^IL 

' %v i..>. 1..- .itt.-r w. :nan <vi:i t m^. • r .o<s yo invre is 
: :'. ::.'.<< "iv? nv- \'i. !-"-".h'. l--0 -.- w; k:o"^ n a -iayjrnt oa-Atside. 

I i. :^-. 1 !r._. -- -N- V ,. r... I^, > .. .. ; . ^::^n C Uiwe 

.^ - - . — . - - - — •- .._.. • .... *, .,^^ »,. Xfc.«^EV 

^ . 

" .. «_<.. .i-. — >.-. ^ I -". ..,^.'.k... '^ . . ^:t. • .■---. j*.^-';., 1 >0.U 



INCREASE OF BLACKBURN. 139 

the other table since you wor here before/ said the woman to my 
friend ; ' I sold it for two-an-aightpence, an* bought this one for 
sixpence.* At the house of another Irish family, my friend 
inquired where all the chairs were gone. * Oh, * said a young 
woman, ' the bailies did fetch u werything away, barrin' the one 
sate, when we were livin* in Lancaster-street* * Where do all sit 
now, then V 'My mother sits there,* replied she, *an* we sit upon 
the flure.* 'I heard they were goin* to sell these heawses,* said 
one of the lads, *but, begorra,* continued he, with a laugh, *I 
wouldn't wonder did they sell the ground from under us next.' 
In the course of our visitation a thunder storm came on, during 
which we took shelter with a poor widow woman, who had a 
plateful of steeped peas for sale, in the window. She also dealt 
in rags and bones in a small way, and so managed to get a living, 
as she said, 'beawt troublin* onybody for charity.* She said it 
was a thing that folk had to wait a good deal out in the cold for." 

From 1851 to 1861, the twenty-four townships comprised in 
the Blackburn Union, increased in population about thirty-three 
per cent, and the borough of Blackburn about thirty-nine per cent ; 
and the borough assessment increased from £100,351 in 1851, 
to £144,418 in 18G4, or 439 per cent. In the year 1860, no less 
that twenty-two new mills were in course of erection in Blackburn 
and its immediate vicinity, and it was very difficult for immigrants 
to find a cottage to let. Wages had risen from five to fifteen per 
cent ; and the agricultural districts had been scoured for hands, 
whole families being imported from the southern and eastern 
counties, for the sake of their juvenile labour ; whilst many 
prudent working men had risen within a few years into the ranks 
of the employers. There were fifty-two weaving sheds, with less 
than four hundred looms each, whilst thirty of the number employed 
less than two hundred and fifty looms each ; and these facts afibnl 
fair proof of the position from which the employers had recently 
risen. Pauperism had been falling gradually year by year, until it 
reached its niininmm in 1861. In 1858, tlie numbers in reecMpt of 
out-<l«»or relief wore four tlioiisand and ei<(hty-tw() ; in 1851), tluy 
had fallen to tlin^e thousand three hundred and forty-two ; in 
1860, tliore was a temporary rise to throe thousand fivo hundred 
and forty-five; whilst in 1861, they had fallen again to two thousand 
eight hundred and twenty-three. 



1*0 FACTS OF THE COTTOK FAMITTE. 

Five joint-stock mauufiieturiiig coiapaoies were commenced in 
1800 and 1861 (principally by working men), with a nominal 
capital araongat them of £141,000, of which about £32.000 had 
been subscribed for, and £24,000 paid up in May, 1862. The 
shares of the Blackburn spinning and weaving company were in- 
creasing at the end of 1861 by twenty or thirty per week, but ia 
May, 1862, the progress bad fallen to two or three per month. 

Several co-operative ctores had also been establi.shed within two 
or three yeare. At Christmas, 1861, the receipts for goods at the 
Blakey Moor store were about £90 per week, and in May, 1862, bad 
fallen to £70. t'apital had also begun to be withdrawn, the reasoa 
assigned being lu every case want of employment, Ejght thousand 
five hundred and forty-nine persons (twenty-two and a quarter pef 
cent of the whole number of operatives) were out of employment 
in April ; and in May, the proportion had risen to twenty-five pet 
cent. The out-door paupei^ had risen to nine thousand five hun- 
dred and ninety-seven, or two hundred and fifty per cent increase 
on the number in 1861, The savings bank deposits had incre 
rapidly for some years prior to 1861, the sum due to deposaton 
having risen from £71,652 in 1855, to XI 19.289 in 1860, but ii 
the latter portion of 186] the pressure of the crisis had begun if 
be felt, ami the amount due to depositors on 20th November wa 
less by ^lOO than at the end of the previous year. 

In May, 1862, a subscription for the relief of the unemployed 
had been commenced, and had reached £3,300 ; tJje smallaesa 
the amount being attributed to the political complexion of thi 
committee. Soup tickets were distributed by the subscribers to thfl 
fund, and the soup was sold to the holders of the tickets at a penn] 
per quart Four pounds of bread and two of oatmeal per weei 
were also given to each person ; and, as the subscribers were n< 
restricted from giving tickets to the dependants on the board of guar, 
dians, it is probable that the best possible use was not made of thti 
funda Conversation with shopkeepers, at this period, showed thai 
occupiers of beaiTly-rented and heavily-taxed shops were not taking 
one-quarter of their usual receipts. The benefit societies were aU^ 
suffering heavily, but the Oddfellows and others were doing the 
best to meet the crisis by borrowing from their contingent funds ft 
the general subscription fund. The board of guardians bad raised the 
scale of relief to three shilling for single able-bodied men, in retun 



i 



SPECIMENS OF PAUPERS. 141 

for three clays' work ; whilst a man with a wife and two children 
would get six shillings for six days* work ; and a man with four 
children would get ten shillings. We extract a few samples from 
the special correspondent of the Manchester Examiner and Times 
of the people who applied for relief : — 

" A clean, old, decrepit man presented himself at the board. 
' What's brought you here, Joseph V asked the chairman. * Why, 
aw've nought to do, nor nought to tak' to.' ' What's your daughter 
Ellen doing V * Hoo's eawt o* wark.' * And what's your wife doing V 
' Hoo's bin bedfast aboon five year.' A ticket for relief being given, 
the man looked at it, and turned round, saying — ' Couldn't yo let 
me be a sweeper i'th' streets i'stid?' 

"A clean old woman came up, with a snow-wtite nightcap on 
her head. 'Well, Mary, what do you want ?' * Aw could like yo 
to gi' mo a bit o' summat, Mr. Eccles, for aw need it.' ' Well, but 
you've some lodgers, haven't you, Mary?' 'Yigh, aw've three.' 

* Well, what do they pay you ?' * They payn mo nought. They'n 
no wark, an* one connot turn 'um eawt.* * Well, but you live with 
your son, don't you V Nay, he lives wi* me, an' he's eawt o* wark too. 
Aw could like yo to do a bit a summat for us. We'se hard put to't.* 

"Another old woman presented herself, with a threadbare shawl 
round her head. * Well, Ann,' said the chairman, ' there's nobody 
but yourself and your John, is there?* *Naw.* * What age are 
you ?* ' Aw'm seventy.* ^Seventy V 'Aye aw am.' ' Well, what age 
is your John V ' He's gooin i' seventy-fuur.* * Where is he, Ann ?* 

* Well, aw left him deawn i'th' street yon, gettin' a load o* coals in.* ** 

The workpeople very commonly nickname their workshops here 
as elsewhere. A girl being asked where she worked last, rej>lie(l — 
"At th' PuflF an' Dart." " And what made you leave ?" " Whaw, 
they were woven up." One poor, pale fellow said he "had wortclied 
a bit at * Bang th' Nation,' till he was taken ill, and then they had 
shopped his place" (given his work to someone else). Anc^ther, 
when asked where he had been working, replied — "AtSo'nacrc 
Bruck (Seven Acre Brook), wheer th' wild monkey were catchcd " 
alluding to the capture of an ouran-ou tang which had escaped froui 
a menagerie. 

In the midst of this distress there was no general movement 
amongst the employers who continued working to reduce wages, 
and if there had been, it would not apparently have been accom- 



142 FACTS OF THE COTTOS FAM TN TL 

pli-shed quietly. For instance, " at one mill where the operatives 
were receiving about eleven shillings per week each, for minding 
t w<^ I'XjrfLS, the proprietor offered to give the hands three looms each, 
aii«.l to guarantee them work for three months, at a penny farthiog 
p'jf pi»:ce reduction ; but they refused the offer, and worked on at 
oM prices on two looms, with a prospect of an early stoppage, the 
three months' proffered order bt^ing declined by the employer." 

A keeper of a provision shop, being appealed to, said — *' We'n 
a deal of brass owin', but it's mostly owin' by folk atll pay aome- 
tirrie. An then th' part on 'em are doin' a bit yo' known, an' they 
bring n their trifle o' ready brass to us, and so we re trailin' on. 
But folk lian to trust us a bit for their stuff, dunnot yo see — or 
else it would be wo up ! soon." A beerhouse keeper had only 
drawn eighteenpence for a whole week, and his children being fac- 
tory operatives were all out of work. They would have been glad 
i)i a few soup tickets, but the man ssdd " Who'd believe me if aw 
were to go an' ax for relief V 

Speaking of the township of Blackburn alone, Mr. Commis- 
sioner Farnall wrote, 29th May, 18C2 : " The increase of pauperism 
over May, 1801, is five hundred per cent, made up mainly of mill 
hands out of work. Six hundred and twenty of these people were at 
work under the guardians, levelling a piece of land for the lord of the 
manor, in exchange for relief, the guardians receiving for the work 
twopence halfpenny per yard ; and other men were employed by 
the relief committee upon the land belonging to the infirmary. 
The number totally out of work in the township alone is eight 
thousand four hundred and twenty-four, whilst as many more are 
working short time, leaving only nine thousand one hundred and 
tliirteen out of twenty-five thousand nine himdred and seventy- 
five in full work. One-third of the operatives are wholly without 
tlie means of living, and another third are on half rations. The 
full number of dependants on relief would be from seventeen 
thousand to eighteen thousand. The public subscription had 
reached .£'5,23.3, and there had been about £10,000 withdrawn 
iVoni the savings bank. The amount of a half-a-year's relief by 
the guanlians in ordinary times was about XljSoO; but at this 
jx riod, intjluding the sum distributed by the relief committee, it 
was L'o,88l, or nearly three hundred and eighteen per cent in 
exee.-.s, and indigence was still increasing rapidly." The ordinary 



CONDITION OP WIGAN. 143 

poor-rate is about one shilling in the pound per annum on the 
assessment ; for the year ending Lady-day, 18G2, it had been one 
shilling and fivepence one-eighth ; the usual rate had since been 
levied, and Mr. Famall calculated that another rate of three 
shillings would be necessary, in addition to the public subscription, 
to carry them through the year 1862; but at Lady-day, 18G3, 
there had been expended a rate of four shillings by the guardians, 
and of five shillings and twopence farthing by the relief com- 
mittees, not in Blackburn township alone, but throughout the 
union, being more than eight hundred per cent in excess of the 
* ordinary expenditure under the guardians. In addition to the 
relief afforded by the guardians and the relief committee, several 
employers whose mills were closed, were providing one meal per 
day for the persons who were ordinarily employed by them ; whilst 
a special committee had collected subscriptions and established 
several " mother s kitchens," where many poor women and their 
little children resorted for a daily dinner. 

In Wigan, nineteen per cent of the population are dependent 
on the cotton manufacture, whilst a similar proportion are sup- 
ported by the collieries, and it very commonly happens that 
whilst the male portion of a family work at the colliery, the 
females who are of working age are employed in the mill or 
weaving shed. Where several staple trades are carried on in the 
same town, the deficient demand in one is often in some degi*ee 
compensated by the continued prosperity of the rest; so that 
although such a locality will seldt)m increase in wealth or in 
population so rapidly as if devoted to the production of a single 
staple which is in great demand, yet the division of employments 
will also prevent its falling to so great a depth of suffering as the 
annihilation of the single employment would otherwise cause. 
But the productions of the Wigan collieries are consumed in so 
large a proportion in cotton manufactoric^s, and by people depen- 
dent thereon, that they sym])athise with the cotton trade in 
prosperity and in aJvonsity ; and short time working in the mills 
is conuuonly followed at no great distiince by waiit of employment 
at the pits ; so tliat Wigan, whilst only at first sight half dej)endent 
on cotton, is really not much better off than if the whole of its indus- 
trial adult population relied solely for employment upon the inilL^. 



1 4-1 fa':ts or the o:TToy FAicyn 

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VISIT TO AMY LANR 145 

t vhose house thirteen benefit societies met, and which was also 
a conaiderable resort for the poorer claaB of market people, said bia 
daily receipts had fallen two-thirds. One burial society had given 
up collecting for a quarter, whilst others had lowered their contri- 
butions, in order to meet the pressure, and in caaes of death, 
deducted the difference from the claims payable. The Foresters 
and Oddfellows' societies here, as in other towns, paid the sub- 
scriptions of distressed members out of their contingent funds, so 
long as they lasted. 

From this town Mr. John Whittaker wrote his letters to The 
mes, under the signature of "A Lancashire Lad," and thus origi- 

IBted the Mansion House fund. We add to his description (which 
I be found further on) an extract from the special correspon- 
int of the itancheater Examiner and Times, of 2nd September, 
He is describing a visit to Amy Lane. 
"A few yards up the street we came to a few rude steps, 

iiich leil up, on the right hand side, to a little terrace of poor 
^Ottoges, overlooking the river Douglas. We called at one of 
these cottages. Though rather disonlerly just then, it was not an 
uncomfortable place ; it was evidently looked after, at the right 
time, by some homely dame. A clean old cat dosed upon a chair 
by the fireside. Tlie bits of cottage furniture, though cheap, and 
well worn, were all theru ; and the simple household gods, in the 
shape of pictures and ornaments, were in their places still. A 
hardy-looking, brown-faced man, with close-cropped black hair, 
and a mild countenance, sat at a table by the window, making 
artificial flies, for fishing. In the corner over his head a ciieap, 
dingy picture of the Trial of Queen Katharine, hung against the 
wall I could just make out the tall figure of the indignant 
queen, in the well-known theatrical attitude, with her right arm 
outstretehed and uplifted, and her wid, proud face turned away 
from the judgment seat, where Henry sits evidently uncomfortable 
in mind, as she gushes forth that bold address to her priestly foes 
and her accusers. The man, sitting beneath the picture, told us 
that he was a throstle overlooker by trade, and that he had been 
nine months out of work. He said ' There's five on us here when 
we're o' i'th heawse. When th' wark fell oflT I had a bit o' brass 
save't up, 80 we were forced to start o' usin' that. But month 
■fter month went by, and th' brass kept gettin' loss, do what we 



146 FACTS or THE oonosr favcte: 

would ; nxL th' times geet wvr, till mi bal we fimd ends £ur 
stagged up. At after that, my mollier kdped us as weel as boo 
could, — ^wfay, boo does neaw, for th' matter o' that, an* thm aw'ye 
three brothers, ooiliers ; they Te done their best to poo m throogfa. 
But, they're nobbut wortchin' four days a week, iieaw ; beside 
theyVe enough to do for their own. Aw make no aocawnt o' 
slotchin' op an' deawn o' this shap, like a foa It would sicken a 
dog, it would for sura Aw go a-fishin' a bit, neaw an' then ; an' 
aw cotter abeawt wi' first one thing an' then another, but it oomes 
to no sense. It's noan like gradely waik. It makes me maunder 
up an' deawn, sometimes like a gonnor wi' a nail m it yed. Aw 
wish to God yon chaps in Amerikay would play th' upstroke, an' 
get done wi their bother, so as folk could start o' wortchin' again.' 
As we passed the do(»s of a row of new cottages, at the top end of 
' Hardy Butts,' a respectable old man looked out at one of the 
doorways, and said to my friend, ' Could aw spake to yo a minute?* 
We went in, and found the house remarkaUy dean, with good 
cottage furniture in it Two children were peeping in at the open 
door. The old man first sent them way ; and then, after closing 
the door, he pointed to a good-looking young woman who stood 
blushing at the entrance of the inner room, with a wet cloth in 
her bands, and he said, ' Could yo do a bit o' summat to help this 
lass wobl sich times as boo can get wark again ? Hoo's noatber 
feyther nor mother, nor nought i'th world to tak to, but what aw 
can spare i(x her, an' this is a poor shop to come to for help. 
Aw'm uncle to her.' * Well,' said my friend, * And cannot you 
manage to keep her? ' God bless yo !* replied the old man, getting 
warm, * Aw cannot keep mysel'. Aw will bowd eawt as lung as 
aw can ; but, yo know, what '11 barely keep one alive 'U clam two 
very ill. Aw should be thankful iv yo could give her a bit o' help 
whol things are as they are.' Before the old man bad done talking, 
bis niece had crept away into the back room, as if ashamed of 
being the subject of such a conversation. This case was soon 
disposed of to the satisfaction of the old man; after which we 
visited three other houses in the same block, of which I have 
notliing special to say, except that they were aU inhabited by 
people brought down to destitution by long want of work, and 
living solely upon the relief fund, and upon the private charity of 
their old employers." 



STOCKPORT TO LET. 

Stockport, from some cause not very clearly ascertained, seems 
t >; have had less than a fair sbare of the prosperity which the la^t 
lialf century has spread over the towns in the cotton manufacturing 
district It suSured so heavily in the troubles of 1842 that some 
wag, in passing along and noticing the large proportion of empty 
cottages, wrote upon a shutter — " Stockport to let," which satire 
Thomas Carlyle hafi immortalised in his " Chartism ;",and in the 
ten years ending with ISliO-l. the increase of population was seven 
and a half per cent below the general increase iu England and 
Wales, and fourteen and a half below the average of Lancashire, 
manufacturing and rural A Manchester manufacturer, who went 
to look at a mill there in 16G2, with a view to purchase, left the 
place and declined the offer of the vendor, not from any fault in the 
building or machinery, but because he heard that the operatives 
were apt to be troublesome. And about the end of 1861, a letter 
from the Operative Spinners' Society of Stockport was published 
iu one of the Manchester papers, naming certain employers of that 
town, and affirming that they would not be forgotten on the return 
of good times. It is certain tliat localities do acquire a character 

Kin the market for the (quality of their goods, which, if it be gooil, 
prejudices buyers iu their favour ; and, if bad, often does an unde- 
served injury. Thus, bitter ale from Burton-on -Trent would sell 
better thau the same article from Birmingham ; and narrow woollens 
from Huddersfield command better prices than if made at Qolcar or 
Dewsbiify, which places are famous for the manufacture of shoddy. 
A Stalybridge brewing iirm, a short time ago, were or professed 
to be ruined by having their ale christened "Surat ale," an indi- 
cation that its quality was as wretched as much of the cotton 
known by the name Surats. If the same rule of prejudice has 
operated against Stockport as a cotton-manufacturing town, the 
place has met with a severe punishment for the real or supposed 
misconduct of its workpeople. 

The industrial statistics issued by the poor-law board tell us 
that -STi per cent of the adult population is engaged in manufac- 
tures. The borough police returns inform us that, out of a popu- 
lation of fifty-four thousand sis. hundred and eighty-one, there are 
usually seventeen thousand and thirty-eight, or nearly one-third of 
the whole, dependent on cotton mills. In June, 1862, there were 

UBX thousand two hundred cotton operatives wholly out of empioy. 



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OPERATIVE BEX30ABS. 



149 






■organised the sharp pinch of hunger had forced many of the proud 
.q)irited operatives to beg ; but this, like every other distasteful 
job, was mostly left to the women, and here is a description by the 
£aximineT and Times' special correapondent of a group of Stock- 
port weavers returning home after a day spent in begging : — 

" Three young women stopped on the footpath in front of the 
inn, close to the place where we stood, and began to talk together 
in a very free, open way, quite careless of being overheard. One 
of them was a stout, handsome young woman, about twenty-three. 
Her dress was of light printed stuff, clean and good. Her round, 
ruddy arms, her clear blond complexion, and the bright expression 
of her full open conntenance, alt indicated health and good-nature. 
I guessed from her conversation, aa well as from her general 
appearance, that she was a factory operative in full employ — 
though that is such a rare thing in these parts now. The other 
looked very poor and downhearted. One was a short, thick- 
girl, seemingly not twenty years of age ; her face was sad, and 
le had very little to say. The other was a thin, dark-haired, 
•eadaverous woman, about thirty years of age, aa I supposed ; her 
shrunk visage was the picture of want, and her frank, child-like 
talk showed great simplicity of character. The weather had been 
wet for some days previous ; and the clothing of the two looked 
thin and sbower-atained. It had evidently been worn a good 
while, and the colours were faded. Each of them wore a poor, 
shivery bit of ahawl, in which their hands were folded, as if to 
keep them warm. The handsome lass, who seemed to be in good 
^employ, knew them both ; but she showed an especial kindness 
'Wards the eldest of them. As these two stood talking to their 
lend, we did not take much notice of what they were saying 
'^tintil two other young women came slowly from townwards. look- 
ing poor, aad tired, and ill, like tlie first. These last comers 
instantly recognised two of those who stood talking together in 
front of the inn, and one of them said to the other, ' Eh, sitho ; 
there's Sarah an' Martha here ! * • • Eh, lasses ; han yo bin 
a-beggin' too i' ' Aye, lass ; we han ;' replied the thin, dark- 
eomplcxioned woman ; ' Aye, lass ; we han. Aw've juat bin tellin' 
a Aw never did sich a thing i' my life afore — never! 
th' first time and tb' last for me, — it is that ? Aw'U go 
whoam ; an' aw'll dee theer, afore aw'll go a-beggin' ony moor, — 



150 FACTS OF THE COTTOS PAUNE, 

aw will for eure I Mon, it'a auch a nasty, dirty job ; aw'd a^ soon 
clem ] • • • See yo^ lasses ; we set off this momin' — Martha 
an' me, we set eawt this mornin' to go to Gorton Tank, becoae 
we yerd that it wur sich a good place. But one doesn't kno<w 
wheer to go to theee times ; an' one doesn't like to go a 
beggin' among folk at they knowD. Well, when we coom to 
Qortou we geet twopence hawpenny tbeer, an' that wur o'. 
Now, there's plenty moor beggin' besides us. Well, at after that 
twopence hawpenny, we geet twopence moor, an' that's o' at we'n 
gotten. But, eh, lasses, when aw coom to do it, aw hadn't tb' 
heart to ax for nought; aw hadn't for sure. • • • Martha 
an' me's walked aboon ten mile iv we'n walked a yard; an' we 
geet weet through th' firet thing; an' aw wur ill when we set 
off, an' ao wur Martha too ; aw know hoo wur, though boo says 
nought mich abeawt it Well ; we coom back through t' teawn; 
an' we were both on us fair stagged up. Aw never were so done 
o'er i' my life, wi' one thing an' another, So we co'de a-seein' Ann 
here ; an' hoo made us a rare good baggin' — th' lass did. See yo ; 
aw wur fit to drop o'th Sags afoiv aw geet that saup o' waxm tay 
into mo — aw wur for sure ! An' neaw, boo's come'd a gate wi' us 
hitherto, an' hoo would have us to have a glass o' warm ale a-piece 
at you heawse lower deawn a bit ; an' aw dar say it'll do mo good, 
aw gctteu sich a cowd ; but, eb dear, it made mo as mazy as a tup; 
an' neaw, hoo wants us to have another afore we starten off wboam. 
But it's no use ; we mun" be goin' on. Aw'm noan used to it, an' 
aw connot ston it. Aw'm as wake as a kittlin' this minute.' Ann, 
who had befiriended them in this manner, was the handsome young 
woman who seemed to be in work ; and now, the poor woman who 
bad been telling the story, laid her hand upon her friend's shoulder 
and said, ' Ann, thee's behaved verj' weel to us o'roads ; an' neaw, 
loss, go thi ways wboam, an' duunut fret abeani, us, mon. Aw feel 
better neaw, We's be reet enough to-morn, lass. Mon. there's 
awlus aome way shap't That tay's done me a deeol o' good, 

• " ■ Go thi ways whoam, Ann ; neaw do ; or else aw shan't 
be yezzy abeawt tho ! ' But Ann, who was wiping her eyes with 
her apron, replied, ' Naw, naw ; aw will not go yet, Sarah !' 

• ■ * And then she began to cry, ' Eh, lasses ; aw dunnot 
like to see yo o' this shap — aw dunnot for sure ! Besides, yo'n bin 
far enough to-day. Come back wi' me. Aw cannot find reawm 



lOSD KOHtTOir AND THE PUBtlC WOBKS. 



T5T 



br both OD yo ; bat thee come back wi' me, Sarah. Aw'Il find thee 
^good bed; an' thae'rt welcome to a share o' what there ia — an 
pricome aa th' fleawers o' May — tbae knows that. • • • • 
Ehae'rt th' owdest o' th' two ; an' thae't noan fit to trawnce up an' 
luwTi o' tliis sbap. Come hack to eawr heawse ; an' Martha'Il go 
^mid to Stoppiit [Stockport] — winoot tho, Martha ? • ■• • 
Kae knows, Martiia,' continued she, ' thae knows, Martha, thae 
yrannot tliink nought &t me axin' Sarah, and noan o' thee. Yo 
^ild both on yo go back iv aw'd reawm — but aw havn't Beside, 
pae'rt younger and strunger than boo is.' ' Eh, God bless tho, 
Mbb,' replied Martha, 'aw know o' abean-t it Aw'd rayther Sarah 
^uld stop, for hoo'll be ill Aw can go forrud by mysel', weel 
■rugh It's noan so fur, neaw.' But here, Sarah, the eldest of 
^Hjhne, laid her hand once more upon the shoulder of her friend, 
HtirtU in an earnest tone, ' Ann ! It will not do, my lass : go aw 
Bn ! Aw never wur away fro' whoam o* neet i' my life, — never ! 
^ir connot do it, mon ! Beside, thae knows, aw've left you lad, an' 
tWer a wick soid wi' him ! He'd fret hissel' to dootb this neet, 
^Dn, if aw didn't go whoam ! Aw couldn't sleep a wink for 
hinkin' abeawt him I Th' child would be fit to start eawt o'tb 
IB&wse i'th deead time o'th neet a-seechin' mo, — aw know he 
Bould ! • • • Aw mun go, mun, God bless tho, Ann ; aw'm 
Meeged to thee o' th' same, — thae knows heaw it is.' " 
i Mr. Farnall was at Stockport on June 20, 186 2, and reported the 
lett ratable value of the township at .£61,833, of which .£11,946 
(BB on mill property. The ordinary pauperism of the union was 
M per cent, but at that date it was 60 per cent in the township of 
Itockport, The expenditure up to Lady-day hod been for the past 
Bar at the rate of Is. l|d. in the pound ; in 1862-3 it was 3s. 2|d. 
►tbeguardians, supplemented by 5s. 5 Jd. from the relief committee, 
ling an increaseof eight hundred and fifty-two per cent over I8C1, 
fedusive of the reUef given direct by employers, as also of all private 
purity. The guardians employed a considerable number uf the able- 
{pdied men on road making, and other out-door labour, in return for 
^lief i and it is only due to Lord Kgerton of Tatton, to say that this 
l^r work was mainly on his land and at his expense, and that from 
IttucceBaful attempts by the central executive to get this kind of 
■ployment extended from private sources, originated the first idea 
tthe Fablic Works Act. The distribution by the relief committee 



'tt^l 



r J 



FA'TT? 0? THZ 'roTTr-y wixmrsi 



vi.- i* thij ii"»r Til' illy in kiz.'L iz.'! ircorriitlT iS:ri»rii entire satis- 
:.»••:.• TL Pi^r rTTtriL.ii-rirT • 3 •: : Jiz.-. I^± ha*i z^tl £iSS8L We 
■..-■.--:•: -Lr: •;- :.:ri :^«:e- :- iLij ISr i. 12.-: a«:o.ifii "h-r Hiiss of people 
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^ ^ mm 

:. \.\ ir^:.' :-"!i>ti-i?* -x^r. iz-: i.-r'ri jl«. T:rLpi'r-rr_Li«ir'i rrL»:rL who bad 
V-'r.-. "..-r^i :.. rrYi-tr-r rk -zi .-ir:!: z» • ":»riar:r7^«~.:ii':»i: :: : bat who 
V '.:r i.-.TTr. '•' .' :r.-i: ?;i.: z-rirv^-ii-T .r toz: : : :•. t-.. L^noe to th»eir own 
:: .:•' :-o:5r>. izi ::r rlr 'iii-r :: "ri-Tir "wiT-fri iz-i obiliirfn to submit 
' • r .r;»r:il IT tl^ !• > r-Li-c r~.^riiZ5. I: ^*Tk5 :& 'jTirLi^ia but a 
l: .;-r:l ^L-L^ Tir z* 'ir :rll«.Tr5 fL'ifif^: il-.tuc is if a^r^imetl of 
■v...i- -^.-tt Trrsr i'.Lzr: ■5»:ri'r :•: ih-ici, i? :lie7 z.'rar'i^i rhe place, 
r : :.-ii io: r.-r^::.iTe': "arh-r-.ii-rr :r n-.-i: :•:• rr.tieriii :iii:ii joined bv 
uT . ..s.L2.vi.z--sr.s . titZ. iiiij :i:'rir ':»est :•: kf-fr. one j.norher ia coun- 
:TZ.i:: »e ri^T 1 : :1: irr.T^ xr. -.-ir :£«:t# vc^tc-rr. *Avke thtrir places, 
•■. : ^z^'. -f.rir r:rL- ::c inLi-.^e. ilfiZTriiil^ :h^ •x-averaaiion 
T .1 : riirr. iz-.i. "rc-r Litres.: Ltx^ :.-.ci. Aju-rrii-'a.. jLz.i :he probable 
:."!:.:. in. :>c :-r ^cnnin^ri.n .: :.!-: -m . :L-rn ^IitJ wr-.-iM gi>ssip 
i ' .■:!.? :::i. :::::!. :c :; r-r zii^lil' mt-? "vii.: ^-fr^ nor vtt noon the 
; 1. • ...-!*>. -:ir i- • :: •!: «;\::in> : r-m:-:::^ :.r : v^L and tell 

•I 

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" ■ ':...:< n*!.\::. : inrrlr :: in".-.!: i. :•: il : -i:::^ :he Anijuni 

,. - ..!._•■ *.^»7.:-.-. - _ ^ -•. ^oL • t -D*-? wlLl 

7 - . ;>rn i^n :>r : :L - :r:'- Ir m: -".. :nv:.l: i. ^v; ^i>:.;: i? Amatror 

-.'''. n-T ::i>«f:- *^v ^-- :nT":j:l'f :in : .tn:V>.l:;n:r: :> always 
.*::."". -IT. ~.T "..". iir "' iCL'.s . "." *• r->j I'.z. .irn.". ■'" .r "^'.Ti-vrs. with 

• "»" ■'.-.'■r.' r . ." ?'T. !-_■:. 7 1-^ *•" '.•'.I'.T'.T'' "■ *... r^'^i _1?L.~"1 -I IM-iT 01 

I 
- : -. •■ i-* .'. "X . .r: -r _> ■■ • . X^ - -. 3<>- . - .*. « .■i'^>. unu 

^^— - • ^ ^— >« - ■ » ^M ■ « a_ ^r^ «i^ • » ■ • • V ■ •« • « - « ■ ^ka -Bk* « -^w •«■ 

■ .... •■-_.—. n: ?. i - > ^ — ■. ■ .- ^ ' * . . . ,i». ^ •- ^ .>.'.-> jfc»- ^ - . — 

'^r.. .'■ ^__...._.^ i.^- «^ . " . — '-. . ....... z t -*« » - .. ... \f i , - 1 C|^*I 



STATE OF A8HT0N. 



153 



IIU 

Uu 



"The union of Ashton-iinder-Lyne contains tliirteen township!) 
within an area of thirty-eigbt thousand six hundred and fifty- 
seven acres ; its population numbers one hundred and thirty-four 
thousand seven hundred and sixty-one persons ; and its nett rate- 
able value in 185(i was £285,357. The present weekly expenditure 
of this union in out-door relief is £2,169, and the weekly cost of 
is-maintenance, at the rate of three shillings per head per week, is 
'9, making a total weekly expenditure in relief alone of £2,2*8, 
rhich is at the rate of £116,890 per annum. The expenditure 
this union out of the poor-rates, for all other purposes than 
ief, for the year ended Lady-tlay, 1861, was £10,712 ; this sum, 
lerefore, added to £110,S96 spent in relief alone, makes a total 
inual expenditure of £127,608. The nett ratable value of the 
iperty in this union was in 18.56, a.s I have already stated, 
185,357 ; the total present expenditure, therefore, is now at the 
,te of eight shilhngs and elevenpence farthing in the pound on 
■t value ; but it is necessary to make a deduction of twenty-five 
ir cent from the nett ratable value of £28-5,357 for irrecoverable 
ttea, empty property, &c. ; and therefore the nett ratable value 
reduced to £214i.017 ; so that the present expenditure is at the 
,te of eleven shillings and elevenpence in the pound on that 
value, I may mention that there are now thirty-two thousand 
eight hundred and eighty-one persons receiving parochial relief in 
tliia union ; and that in the corresponding week of la£t year one 
iliousand nine hundred and sisty-two were so relieved ; and further, 
lat the weekly cost of out-relief is now j£2,168. lis. 8d., while in 
le corresponding week of last year it was j£93. 8s. 2d. The pre- 
sent percentage of pauperism on the population in this union is 
24'4; in the corresponding week of Ust year it was 1-.5. I will 
now pass on to the township of Ashton-under-Lyne. This town- 
contains a population of sixty-sis thousand eight hundred and 
id its present nett ratable value is X156,054; the 
and occupiers of mills paying one-third of the poor-rates. 
.is township is now spending weekly inrelief alone £1,1 8!*, being 
liture in relief alone at the rate of £61,828 per annum. 
le expenditure of this township out of the poor-rates, for all 
.er purposes than relief, for the year ended Lady-day, 1861, was 
,620 ; this sum, therefore, added to £61 ,828 spent in relief alone. 
Lea a total annual expenditure of £67,448. The present nett 



154 FACTS or TKK OQTIOS FAXDHL 

ratable TaJne of this tawmiap m £136.054; the total preaent 
ezpenditnie, therefore, is now at the rate of eight diillizigs and 
aevenpence three-fiarthinga in the poand on that value ; bat it is 
ne/%«)ary to make a deilaction of twencr-az per cent firom the 
nett ratable valce of £lo6fi^, for irrecoverable rates, emptj 
property, Ac ; and therefore the nett ratable value is reduced to 
£1 14.700, so that the present ezpenditore is at the rate of eleven 
fthilling!! and ninepence in the p>mid on that vahia I maj add 
that there are now sixteen thousand seven hundred and sixty 
peraons receiving parochial relief in this township, and that the 
percf^ntage of paoperism on its population is 25'L It is also 
nece$»ary to state that, independently of the sixteen thoosand 
HfiTfrXi handred and sixty persons now recriving parochial relief, the 
renirlent local committee of charity of the township of Ashton- 
iirider-Lyne relieved last week two thousand six handred and 
twenty-six persons, who are not relieved out of the poor-rates, so 
that the percentage of persons, aided by the pocv-rates and by 
charity, on the population of this township, is at present 29*9 per 
cent ; and I am obliged to add that the poverty of the township 
is still increasing. Since Lady-day last, two poor-rates, each at 
one shilling and sixpence in the pound, have been aUowed and 
collected in this township ; these two rates should have produced 
^21,727. 3a 4d., but the distress in the township lessened this pro- 
duct by X3,420. 5s. 8d, and consequently the treasurer s account is 
overrlrawn, and it has now become necessary to ask for another 
rate of four shillings and sixpence in the pound, which should 
pffKluce X32,712. 3s. M.; but which, it is believed, will produce 
only £24,000, a sum which it is hoped will meet the expenditure 
of the township to Lady-day next. I have to state that the Sate 
in Aid Act was brought into operation in this union by the board 
of guardians at Michaelmas last, and that five townships within it 
w<re then enabled to avail themselves of the provisions of the first 
Hcc;tion of t)io Act adverted to, by transferring the excess of their 
exjKrnditure of ninepence in the pound, 'in and about relief,' on 
their nett ratable value, to the common fund of the whole union, 
})ut that the township of Ashton-under-Lyne is not one of the five 
towrishiiMj referred to. I know that this union spent during the 
wnek ended on Saturday last JC2,346 in relief alone. Now, pre- 
Kii riling that this rate of expenditure shall have been reached in 



STATE OF ASHTOK. 155 

each week of the current quarter, it is clear that the expenditure 
in relief alone will be, during the quarter, £30,498, or two shillings 
and one penny three-farthings in the pound on the nett ratable 
value of the whole union. I close this statement by saying that 
the situation of Ashton-under-Lyne illustrates that of such places 
as Preston, Blackburn, Stockport, and other similar localities ; and 
perhaps I may be permitted, even in this official commimication, to 
assure those benevolent persons in England and the colonies who are 
now charitably aiding the Lancashire workpeople, that their sub- 
scriptions are saving thousands of meritorious operatives and their 
children, whose spirits are yet unbroken, from the necessity of 
applying for parochial relief, and are, at the same time, attaching 
to themselves a class of people whose present conduct is a guarantee 
of their sterling goodnesa'' 



CHAPTER X. 



Origin o£ the Minsion House Fond— Letten of "A Lancmahire Lud** — BepaUika 
to the Lord Mayor — Balance Sheet and lost of SnbocriptionB. 

In The Times of April 14, 1862, appeared the first of a series of 
letters from " A Lancashire Lad," pleading with true and simple 
eloquence the cause of the distressed operatives. He said : " I am 
living in the centre of a vast district where there are many cotton 
mills, which in ordinary times afford employment to many 
thousands of ' hands, ' and food to many more thousands of 
mouths. With very rare exceptions, quietness reigns at all those 
mills. * * * It may be that our material atmosphere is 
somewhat brighter than it was, but our social atmosphere is 
much darker and denser. Hard times have come ; and we have 
had them sufficiently long to know what they mean. We have 
fathers sitting in the house at mid-day, silent and glum, while 
children look wistfully about, and sometimes whimper for bread 
which they cannot have. We have the same fathers who, before 
hard times came, were proud men, who would have thought 
* beggar* the most opprobrious epithet you could have hit them 
with ; but who now are made humble by the sight of wife and 
children almost starving, and who go before * relief committees,* 
and submit to be questioned about their wants with a patience 
and humility which it is painful, almost shocking, to witness. And 
some others of these fathers turn out in the morning with long 
besoms as street sweepers, while others again go to breaking stones 
in the town's yard or open road-side, where they are unprotected 
from the keen east winds which add a little more to the burden of 
misery which they have to bear just now. But harder even than 
this, our factory women and girls have had to turn out ; and plod- 
ding a weary way from door to door, beg a bit of bread or a stray 
copper that they may eke out the scanty supply at homa Only 



LETTERS OF "A LANCASHIRE LAD." 

lie other day, while taking a long stroli in the country lying about 
the town in which I live, I met a few of these factory girls, and 
was stopped by their not very beggar-like question of 'Con yo 
help lis a bit V They were just such as my own sisters ; and as I 
saw and heard theni I was almont choked aa I fancied my sisters 
come to such a pass as that. ' Con yo help us a bit V asked these 
factory girls. • • • j have heard of ladies whose whole lives 
seem to be but a changing from one kind of pleasure to another ; 
who suffer chiefly from what they call ennui (a kind of diseaae from 
which my sisters are not likely to suffer at all), and to whom a 
new pleasure to enjoy would be something like what a new world 
to conquer would bo to Alexander, Why should they not hear our 
I^ncashire girls' cry of ' Con yo help us a bit V Why should not 
they be reminded that these giria in cotton gowns and wooden 
cl<^ are wending their way towards the same heaven — or, alas, 
towards the same hell — whither wend all the daughters of Eve, 
no matter what their outer condition and dress 1 Why should not 
they be asked to think how these striving girls have to pray daily, 
' Lead us not into temptation," while temptations innumerable stand 
everywhere about them j • • • Those of us who are men 
would rather do much than let our sisters go begging. May not 
some of us take to doing more to prevent it ? I remember some 
poetry about the 

Bistur bloodhounds, Wuit and Sin, 

and know that they hunt oftener together than singly. We have 
felt the fangs of the first : upon how many of us will the second 
pounce X" 

In a second letter inserted in The Times of April 22, 1862, the 
same writer says : " Even during the short time which has elapsed 
since I wrote last week many things have combined to show that 
the distress is rapidly increasing, and that there is a pressing need 
that we should go beyond the borders of our own county for help. 
* * * I remember what I have read of the Godlike in man, 
and I look with a strange feeling upon the half-famished creatures 
1 see hourly about me. I cannot pass through a street but I see 
evidences of Jeep distress. I cannot sit at home half an hour 
without having one or more coming to ask for bread to eat. But 
rhat comes casually before me is as nothing when compared with 



I 



^ 



158 FACTS OF THE COTTOJJ FAMINE. 

that deeper diatresa which can only be seen by those who seek it 
• * " There have been families who have been so reduced 
that the only food they have hail has been a porridge made of 
Indian meal. They could not aSbrd oatmeal ; and eveo of their 
Indian meal porridge they could only afford to have two meals 
a^day. They have been so ashamed of their coarser food that they 
have done all that was possible to hide their deaperate »tate from 
those about them. It has only been by accident that it has been 
found out, and then they have been caught hurriedly putting away 
the dishes which contained their loathsome food. A woman, whoao 
name I could give, and whose dwelling I could point to, was said 
not only to bo in deep distress, but to be also ill of fever. She was 
visited. On entering the lower room of the house the visitors 
saw that there was not a scrap of furniture ; the woman, fever- 
atricken, sat on an orange-Wx before a low fire ; and to prevent 
the fire from going quite out, she was pulling her seat to pieces for 
fuel bit by bit. The visitors looked up stairs. There was no 
furniture there — only a bit of straw in a comer, which served aa 
the bed of the woman's four childrea In another case a woman, 
who was said to be too weak to apply for relief, was visited. Her 
husband had been out of work a long time by reason of his illness ; 
he was nowof a fashion recovered, and bad gone off to seek for work. 
He left his wife and three children in their cellar-home. The wife 
was very near her confinement, and had not tasted food for two or 
three days. • • • There are in this town some hundreds 
of young single women who have been self-dependent, but who 
are now entirely without means. Nearly all of these are good 
English girls who have quietly fought their own life battle, but 
who now have hard work to withstand the attacks this grim 
poverty is making. I am told of a case in which one of these 
girls was forced to become one of that chias of whom poor Hood 
Bang in his ' Bridge of Sighs.' She was an orphan, had no rela- 
tions here, and was tossed about from place to place till she found 
her way to a brothel. Thank God, she has been rescued. Our 
relief fund has been the means of relieving her from that degra* 
datioQ i but cannot those who read my letter see how strong aro 
the temptations which their want places in the way of these poor 
girls ?" 

It was not likely that such appeals, carrying conviction to tha 



DEPUTATION TO THE LOBD MAYOR. 159 

'orind of every reader, would be long without response, aad we learn 
that, on 25 tb April, a numberof city naerchanta, most of whom wtre 
interested in the cotton manufacture, waited upon the Lord Mayor of 
London, with a view to interest bim, and through him the public at 
large, in the wide-spread and increasing distress among the opera- 
tive population in the manufacturing districta of Lancadiire. The 
" Lancashire Lad" had preceded the deputation, for he had written 
direct to the lord mayor, and urged upon him to do for Lancashire 
as he and former occupants of bia office had done for other places 
and other purpoaea, viz., — to become the recipient of voluntary 
contributions. With true modesty, ho set forth the caae thus : — 

" Local means are nearly exhausted, and I am convinced that 
if we have not help from without, our condition will soon be more 
desperate than I or anyone else who possesses human feelings can 
wish it to become; To see the homes of those whom we know and 
respect, though they are but working men, stripped of every bit of 
furniture — to see long-cherished books and pictures sent one by 
one to the pawn whop, that food may be had^and to see that food 
almost loathsome in kind, and insufficient in quantity, are hard, 
very hard things to bear. But those are not the worst things. In 
many of our cottage homes there is nownothlngleft by the pawning 
of which a few pence may be raised, and the mothers and sisters 
of we ' Laucashire lads' have turned out to beg, and ofttimes knock 
at the doors of houses in which there is as much destitution as there 
is in their own ; while the fathers and the lads themselves think 
they are veiy fortunate if they can earn a shilling or two by street 
jiweeping or stone breaking. • • • TViU you not do for us what 
have done for others — become the recipient of whatever 
^■loneys those who are inclined to help ua may send to you ?" The 
klord mayor, having listened to the deputation, reai) them the per- 
sonal appeal, and, " before separating, the deputation engaged to 
form themselvea into a provisional committee, to correspond with 
any local one which circumstances might render it desirable to set on 
foot in aome central part of the distressed districts." Immedtalely 
afterwards the lord mayor, on taking his seat in the justice room, 

IvtAted that " he was ready, with the assistance of the gentlemen of 
tbe deputation, to act in the way desired. ■ • • He could 
^t btmBelf take any part in the distribution. All be could do was 
lo be the medium of transmission, and as soon aa be knew that 



jiwet 
KTloid 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 



MOme organisation had beeo formed, either in tbe great city of 
ichester. or in some other part of Lancashire, in which the public 
;ht feel confidence, he should be ready to send the small suma 
he had already received, and any others that might be entrusted to 
him from time to time." And thus originated the first general 
EubscriptioQ for the cotton operatives, and which, before it closed, 
reached the magnificent sum of £528,336. 9s. 9d. The first grants 
were made 8th May, 1862, and grants were continued weekly until 
6th June, 1805, when the committee adjourned to 3rd October, and 
(0 each of the local relief committees a copy of the following 

'oicular was sent : — 

I "Mansion House, London, 6 June, 1863. 

"To the local relief committee of 

"Gentlemen, — I am directed by the Mansion House relief 
committee to inform you that, after having been enabled (since 
their formation in April, 1802) to forward, by the liberality of the 
public, to the distressed cotton districts, through the medium of 
some two hundred and sixty local relief committees, upwards of 
lialf a million of money, in addition to large supplies of blankets 
and clothing, they consider that the time has at length arrived 

'when the committee should suspend their labours, at least for the 
Bummer months, Accordingly, it was resolved at a meeting of the 
committee to-day, that notice should be given to the various local 
relief committees, with which they have been so long in communi- 
cation, that no further grants would be made ; that the committee, 
at their rising, should adjourn to Tuesday, the 3rd October next, 
and that the small balance remaining in hand, viz., £9,222. 17& 54, 
should be invested in government securities till the 4th October next. 
" In thanking you for the cordiality evinced by your committee 
towards the Mansion House committee during our long corre- 
spondence and connection, I remain, gentlemen, yours very tridy, 
" Joseph Gibbs, Secretary." 
l%e last cash statement, made up to 5th June, was as foUowa: — 



To»inoontof»olworiptioni £522.904 8 

„ ditto ditto for emigntion I,ii60 li 

„ buik intenat to 3rd Uaj 4,371 15 

ToUlTweipti £528,336 9 » 



LIST OF SUBSOBlPnONa 161 

Cr. 

m 

Bj remitted to LancMhire . £508,806 3 11 

„ ditto ditto special . . 52 10 

„ returned to parties .... 109 7 2 

„ grants to emigration committees 4.836 15 

£518,804 16 1 

t, balance at Smith, Payne, & Smith's* 10,152 17 5 

>« petty cash 81 1 

„ disbursements 4,347 15 8 

14,581 13 8 

£528,386 9 9 

As in the subscriptions sent to Manchester, so in the Mansion 
House fund, every part of the civilised world was represented, and 
no less a sum than £183,031. 2s. 5d. was sent from the British 
colonies or from foreign countries, and a list of these subscriptions 
will no doubt be interesting to the reader. 

• LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE OPERATIVES RELIEF FUND. 
A Return, snownra thb Naxes or thb seybbal Places Abboad which Sebt 

SUBSOBIFnOBS TO THB MaBSIOH H0U8B ReUBF CoMMXTTBB, IB AlD OF THB 
▲BOTH FUBD, ABD THB BBSFEGTITE AmOUBT SeBT FBOM EACH PlAOE. 

EUROPE. 

Austria — £ s. d. / £ s. d. 

Belgrade 10 

Smyrna 10 

Trieste 122 12 8 

Venice 5 

147 12 8 

Sdgium — 

Brussels 98 18 8 

Bruges 28 1 

Ostend 26 

152 19 8 

Channel Islands — 

Guernsey 1,029 

Jersey 509 3 2 

Aldemey 5 (f 

1,543 3 2 

Denmark — 

Copenhagen l03 18 7 

Schleuwig 13 8 

117 6 7 

Carried forward £1,9(51 2 1 

* Grants to the amount of £930 were oiade from this balance on 6th June. 
M 



162 



FACTS OF THE CX>rrON FAMINE. 



£ B. cL 
Frcmee — Broaght fonraid 

.Paris 974 6 6 

Lyons 1,260 4 8 

Bagnare8-«n-Bagom 20 13 

Biarrits 25 

Boulogne 148 10 

Bordeaux 133 10 8 

Caen 14 

Calais 76 4 6 

Dinan 82 14 2 

Donkirk 10 

Elboneff 5 

HaTie 22 8 

Lille 175 10 4 

Marseilles 54 6 9 

Mentone 81 11 

Nantes 10 

Nice 673 

Pan 45 1 1 

St. Germaln-en-Laye 80 6 

St. Etienne 5 

Tours 87 2 7 

Cfermany-^ 

Baden Baden 85 14 2 

Heidelberg 7 15 

Leipsic 5 3 5 

Munich ^ 23 16 5 

Stuttgart 49 9 

Wiesbaden 45 5 

Gibraltar 

Greece — 

Athens and the Pirseus 

Holland — 

Amsterdam 67 5 3 

The Hague 46 10 

Rotterdam 244 5 

Ionian IslandB — 

Cephalonia • 7 14 

Cerigo 9 16 

Corfu 20 

Italy— 

Bronte 3 

Florence 607 15 4 



£ s. d. 

1,961 2 1 



8,784 7 



167 8 
924 3 8 

25 



358 3 



36 2 10 



510 15 4 



Carried forward 



£7,766 7 4 



LIST OF SUBSCRIPTIONa 163 

£ ■• d. £ B. d. 

IkUjf fwidimud)'^ Bronght forward 7,766 7 4 

Genoa 42 19 8 

Leghorn 56 5 9 

Menina 92 16 6 

Milan 43 11 

Naples 163 

Palermo 175 

Stettin 2 2 

Sampierdarena 20 

685 18 6 

Maiia 97 6 11 

Uflbon 602 

Oporto 178 10 



IViiiiui— 

Aix-la-Chapelle 80 8 8 

Crefold 20 

Creoflnach 6 18 



St Petersburg 969 13 4 

Archangel 88 6 8 

Cionstsdt 28 11 2 

Spain — 

Bilboa 122 

Grsnada 64 4 8 

MaUga . . # . . 100 16 10 

Sweden — 

Stockholm 69 10 

Gothenberg 167 18 5 

SwUxerUmd — 

Basle 218 13 2 

Geneya 119 19 10 

Laosanne 108 6 

La Tare 86 10 

Laceme 40 

Montreanx 128 18 1 

Zurich 143 2 11 



Turkey— 

Galatz, Ibraila, Toultcha, and Sulina 

ASIA. 

Aden 

BtUtoehiitan 



780 10 



66 5 4 



1,026 11 2 



287 1 1 



217 8 5 



Carried forward 



795 4 





300 





35 9 


8 


40 





£11,986 12 


5 



164 FACTS OF THE OOTTOH FAXIKE. 

X t. d. £ f . d. 

Burmak^ Broaf^ Ibrwaid 11,966 19 5 

Moolmem 68 

CtyUm 1^7 10 

Amcj 664 11 8 

CaDton 508 4 

FooCbow 423 19 2 

Hong Kong 6,492 11 9 

KewKiang 249 9 6 

Macao 60 

Shanghai 4,834 13 7 

Taka Forte 119 1 4 

13,687 4 



Indie 

Calcutta 54,021 18 9 

Bombay 39,329 11 9 

Madras 7.772 7 8 

BareUly 2,956 8 

Balondshahar 78 7 7 

Bangalore 90 9 10 

Baruda 95 15 

Cannanore 88 9 

Gorrickpore 71 17 7 

Hyderabad 24 6 5 

Jeypore . . • . . 20 

Kurrachee 866 7 II 

Lahore 19 19 9 

Mhow t 77 4 

NegapaUm 23 7 

Oude 20 

Peshawur 6 

Puttiala 1,079 13 4 

Kftjpootana 5 

Sanaweir 20 

Saharumpore 5 15 7 

Sealkote ' 27 

Simla 202 8 6 

Snrat 516 2 5 

Tutacorin 25 



108,292 2 9 

Jajmn — 

Yokohama 572 

J<irn — 

Hatavia 514 6 6 

Luzon — 

Manilla 518 5 10 

P.nang 1,286 19 6 



Carried forward . . £; 38,156 11 10 



UST OF SUBSCBIPnONa 1G5 

£ B. d. £ 8. d. 

Perna— Brought forward 198,156 11 10 

T»hree« .' 8580 

Singapore 1|S33 19 4 

Turkic— 

Bagdad . 122 18 2 

Jerosalem 9 6 2 

181 19 4 

▲FRIOA. 

BrUisk Kajfrmria 500 

(kq>e Colony — 

Cape Town 120 10 5 

Cradock 346 19 9 

Kalberg 17 

Port EUxabeth 65 



NaUd^ 

DUrban 834 5 2 

Pietermaritcbarg 630 14 

Queen's Town . . , . 56 13 

Aaotntion Idand 

-^WIP* 

Oambier River 

Madeira 

Jfauritiut 

ytoroeco 

Teneriffe 

AMBBICA, HOBTB. 

Canada — • ^ 

Montreal ....*.... 7,032 16 2 

Toronto 5,229 16 6 

Qaebeo ... .... 2,622 12 10 

Almonte 97 18 

Ancaster 153 6 

BelTille 140 8 

Beckwith 81 9 

Barrie 50 7 2 

Beyerley 144 19 6 

Blanchard 13 9 

Bowman villo 68 17 5 

Brentford 20 6 6 

Brockville 129 7 8 

Buffalo and Lake Huron Railway . . 161 17 8 

Carleton 199 11 2 

Cavan 29 

Coburg 326 4 9 

Cornwall 118 18 9 



549 10 2 



1,521 12 


2 


87 6 


5 


1,000 





2 





50 





72 17 


7 


133 5 


7 


10 






16.620 10 



Carried forward £160,055 1 -J 



1C6 FACTS OF THE OOTKMr FAUKK 

£ s. d. £ s. A 

Camtda ^ecmibmedj'-' Bron^t Ibrwaid 100,066 1 1 

DandM 139 9 10' 

Elgin 470 

Enuunou 56 3 9 

Gflimfrmn* 90 9 

Goderich 217 9 4 

Ooelph 261 17 7 

Ualdinand 819 IS 6 

HamUton 1,071 

HftjT And Huron 6 18 9 

Kincardine 30 10 10 

Kingston 657 7 3 

Lambton 914 1 7 

Lancaster 20 9 3 

Leeds and OrenTiHe 81 1 7 

Nassau 46 

Newcastle 94 11 6 

Norfolk 202 16 

OakTille 95 

Ottawa 300 

Owen Sonnd 88 4 

Peterborongh 498 12 6 

Pieton 100 

Presoott 10 

Prince Edward's Countj 200 

Port Hope 141 

Poislinch 103 18 

Reach 82 18 8 

8t. Catherines 133 17 4 

Bamia 76 5 7 

Seymour 6 

Sherlock 83 18 1 

Simcoe 523 12 3 

Smith's Falls 56 I 7 

Tilsonburg 11 10 

Waterloo and Woolwich 94 13 9 

Welland 30 6 

Westlona 21 6 1 

West Oxford 24 3 

Whitby 94 10 2 

Woodstock 204 17 3 

Columbiat Britiih — 

Victoria 1,174 15 1 

Panaimo 76 7 3 

New Bruntwick 101 5 

Newfoundland IS 7 6 

7,940 14 1 

Carried forward . £167,995 16 



LIST OF SUBSCEIPTIONS. 167 

£ B. d. £ 8. d. 

Ouuda fotmiimwdj'- Brought forward 167,995 16 

Nov Scotia 51 5 

FH$k» Edwari'i Itland 865 5 



Mexioo — 

KaUmoras 158 10 11 

Tamploo 185 G 

Mexico 16 

UniiedSiatm-^ 

New York 145 

Milwaokie 10 

NewOrleana 5 



WeU 

Antigua 101 16 8 

Bahamas 1,079 19 4 

Barhadoes 168 8 11 

Bermudas 89 14 6 

Dominiea 5 

Hajti 515 1 1 6 

Jamaica 620 1 

8t. Luda 16 11 9 

Trinidad 5 

AMBBICU, SOUTH. 

Argentine B^pMic 

JBrossu'-^ 

BahU 174 11 

St. John del Rey 56 10 2 

Brititk ChdaiM — 

Berbice 

Gopiapo 178 

CoflURica 80 

Coluimhia — 

Bogota 

FalUand Idand$ 

Aspinwall 

Paraguay — 

Ascension 

Peru — 

Lima and Callao 1,345 4 7 

Iqalqne 40 1 8 

Uruguay — 

Monte Video 

Carried forward 



416 5 5 



809 10 11 



160 



2,551 


18 


8 


10 








231 


1 


2 


64 13 11 


258 








10 


10 





24 





3 


26 


4 





121 


4 





1,385 


6 


3 


775 


14 


6 


£174,340 


5 


1 



168 FACTS OF THE OOTTQV FAMINE. 

■ 
' £ ■. d. £ 8. d. 

Brooght ibrward 174,840 5 1 

AOBTEILAHIA. 

New South WaU»^ 

Sydney 191 17 

Queensland — 

BriBbane 218 17 7 

Darling Downs 26 S 

245 7 

JSouih Auttrafia 

Adelaide 8,999 11 

Tatmania^ 

UoUrtTown 872 

Victoria — 

Melbourne 885 

Greelong 43 7 2 

408 7 2 

Wtstem Auttraiia— 

Perth 776 5 5 

rOLTHESIA. 

Xew Zealand — 

Auckland 571 18 6 

Blenheim 48 5 9 

Canterbury 1,218 

Port Napier 2 

Taranaki 365 13 2 

2,200 17 5 

MELANESIA. 

Xew Caledonia 3 18 9 



£183,031 2 5 




D of the Central CommittiiE— Meeting in Manchester Tnwii Hiill — Reasonn for 
Dmng Nothing— Propotal for Losna to the Poor— Meeting >t BridKewater Hoiue— 
BsTolutioD in Cmtrftl Executivv— Air. Cublno on tlid Proapuols of the 0)iij»tiveii - - 
Formation of a, Collecting CuEOinittee — Cbontftcr of the Manchester Subscriiv 
tion — IV Tiaia and Proftwmr Kinpiley — The County Meetings — Lord Derby 
the Advocate of the Helplew— The Bridgewater House Principle of Distribution 
Mil High Poor Rates— How Rich Tnulera Escape the Poor Rate—The Man- 
chester Diitrict Provident Society — 'ITie Rival CommitteM at Anhton — Various 
BMee of Relief ^DiKiplinary Labonr— Origin of the Adnlt Schook — The Aus- 
traUui Fund Appropriated to Edncatjon — MisandeiBtanding in the Colony— 
Effect* of the SidkooU— Manual for Relief Comimttaes— Tabular Return of School 
Attendances. 

On 2!)lli April, 18(i3, a. meeting of gentlemen residents, called 
liy Thomas Ooadsby, Esq., mayor of Manchester, waa held m the 
Town Hall of that dtj, to consider the propriety of forming a 
relief committee. The general opinion expressed at the meeting 
was that there was no necessity for any other than existing agen- 
cies to deal with the distress, and a majority decided against 
taking any action. The view of the gentlemen present appears 
to have been confined toManchester, including Salford, which, from 
ita cosmopolitan character, mu.'^t always suffer less in commereiiil 
crises than the surrotindiug towns, where the bulk of the popula- 
tion is dependent upon the cotton manufacture. In Easter week 
a great fair is annually held on Camp Field, in the west end of 
Manchester, which is attended by all the holiday-makers of the 
district, for many miles around. Theatrical booths, wild beast shows, 
eshibitiouB of giants and dwarfs, tents for equestrian and acro- 
batic performances, &c., &c, then fill the apace upon which, in the 
early annals of Britain, the soldiers of the Roman empire were 
once encamped ; the stalls of itinerant confectioners and toy 
ilealers occupy half the width of the main streets in the vicinity, 
and the throng of visitors at night is fre<iuently so great that a nim- 
lile acrobat would find no difficulty in running for half a mile upon 
the shoulders of the people. The corporation of Manchester derives 



170 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FASIINE. 



considerable revenue from tlieso street tenants of a week, and one 
of tlie arguments for doing nothing used at the above-named 
meeting was that " Knott Mill fair" had been very successful ; and 
another was that the rents of cottages owned by the speaker were 
being very well paid. Persons removed to a distance, either by 
space or time, are often better judges of events than those who an 
on the spot, or who are engaged in the transactions under review. 
The country was akeody alive to the troubles of Lancashire. The 
newspaper press was urging all influential persons to immediate 
exertion. The Lord Mayor of London had a fortnight before 
announced his willingness to receive subscriptions, and money waa 
pouring into the Mansion House fund; whilst a meeting of influen- 
tial gentlemen, in the centre of the distressed district itself, decided, 
after due consideration, to do nothing. And the majority of the 
meeting were earnest and conscientious in the decision to which 
they came ; their conclusion implied no want of sympathy in real 
sufifering, butwimply a belief that the distress was not so great as 
it was represented to be ; that the agencies already at work were 
fiuflScient for the occasion ; and that certainly no outside help waa 
needed for Manchester. The editor of T}te Telegraph newspaper, 
laudably anxious for a thorough knowledge of the state of affairs, 
and anxious also to learn how his powerful pen could be made most 
useful for help, is said to have found the spirit of independeno 
Manchester Town Hall so strong that he, as an outsider, was scarcely 
received with courtesy; nevertheless he appealed to his numerous 
readers on behalf of the suffering poor, and aftenvards made the 
central executive his debtor, by remittances of ;£6,30i 12b. 6d. But 
there were men in Manchester who saw fartlier than the majority 
of the meeting ; and who, as the dark cloud continued to gather, 
resolved to make another effort. 

In the course of one short month the mayor found himself 
compelled to convene a second meeting; this time to consider the 
propriety of adopting a scheme for loans to the unemployed oper- 
atives. It was argued in the meeting that the independence of 
the Lancashire character waa so great that the workmen would 
much more readily accept loans than donations ; and that it was 
most important to preserve this feature of self-reliance by lending 
present help in a manner which would not pauperisa On the 
other hand, it was urged that manliness was much more likely to 



J 



MEETING AT BRTOOEWATEH HOL'SE. 171 

be destroyed in men over-burdened with debt, than in those who 
accepted a free gift to help tliem through a trouble which arose 
from no fault of their own ; and that it would be much better for 
the future of such men, to let them start free from all unnecessary 
incumbrances when trade revived. It is very likely that if the 
proposers of loans had foreseen three and a half years suspension of 
labour, they would have been startled at the magnitude of the neces- 
sary accounts to be opened and managed ; aad would have given up 
their project from the thorough hopelessness of repayment. There 
were also advocates in this second meeting for the "do nothing" 
policy, but they were outnumbered ; and it was ultimately resolved 
to adjourn for a week to give time for practical su^estions. 
But the movers of the adjournment had already decided what to do ; 
and in the interval the formation of a committee was announced, 
with the name, but, as stated at the adjourned meeting, without 
the authority, of Mr, J. W, Maclure for honorary secretary. This 
list was composed principally of Manchester men, and to it were 
afterwards added the mayors and ex-mayors of all the boroughs in 
the cotton districts. 

At the adjourned meeting, it was announced that ten Man- 
chester gentlemen had subscribed XlOO each towards a rcHef fund, 
and that the incumbent of Cheltenham (the Rev. E. Walker, for- 
merly of St Jude's, Manchester) had made a collection in his 
church, amounting to £384, for the same purpose. These subscrip- 
tions settled the question as to the character of the fund to be 
raised; but the resolution adopted by the meeting, although it 
extended the care of the committee to the whole of the cotton 
district, yet showed that they had still a very inadequate concep- 
tion of the crisis, for it only engaged them to receive and distribute, 
but not to collect, funds for the operatives. The London and pro- 
vincial newspapers still urged energetic action, and on 19th July a 
meeting was held in London of the noblemen and members of 
parliament connected with Lancashire. This meeting, called at 
the joint suggestion of Colonel Wilson Patten, M.P,, and the Earl 
of Derby, was held at Bridgewater House, and the subscription 
originated in the room reached in five days the sura ot £17,000, 
and ultimately amounted to £52,000. Lord Derby was constituted 
chairman, Colonel Patten, treasurer, and Sir J. P. Kay-Shutlle- 

rth, honorary secretary of the committee. The Manchester 



172 FACTS OP THE COTTON FAMINE. 

subecriptioD, at this date, was about i£30,000, collected by local 
committees wliich were afterwards allied with the central execu- 
tive, with the addition of sums voluntarily sent in withont can- 
vassing. Lord Derby immediately took an active interest in the 
work, and, after some conversation with Mr. Maclure, in which 
the desirableness of having only one principal relief committee was 
discussed, it was arranged tliat if the executive at Manchester could 
be reconstituted, so as to render it more infiuential, the Bridge- 
water House committee would send its funds to Manchester for 
distribution. A consultation with the committee which had been 
formed at Liverpool led to a similar agreement, and the result 
was that a new list for a central executive waa drawn up. to which 
the name of Mr. Famall (the special commissiouer of the poor- 
law board) was afterwards addeil, at his own request, by Mr. 
Maclure. The committee, as reconstituted, embraced noblemen 
and gentlemen of every shade of religious and political opinion, but 
they were all men of wealth and influence in their various localities. 
Whon, at t'le next meeting of the general committee, the propoeal 
for re-organisation was made, with the statement that only on these 
conditions could the co-operation of the Bridgewater House and 
Liverpool committees be obtained, there was a general feeling that 
some underhand influence had been at work to revolutionise the 
executive; but tbc advant^e of united action was so great, and the 
necessity so pressing, that the dissatisfaction only found expresiuoa 
in earnest whispers, and the resolution appointing the new executive 
was passed unanimously. If at this time the general committee had 
been formally dissolved, the working of the system of relief would 
scarcely have been affected ; for they hod really and knowingly 
superseded themselves, and could very seldom afterwards be said to 
render any effective service. The business of general discussion was 
now over, the time for active work was at hand ; and the future 
meetings of the general committee listened to the reports of the 
central executive very much as the House of Lords listens to money 
bills, knowing that they must pass them whether they like them at 
not ; and very soon the attendances fell off, until practically the 
meeting of the general committee was simply an adjournment of 
the executive into another room to read over again their own pro- 
ceedings; but with the mayor of Manchester, instead of Lord Elles- 
merc, or his successor, Lord Derby, for chairman. Suhscriptiona 



I 



MR. COBDEN — PBOSPECTS OF OPERATIVES. 173 

in money and in kind poured rapidly in, but not so rapidly as in 
Ihti estiroatioQ of the best judges of the crisis was necessary for 
the occasion. 

There was one notable exception to the routine of the general 
rommittee, when, at a special meeting {3rd November, 1862), Lord 
Derby, in the absence of the mayor, being chairman, the late Mr. 
Cobden attended, and recommended a bold appeal to the whole 
countiy ; declaring with pi-ophetic keenness of vision that not less 
than -t 1,000,000 would be required to carry the suflfering operatives 
through the crisis, whilst the subscriptions up to that date amounted 
only to £180,000, On the motion for a vote of thanks to the 
mayor of Manchester, who was retiring from the mayoralty — 

Mr. Cobden, M.P,, said: "Before that resolution is passed I 
will take the opportunity of making an observation. I have had 
the honour of having my name added to this committee, and the 
first thing I asked of my neighbour here was — ' What are the func- 
tions of the general committee i ' And I have heard thn.t they 
amount to nothing more than to attend here once a month, and 
receive the report of the executive committee as to the business 
done and the distribution of the funds. I was going to suggest to 
you whether the duties of the general committee might not be very 
much enlarged — whether it might not be employed very usefully 
in increasing the amount of subscriptions. I think all our experi- 
ence must have taught us that, with the very best cause iu the 
world in hand, the success of a public subscription depends very 
much upon the amount of activity in those who solicit it ; and I 
think, in order to induce us to make a general ami national effort 
to raise additional hinds in this great emergency, it is only neces- 
sary to refer to and repeat one or two facts that have been stated 
in this report just read to us. I find it stated that it is estimated 
that the loss of wages at present is at the rate of ^13(i,09i per 
week, and there is no doubt that the savings of the working classes 
are almost exhausted. Now, f 13G,094 per week represents upwards 
of i:7,00(),000 sterling per annum, and that is the rate at which 
the deduction is now being made from tho wages of labour iu this 
district I see it stated in this report that the resources which 
this committee can at present foresee that it will possess to relieve 
this amount of distress are £2o,W)0 a month for the next five 
lonths, which is at the rate of i^SOO.OOO per annum ; so that we 



174 FACTS OP THE COTTON FAMINE. 

foresee at present the means of affording a relief of sometliiag lees 
than five per cent upon the actual amount of the loaa of wages at 
present incurred by the working classes of this country. But I 
need not tell honourable gentlemen present, who are so practically 
acquainted with this district, that that loss of seven mitlione in 
wages per annum is a very imperfect measure of the amount of 
suffering and loss which will be inflicted on this community threa 
or four months hence. It may bo taken to be £10,000,000 ; and 
that £10,000,000 of loss of wages before the next spring ia by no 
means a measure of the loss this district will incur, for you must 
take it that the capitalists will be incurring also a loss on their 
fixed machinery and buildings ; and though perhaps not so much 
as that of the labourer, it wilt be a very large amount, and possibly, 
in the opinion of some people, will very nearly approach it That 
is not all ; Mr. Faraall baa told us that at present the increase of 
the rates in this district is at the rate of JEJ 0,000 per week. That 
will be at the rate of half a million per annum, and, of course, if 
this distress goes on, that rate must be largely increased, perhaps 
doubled. This shows the amount of pressure which is threatening 
this immediate dL'^trict. I have always been of opinion that this 
distress and suffering must be cumulative to a degree which few 
people have ever foreseen, because your means of meeting the 
difficulty will diminish just in proportion as the difficulty will 
increase. Mr. Farnall has told us that one-third of the ratable 
property will fail out of existence as it were, and future rates mnat 
be levied upon two-thirds. But that will be by no means the 
measure of the condition of things two or three months hence, 
because every additional rate forces out of existence a large amount 
of salable property, and the more you increase your rates tlie more 
you diminish the area over which those rates are to be productive. 
This view of the case has a very important bearing, also, upon the 
condition of the shopkeeping class as well as the classes of mill- 
owners and manufacturers who have not a lai^e amount of floating 
capital There is no doubt but a very large amount of the shop- 
keeping class are rapidly falling into the condition of the unem- 
ployed labourers. When I was at Rochdale the other day I heard a 
veiy sorrowful example of it There was a poor woman who kept a 
shop, and she was threatened with a distraint for her poor-rate. She 
agld the Sunday clothes of her sod to pay the poor-rate, and she 



MR. COBDEN — PROSPECTS OF OPEKATr\-ES, 



175 



eived a relief-ticket when she went to leave her rate. That is 

i and sorrowful example, but I am afraid it will not be a soli- 

f one for a long time. Then you have the ehopkeeping class 

xoding to the rank of the operativea. It must be so. With- 

kw the custom of ^£7,000,000 per annum which has ceased to be 

i in wages from the ghopkcopera, aod the consequence must 

lent itself to any rational mind. We have tlien another class — 

d young men of superior education employed ia warehouses and 

la ting-bouses. A great number of these will rapidly eink to 

B condition in which you find the operative classes. All tliis will 

1 to the distress and the embarraa^ment of this part of the 

^om. Now, to meet this state of things, you have the poor- 

r relief, which is the only relief we can rely upon, except that 

les from our own voluntary exertions. Well, but any 

B who has read over this report of Mr. Famall, just laid before 

y must see how inadequate this relief must be. It nins up from 

B shilling and a halfpenny in the pound to one shilling and four- 

ice or one shilling and fivepence ; there is hardly one case in 

■ich the allowance is as much as two sliillings per week for each 

Ujvidual — I won't call them paupers — each distressed indi^-idual. 

pw, there is one point to which I would wish to bring the atten- 

1 of the committee in reference to this subject — it ia a most im- 

int one in my appreciation. In ordinary times, when you give 

ief to the poor, that relief being given when the great mass 

Eworkpeople are in fidl employment, the measure of your relief 

tan isolated family or two that may be in distress is by no means 

! measure of the amount of their subsistence, because we all 

w that in prosperous times, when the bulk of the working people 

employed, they are always kind to each other. The poor, in 

Tact, do more to relieve the poor than any other clasi A working 

man ami his family out of employment in prosperous times could 

get a meal at a neighbour's house, just as we, in our class, could 

get a meal at a neighbour's house if it was a convenience to us in 

making a journey. But recollect that now the whole mass of the 

labouring and working population is brought down to one sad level 

f destitution, and what you allow them from the poor-rates, and 

aX you allow them from these voluntary subscriptions, are actu- 

f the measure of all that thg^ will obtain for their subsistence. 

3 that being so general, producing a great depression of spirits 



173 PACT3 OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

as well as physical prostration, you are in great danger of tlie healtb 
and strength of this community suffering, unless something mortf 
be done to meet the case than I fear is yet provided for it. All 
this brings me to this conclusion — that something more mQSt b#, 
done by this general committee than hae been done to awaken 
attention of the public generally to the condition of this part of 
the country. It is totally exceptional. The state of things has im* 
parallel in all history. It is impossible you could point out to 
another case, in which, in a limited sphere, such as we have ii^ 
Lancashire, and in the course of a few months, there has been al. 
cessation of employment at the rate of j£7,00(l,(>[)0 sterling pe* 
annum in wages. There has Iwen nothing like it in the historjp 
of the world for ita suddenness, for the impoasibility of dealing 
with it, or managing it in the way of an effective remedy. WelJ 
the country at large must be made aciiuainted with these feci 
How is that to be done ? It can only be by the diffusion 
information from this central committee. An appeal must 1 
made to the whole country if this great destitution is to bd 
met in any part by voluntary aid. The nation at large mus 
be made fully acquainted with the exigency of the case, an< 
we must be reminded that a national responsibility reata upon 
us. I will, therefore, suggest that this general committee should 
bo made a national committee, and we shall then get rid 
this little difficulty with the lord mayor. We shall want all the co- 
operation of the lord mayor and the city of London, and I saythafi 
thi-s committee, instead of being a Manchester or Lancashij 
central committee, should be made a national committee ; thi 
from this should go forth invitations to all parts of the counUy, 
beginning with the lords-lieutenant, inviting them to be vicsJ 
presidents of this committee. Let the noble lord continue to 
at the head of the general committee — the national committf 
and invite every mayor to take part, We are going to have n( 
mayors in the course of the week, and, though I am sorry to Ic 
our present one, yet when new mayors come in they may bs 
probably more ready to take up a new undertaking than if thej 
had just been exhausted with a year's labour. Let every mayoj 
in the kingdom be invited to become a member of this committer 
Let subscription circulars be despatched to them asking them 
organise a. committee in every borough ; and let there be 



MR COBDEN — PROSPECTS OF OPERATIVES. 177 

aecretary and honorary secretary Employed. Through these bodies 
you might communicate information, and counteract those mis- 
representations that have been made with regard to the condition 
of this district You might, if necessary, send an ambassador to 
some of those more important places ; but better still if you could 
induce them to send some one here to look into the state of things 
for themselves ; because I am sure if they did, so far fmm finding 
the calumnies that have been uttered against the propertied cla^sses 
in this county being well founded, they would find instances — and 
not a few — of great liberality and generosity, such as I think 
would surprise any one who visited this district from the southern 
part of the kingdom. This would only be done by an active effort 
from the centre here, and I submit that we shall not be doing 
justice to this effort unless we give to the whole country an oppor- 
tunity of co-operating in that way, and throw upon every part of 
the kingdom a share of the responsibility of this great crisis and 
emergency. I submit that there is every motive why this 
community, as well as the whole kingdom, should wish to preserve 
this industrious population in health and in the possession of their 
energies. There is every motive why we should endeavour to 
keep this working population here rather than drive them away 
from here, as you will do if they are not sufficiently fed and 
clothed during the next winter. They will be wanted again if 
this district is to revive as we all hope and believe it will revive. 
Your fixed capital here is of no use without the population. It is 
of no use without your raw material. Lancashire is the richest 
county in the kingdom when its machinery is employed ; it is the 
poorest county in the kingdom when its machinery and fixed 
capital are paralysed, as at present Therefore, I say it is the 
interest not only of this community but of the kingdom that this 
population should be preserved for the time — I hope not a distant 
time, when the raw material of their industry will be supplied to 
this region. I submit then to the whole kingdom — this district as 
well as the rest — that it will be advisable, until parliament meets 
that such an effort should be made as will make a national subserip- 
tion amount probably to i** 1,000,000. Short of that it would be 
utterly iiLsuflicient for the case ; and I believe that with an ener- 
getic appeal made to the whole country, and an effort organised 
SQch as I have indicated, such an amount might be raised." 

N 



178 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMllfK 

At a meeting of the central executive, held at the close of t!i« 
general meeting, and at which Lord Derby alao presided — 

" The honorary Beraetary (Mr. Maclure) reported that cheques 
for the amounts voted at the laat meeting had been forwarded to 
the various districts and duly acknowledged, and that the amount 
received and promised during the past week was £9,175. 8a 9d. 
Letters had also been received from the bishops of Durham 
and Hereford enclosing copies of letters to their clergy. The 
clothing eub-committee had met and ordered the despatch of 
all clothing specially consigned, and voted forty thousand articles 
to the various district committees. The sub-committee for tb© 
division of the district had also met and carried out the dtttjT 
intrusted to it In order to prepare the report, the hon. secretary 
stated that he had issued circulars to every board of guardians and 
relief committee in the district, and he was therefore coiifideut in 
stating that the figures given iu the report were reliable as a 
correct return for the week ending October 25, In addition to 
the twenty-four unions referred to, he regretted to find that ia 
four other small unions distress was becoming very severe, as 
compared with the corresponding week last year. In The Fylde 
there was an increase of two himdred and nine ; Garstang. Iwft 
hundred and eighty-three ; Hayfield, three hundred and thirty- 
six; Saddleworth, one thousand five hundred and eight recipient* 
of relief. The honorary secretary further stated that he had received- 
three thousand needles from Messrs. John James and Son, of Red- 
ditch, and also a letter from the Rev. E. Walker, of Cheltenham,, 
who sent the first amount to this fund, stating that a second collec- 
tion had been made, at the re<:)uest of the bishop of Bath and' 
Wells, in that town, amounting to £1,076. Is. 7d." 

It thus appears that the central executive were slowly awaken- 
ing to the necessity of some more active efibrt, and the minutes- 
show that they had already written to the lords-lieutenant of Lan-. 
cashire and Cheshire with a view to county meetings ; and it ' 
at that time hoped that an appeal to these two counties would b* 
sufficient. They had already adopted the plan of deprecating publie< 
discussion ; they were for doing everything quietly, and although^ 
they were often far from unanimous, and sometimes even not very 
courteous amongst themselves, all which came before the public'' 
waa the act of the committee, and appeared to have been adopted-! 



I FORMiTlON OF A COLLECTING COMMITTEE. 179 

Tinanimously. But Mr. Cobden was not in their secrets ; he had 

not been informed of wliat was done or doing, and spoke only in 

necordance with a rapidly growing feeling that it was quite tirae 

to put off the genteel and to go thoroughly and earnestly to work. 

The speech of Mr. Coltden fairly roused the general committee, but as 

there was no question before the meeting, except the formal vote of 

thanks to the mayor.and as no previous arrangement had been made 

fur a motion, each one looked round upon the others when he sat 

down, and in the confusion which ensued, Lord Derby vacated the 

choir. This incident was treated in one of the local papers as an 

intentional discourtesy to Mr. Cobden, and brought forth an earnest 

diKlaimer from the noble lord at the nest meeting, when, also in 

accordance with Mr. Cobden's suggestion, a collecting committee, 

with power to add to its numl>er, was appointed. Manchester was 

then divided into districts and apportioned for canvassing ; and by 

the end of January, 18G3, there had been collected, in Manchester 

and SalforJ, by this and the various local committees, not less than 

I jE130,000. Itwaaat last reallyfelt that ifthe people weretobesaved 

torn famine and pestilence, a great effort was necessary; that if Man- 

ihester did not need help from without, it had a duty to perform 

9 the Bmaller places, whose industry continually enriched its raer- 

ihants and traders ; and the effort was made, and was nobly re- 

tonded to. Never were donations so freely or so generally given, 

[en accustomed to the sneers and excuses which are commonly inci- 

snt to begging, in however good a cause, were astonished ; for they 

nind themselves very generally thanked for having undertaken the 

Inty, and were everywhere encouraged to persevere. And it was not 

o much the amount of money immediately realised, as the character 

f the ^fts which was most worthy of remark. In very many cases 

ibe donations were not in a lump sum, but with a proper apprecia- 

ion of the uncertain term of the pressure, monthly subscriptions 

rere announced, to last as long as the necessity existed. And if the 

general public had been less liberal, these Manchester subscriptions 

would have realised a much larger sum ; for the income from this 

BOurce was very considerable, when the conclusion was arrived at 

lat the fund did not need further active exertion. During the win- 

K of 1SG2-3 a ladies' committee was formed in Manchester, with the 

ie of the ex-mayor (Alderman Goadsby) at its head ; and a special 

ind Tfta raised, to release from pawn the clothes of the almost 



180 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

naked operatives, who had been forced to part with every spore 
gannent for food ; aud hundreds of poor families found themselveB 
unexpectedly provided against the inclement wintry weather from 
this source. Uany leading articles in Tlie Times neivapaper were 
devoted to the advocacy of general subecriptiona throughout the 
country, combining at the same time severe animadversiooB upon 
the manufacturers and merchants of Lancashire, who, it was de- 
clared, were shirking their duty; whilst the Rev. Professor Kingdey 
occupied the correspondence columns of that paper by comparisons of 
the amounts of poor-rate paid in Lancashire and the towns of Wee- 
sex, and pointed to a heavier poor-rate as the proper mode of relieC 
He joined also in the charges agajnst the manufacturers and m»- 
chaut«, and said that the people of Wessex would give, in order to 
keep the Lancashire operatives from starvation, but they would' 
give grudgingly, and as feeling that they were performing the 
duties of others. These articles were copied and commented upon 
by local papers throughout the kingdom, and led to much corro- 
spondence with places where there was a willingness to help. but. 
also a desire to bo satisfied that the help given would not simply i 
save the pockets of those upon whom the duty was more direct. 
Deputations from Manchester were asked for, to attend public 
meetings for the origination of subscriptions, and gentlemen were 
sent to Marylebone, to Bath, to Newcnstle-on-Tyne, to Stoke-upon-- 
Trcnt, aud other places, which course gave almost unanimous 
satisfaction, and resulted in every case in laige subscriptions. Audi 
here it may be proper to say, that from the commencement to tlie" 
close of the work of the central committee, notwithstanding thai 
deputations were veiy numerous aud travelling expenses veryi 
heavy, not one penny of the funds intrusted for distribution amongstv 
the poor was ever abstracted for those purposes. 

A considerable number of county meetings ■were held, ia' 
compliance with the request of the collecting committee; and' 
there was scarcely a tKirough or parish in the kingdom in which' 
the wealthy and the patriotic did not fireely respond to the erf 
of distress. Of course the meeting of the county of Lancaster 
was looked forward to with great imprest, and its delay till tJie 2od 
December, provoked many an ill-natured sneer, and shiupened muay 
of the arrows which anonymous writers let fly at the "wealthy aiid< 
neglectful residents who were shirking their manifest duty jh the 



LOKD DEEBT. 181 

uiiilst of this diro distress." It certainly seems a difficult matter 
to«>xpUiD why tliifi meeting should have been au long delayed; why 
the rich men who, if at home, could not paas a day without hearing 
the wail of the breadless, should not earlier have been cAlled 
iipim to «et an example of liberality and philanthropy ; but it is 
cheering to know that after the meeting did take pWe. no more 
waa heard of Lancashire failing iu its duty. The thirteen hundreil 
circulars issued hy Earl Sefton, the lord -lieutenant, brought 
tog<ether such a gathering of rank, and wealth, and influence, as is 
not often to be witnessed; and the eloquent advocate of class distinc- 
tions ami aristocratic privileges (the Earl of Derby) became on that 
day the powerful and successful representative of the poor and 
helpless. Called upon hy the chairman, the Karl of Derby said : 

" My Lonl Sefton, my Lords and Gentlemen, — We are met 
together upon an occasion which must call forth the most painful, 
and at the same time ought to excite, and I am sure will excite, 
the most kindly feelings of our human nature. We are met to 
consider the best means of palliating — would to God that I could 
aay removing! — a great national calamity, the like whereof iu 
motleru times has never beeil witnessed in this favoured land — a 
calamity which it vfas impossible for those who are the chief 
suflertrrs by it to foresee, or W they had foreseen to have taken any 
stepn to avoid — n calamity which, though shared by the nation at 
large, falls more peculiarly and with the heaviest weight upon this 
hitherto prosperous and wealthy district — a calamity which has 
couvert4id this teeming hive of industry into a stagnant desert of 
compulsory inaction and idleness — a calamity which has converted 
that which was the source of our greatest wealth into the deepest 
abyss of impoverishment — a calamity which has impoverished the 
wealthy, which has reduceil men of easy fortunes to tlie greatest 
straits, which has brought distress upon those who have hitherto 
hiicu somewhat above the world by the exercise of fnjgal industry, 
and which has reduced honest and struggling poverty to a state of 
absolute and humiliating destitution. Gentlemen, it b to meet 
this calamity that we are met together this day to add our means 
and our assLslance to those efforts which have been so nobly made 
throughout the country generally, and, I am bound to say, in this 
county also, as I shall prove to you before I concluile mj remarks. 

itlemen, I know how impossible it is by any figures to conveiL 



r1 




FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

an idea of tlie extent of the destitution which dow prevails, and I 
kuow alao how impatient large assemblies are of any extensive use 
of figures, or even of figures at all ; but, at the same time, it is 
impossible for me to lay before you the whole state of the case. Id 
opening this resolution and asking you to resolve with regard to 
the extent of the distress which now prevails, without trespaasinj^ 
on your attention by a few, and they shall be a very few, fignres^, 
which shal! show the extent if not the pressure throughout this dis- 
trict of the present distress. And, gentlemen, I think I shall best 
give you an idea of the amount of distress and destitution which 
prevails by very shortly comparing the state of things which existed 
in the districts to wliich I refer in the month of September, 1861, 
as compared with the month of September, 1862, and with that 
again only about two weeks ago, which is the latest information we 
have — up to the 22nd of last month. I find then, gentlemen, that 
in a district comprising, in round numbers, two million inhabitants — 
for that is about the number in that district — in the fourth week 
of September, 1861, there were forty-three thousand five hundred 
persons receiving parochial relief; in the fourth week of Septem- 
ber, 18G2, there were one hundred and sixty-three thousand fonr 
hundred and ninety-eight persons receiving parochial relief; aa< 
in the short space which elapsed between the last week of Septemb^ 
and the third week of November the number of one hundred and 
sixty-three thousand four hundred and ninety-eight had increased to 
two hundred and fifty-nine thousand three hundred and eighty-five 
persona. Now, gentlemen, let us in the same periods compare the 
amount which was applied from the parochial funds to the relief 
of pauperism. In September, 18G1, the amount so applied war 
i'2,259 ; in September, 1862, it was f9,674. That is by the week. 
What is now the amount ) In November, 1862, it was il7.681 
for the week. The proportion of those receiving parochial reli^ 
to the total population was two and three-tenths per cent in Sep- 
tember, 1861, and eight and five-tenths per cent in September, 
1862, and that had become thirteen and five-tenths per cent itt' 
the population in November, 1802. Here, therefore, is thirteen 
per cent of the whole population at the present moment depend' 
ing for their subsistence upon parochial relief alone. Of these two 
hundred and fifty-nine thousand — I give onlyround numbers — ^ther* 
were thirty-six thousand eight hundred old or infirm ; there wera 



nntrly ninety-eight thousaud able-bwlied adults receiving parochial 
Telief. and there were under sixteen years of age nearly twenty-four 
(hoiisand persons. But it would be very far from giving you an esti- 
mate of the extent of the distress if we were to confine our 
obserrations to those who are dependent upon parochial relief 
Itione. We have evidence from the local committees, whom we 
have extensively employed, and whose eervices have been invalu- 
,able to U8, that of persons not relieved from the poor-rates there 
are relieved also by local committees no fewer in this district than 
-«De hundred and seventy-two thousand persons — making a total 
«f four hundred aad thirty-one thousand three hundred and 
t»inety-five persons out of two millions, or twenty-one and seven- 
tenths per cent on the whole population — that is, more than 
cue in every five persons depeod for their daily existence 
cither upon parochial relief or public charity. Gentlemen, I have 
said that figures will not show sufficiently the amount of distreaa ; 
nor, in the same manner, will figures show, I am happy to say, the 
amount that has been contributed for the relief of that distress. 
But let us take another test ; let us examine what has been the 
result, not upon the poor who are dependent for their daily bread 
npon their daily labour, and many of whom are upon the very 
rerge of pauperism, from day to day, but let us take a test of what 
been the effect upon the well-to-do artisan, upon the frugal, 
industrious, saving men, who have been hitherto somewhat above 
the world, and I have here but an imperfect test, because I am 
unable to obtain the whole amount of deposits withdrawn from 
Me savings banks, the best of all possible teats, if we could 
narry the account up to the present day ; but I have only been 
able to obtain it to the middle of June last, when the dis- 
tress could hardly be said to have begun, and yet I find from seven 
.savings banks alone in this county in six mouths^ — ^and those months 
ID which the distress had not re-ached its present height, or any- 
thing like it — there was an excess of withdrawals of deposits 
over the ordinary average to the amoimt of £71,113. This was 
Up to Jane lost, when, a« I have said, the pressure had hardly 
commenced, and from that time it has been found impossible to 
obtain from the savings banks, who are themselves naturally unwil- 
;ling to disclose this state of afEairs — it has been found impossible to 
obtain such further returns as would enable us to present to you 



1^4 Facts of the o/ttos tjljosk 



Sk'.y j/fopfrr *^tijiAte of the eii:rtss of vithdrawiaLi At ptesent ; but 
xi'.ji* '.'(MK'i h^ve be^D verv lar^e must necv^s&arilr be inferred from 
*.{.*: /Tfr^t increase of dLiftresg which has taken place snce tbe laige 
•. <rri I h^vf; Dierjtiob«^i was obtaineii ir^jm the banks, as represent- 
i.'i/ the excese of oniinary withdraw ab in June larst. Now, gentle- 
r/i-n, ngur*; to yourselves, I beg of you, what a state of tliing8*tfaat 
i". iiti of ^Tl.nS, a.? the excess *A the averok^e withdrawals from the 
kh,\\wr^ babks represents : what an amount of sofferin^ does it 
picture ; what disaf^jinteii hopes : what a prospect of futme dis- 
tPr-s's rioes it not bring before you for the working and industiioiift 
cLir-eii ? Why, gentlemen, it represents the blighted hopes for life 
of many a family. It represents the small sum set apart by honesty 
fni;.^il, persevering indui^try, won by years of toil and self-denial, 
in the hope of its being, as it has been in many cases before, the 
founriation even of colossal fortunes which have been made from 
>!rn;sller aums. It represents the gradual decay of the hopes for his 
family of many an industrious artisan. The first step in that 
rl'iwnward progress which has led to destitution and paopeiism is 
the withdrawal of the savings of honest industry, and that is repre- 
.senterl in the return which I have quoted to yoa Then comes 
the -acrifice of some little cherished article of furniture, the cutting 
oti* of some little indulgence — the sacrifice of that which gave his 
liorne an appearance of additional comfort and happiness — the 
.siicrilice gradually, one by one, of the principtd articles ctf furniture, 
till at last the well conducted, honest, frugal, saving workingman 
finds himself on a level with the idle, the dissipated, and the im- 
provident — obliged to pawn the very clothes of his family — nay, 
the very bedding on which he lies, to obtain the simple means of 
subsistence from day to day, and encountering all that difficulty 
and all that distress with tlie noble independence that would do 
anything rather than depend upon public or even on private charity, 
finl in liis own simple but emphatic language declaring, * Nay, 
but we'll clcTri first* And, gentlemen, this leads me to obser^'e 
ii|)on a more gratifying p^int of view, that is, the noble manner, a 
manner beyond all praise, in which this destitution has been borne 
by the j)opulation of this great county. It is not the case of ordi- 
nary labourers who find themselves reduced a trifle below their 
former means of subsistence, but it is a reduction in the pecuniary 
comfort, and almost necessaries, of men who have been in the 



LORD DERBY. 



185 



habit of living, if not in luxury, at leaat in the extreme of comfort 
—a reduction to two shillings and three BhiUings a week from 
sunria which had usually amounted to twenty-five shillingH, or tliirty 
shillings, or forty shillinga ; a cutting off of aII their comforts, cut- 
ting off all their hopes of future additional comfort, or of riBing in 
life^^ggravated by a feelijig, an honourable, aa honest, but at the 
same time a morbid feeling, of repugnance to the idea of being 
indebted under these circumstaocea to relief of any kind or dt-Hcrip- 
tiun. And I may aay that, among the ditliculties which have been 
encountered by the local relief committees — no doubt there have 
been many of those not among the most deaerving who have been 
clamorous for tlie aid held out to them — but one of the great diffi- 
culties of local relief committees haa been to find out and relieve 
struggling and really distressed merit, and to overcome that feeling 
of independence which, even under circumstances like these, lead* 
them to shrink from being rcheved by private charity. I know 
that instauces of this kind have happened ; I know that cases have 
occurred where it has been necessary to press upon individuals, 
themselves upon the point of starvation, the necessity of accepting 
this relief ; and from this place I take the opportunity of sa^-ing, 
and I hope it will go far and wide, that in circumstances like the 
present, discreditable as habitual dependence upon parochial relief 
may be, it is no degradation, it is no censure, it is no possible cause 
of blame, that any man, however great bia industry, however high 
his character, however noble his feeling of self-dependence, should 
feel himself obliged to have recourse to that Christian charity 
which I aiu sure we are all prepared to give. Gentlemen, I might, 
fierhape, hei'e, as far as my resolution goes, close the observations 
1 have lo make to you. The resolution I have to move, indeed, is 
one which calls tor no extensive argument, and a plain statement 
of facts, such as that I have laid before you, is sufficient to obtain 
for it your unanimous assent. The resolution is — 

" ' Thiit the manufacturing districts of Lancashire and the 
adjoining counties are suffering from an extent of destitution 
happily hitherto unknown, which has been borne by the working 
classes with a patient submission and resolution entitling them to 
the wannest sympathy of their fellow-countrymea' 

" But, gentlemen, I cannot, in the first place, lose the oppor- 
aity of asking this great assembly with what feelings this Etat« 



186 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

of things should be contemplated by ua who aie in happier circuin- 
stances. Let me say with all reverence that it is a subject for 
deep national humiliation, and above all, for deep humiliation for 
this great county. We have been accustomed for years to look 
with pride and complacency upon the enormous growth of that 
manufacture which has conferred wealth upon so many thousands, 
and which has so largely increased the manufacturing papulation 
and industry of this country. We have seeu withiu the last twelve 
or fourteen years the consumption of cotton in Europe increase 
from fifty thousand to ninety thousand bales a week ; we have 
seen the weight of cotton goods exported from this countiy in the 
shape of yarn and manufactured goods amount to no less than 
nine hundred and eighty-three million pounds in a single year. We 
have seen, in spite of all opposing circumstances, this trade con- 
stantly and rapidly extending; we have seen colossal fortunes made; 
and we have as a county, perhaps, been accustomed to look down 
on those less fortunate districts whose wealth and fortunes were 
built upon a less secure foundation ; we have reckoned upon this 
great manufacture as the pride of our country, and as the best 
security i^ainst the possibility of war, in consequence of the mutnal 
interest between us and the cotton-producing districts. We have 
held that in the cotton manufacture was the pride, the strength, 
and the certainty of our future national prosperity and peaca 
I am afraid we have looked upon this trade too muoh in the 
spirit of the Assyrian monarch of old. We have said to our- 
selves — 'Is not this great Babylon that I have built for the 
bouse of my kingdom by the might of my power, and for the 
honour of my majesty f But in the hour in which the monarch 
used these words, the word came forth, ' Thy kingdom is dep&rted 
from thee!' That which was his pride became his humiliation; 
that which was our pride has become our humiliation and our 
punishment. That which was the source of our wealth — the sure 
foimdation on which we built — -has become itself the instrument of 
our humiliating poverty, which compels ns to appeal to the charity 
nf other counties. The reed upon which we leaned has gone 
through the hand that reposed on it and has pierced us to the 
heart. But, gentlemen, we have happier and more gratifying 
subjects of contemplation. I have pointed to the noble conducbi 
which must make us proud of our countrymen in the manufacturing 



LOED DERBY. 187 

dUtricta ; I have poiQted to the noble and heroic suhmiasion to 
difficulties they could never foresee and privations they never 
expected to encounter ; but, again, we have another feeling which 
I am flure will not be disappointed, which the country has nobly 
met — that this is an opportunity providentially given to those 
who are blesaed with wealth ami fortune to show their sympathy — 
their practical, active, earnest sympathy — with the sufferings of 
their poorer brethren, and, with God's blessing, used as I trust by 
Ood's blessing it will be, it may be a link to bind together more 
closely than ever the various classeR in this great community, to 
satisfy the wealthy tliat the poor have a claim, not only to their 
money but to their sympathy — to satisfy the poor also that the 
rich are not overbearing grinding tyrants, but men like themselves, 
vbo have hearts to feel for suffering, and are prompt to use the 
meaos Qod has given to them for the relief of that suifering. 
Gentlemen, a few words more, and I will not further trespass on 
jour attention. But I feet myself called on, as chairman of that 
executive committee to which my noble friend in the chair has 
paid BO just a compliment, to lay before you some answer to 
objections which have been made, and which in other counties, if 
not in this, may have a tendency to check the contributions which 
have hitherto so freely flowed in. Before doing so, allow me to say 
(and 1 can do it wilh more freedom because in the earlier stages 
of its organisation I was not a member of that committee) it is 
bare justice to them to say that there never was an occasion on 
which greater or more earnest efforts were made to secure that 
the distribution of those funds entrusted to them should be 
guarded against all possibility of abuse, and be distributed 
without the slightest reference to political or religious opinions ; 
distributed with the moat perfect impartiality, and in every 
locality, through the instrumentality of persons in whom the 
neighbourhood might repose entire confidence. Such has been 
our endeavour, and I think to a great extent we have been suc- 
cessfid- 1 may say that although the central executive committee 
is composed of men of most discordant opinions in politics and 
rehgioo, nothing for a single moment has interfered with the 
harmony — I had almost said with the unanimity — of our proceed- 
ings. There has been nothing to produce any painful feelings 
>ng lis, nor any desire on the part of the representatives of 



^aoi 



^ 



8S FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

diitureot districta to obtain aa undue share for the districts they 
represented trora the common fund. But there are three pointa 
ou which objection lias been taken tu the courtte we have adopted. 
One has been that the relief we have given has not been ^ven 
with a sufficiently-liberal hand ; the next — and I think I ahdU 
show you that these two are inconaistent, the one answering the 
other — is that there has not been a sufficient pressure on tJie local 
rates ; and the third is, tha,t Lancashire has not hitherto done its 
duty with reference to the subscriptions from other parts of the 
countiy. Allow me a few words on each of these aubjecta Firat, 
tlie amount to which we have endeavoured to raise our subscrip- 
tions has been to the extent of from two shillings to two sliiiliAgs 
Hud sixpence weekly per head ; in this late cold weather an addi- 
tional sixpence has been provided, mainly for coal and clothing. 
Our endeavour has been to raise the total income of e&ch individu^ 
to at least two shillings or two sliillings and sixpence a week. Now, 
I am told this is a very inadequate amount, and no doubt it is oil 
amount very fai below that which many of the recipients were in the 
habit of obtaining. But in the first place I think there is some 
misapprehension when we apeak of the sum of two shillings a week. 
If anybody supposes that two shillings a week is the maximmn to 

■ each individual he will be greatly mistaken. Two shillings a head 
per week is the sum we endeavoured to arrive at as the average 
receipt of every man, woman, and child i-eceiving assistance ; con- 
sequently a man and his wife with a family of three or four small 
children would receive not two shillings, but ten or twelve shilliogB 
from the fund — an amount not far short of that which in proa- 

Iperous times an honest and industrious labourer in other parts of 
tlie country would obtain for the maintenance of his family. I am 
not in the least afraid that if we had liieil tlie amount at four 
shillings or five shillings per liead, such is the libei-ality of the 
country, we should not have had sufficient means of doing bo. 
But were we justified in doing that ? If we had raised their income 
beyond that of the labouring man in ordinary times, we should 
have gone far to destroy the most valuable feeling of the manu- 
facturing population — namely, that of honest self-reliance, and we 
should have done our best, to a great extent, to demoralise a 
ifti^ portion of the population, and induce them to piefer the 
wages of charitable relief to the return of honest industry. But 






LOUD DERBY. 18!» 

then we are tnlJ that, thti nites are not sufficiently high in the 
distressed difltricls, and that we ought to raise tliem before they 
come on the fund. In the first place, we have no power ia compel 
the guardians to raise the rotes lieyond that which they think siif- 
Sciei^t lor the maintenance of those to be relieved, and, naturally 
considering themselves the trustees of the rateijayers, they are 
uiiwiiliiig, and, indeed, ought not to rais? the amount beyond that 
which is called for by absolute necessity. But suppose we had 
raised the relief from our committee very far beyond the amount 
thought sufficient by the guardians, what would have been the 
inevitable result ? Why, that the rates which it is desired to 
chai^ more heavily would have been relieved, because persons 
would have taken themselves ot9 the poor-rates. an<l placed them- 
selves on the charitable committee, and therefore the very object 
these objectors have in view in calling for an increase of our dona- 
tions would have been defeated by their own measure. I must 
say, however, honestly speaking all I feel, that, with regard to the 
amount of rates, there are some districts which have applied to us 
for assistance which I think have not sufficient pressure on their 
rates. Where I find, for example, that the total assessment on the 
nott ratable value does not exceed ninepence or toupenoe in the 
pound, I really thiuk such distncts ought to be called upon to 
iocrtiase their rates before applying for extraneous help. But we 
have ui^ed as far as we could urge — we have no power to command 
the guardians to be more liberal in the rate of relief, and to that 
extent to riuse the rates in their districts. And now a word on 
the subject of raising rates, because I have received many letters 
in which it has been said that the rates are nothing — 'they are 
only three shillings or four shillings in the pound, while we in the 
agricultural districts are used to sis shillings in the pound. We 
consider that no extraordinary rate, and it is monstrous,' they say. 
' that the accumulated wealth of years in the county of Lancashire 
ihould not more largely contribute to the relief of its own distress,' 
I will not enter into an argument as to how far the larger amount 

r wages in the manufacturing districts may balance the smaller 
lount of wages and the larger amount of poor-rates in the agri- 

Blttiral districts. I don't wish to enter into any comparison ; I 
kftve seen many comparisons of this kind made, but they were full 

t fiiUacieB ttoax one end to the other. I will not waste your tUB& 



1 



TACTS OF THE COTTON FAMISE. 




by discussing them ; but I ask you to consider the efifect of a sud- 
den rise of raten as a charge upon the accumulated wealth of a 
distnct It ia not the actual amount of the rates, but it is the 
sudden and rapid increase of the usual rate of the ratea that 
presses most heavily on the ratepayers. In the long run the rates, 
must fall on real property, because all bargains between owner 
and occupier are made with reference to the amount of rat«B to 
be paid, and in all calculations between them that is an element 
which enters into the first agreement. But when the rate is sud- 
denly increased from one shilling to four shillings, it does not iaH. 
OD the accumulated wealth or on the real property, but it falls on 
the occupier, the ratepayer — men the great bulk of whom are at 
the present moment themselves struggling upon the verge of pau- 
perism. Tlierefore, if in those districts it should appear to persons, 
accustomed to agricultural districts that the amount of our ratefl 
was very small, I would say to them that any attempt to increase 
those rates would only increase the pauperism, diminiab the num- 
ber of solvent ratepayers, and greatly aggravate the distress. In 
some of the districts I think the amount of the rates quite suffi- 
cient to satisfy the most ardent advocate of high rates. For 
example, in the town of Ashton they have raised in the course of 
the year one rate of one shilling and sixpence, another of one 
shilling and sixpence, and a third of four shillings and sixpence^ 
which it is hoped will carry them over the year. They have also, 
in addition to these rates, drawn largely on previous balances, and 
I am afraid have largely added to their debt, The total of what 
has been or will be expended, with a prospect of even a great 
increase, in that borough exceeds eleven shiUings and elevenpence 
in the poimd for the relief of the poor alone. And, gentlemen, 
this rate of four shillings and sixpence about to be levied, which 
ought to yield about ^CSS.OOO, it ia calculated will not yield ;E24,000. 
In Stockport the rate is even higher, being twelve shillings or more 
per pound, and there it is calculated that at the next levy the 
defalcations will he at least forty per cent, according to the calcu- , 
lation of the poor-law commissioner himself. To talk, then, of 
raising rates in such districts as these would be absolute insanity; 
and even in di-^tricts leas heavily rated any sudden attempt consi- 
derably to increase the rate would have the effect of pauperising 
those who are now solvent, and to augment rather than dimimsh 



LORD dehby. 191 

lie distress of the district The last point on which I would mako 
an observation relates to the objection which has been taken ti> 
our proceedinga, on tbe ground that Lancihshire has not done its 
duty in this distress, and that consequently other parts of the 
country have been unduly called on to contribute to that which I 
don't deny properly and primarily belongs to Lancashire. Gentle- 
men, it is very hard to aaceirtain with any certainty what has been 
done by Lancashire, because, in the first place, the amount of local 
subscriptions and the amount of public contributions by them- 
selves give no fair indication of that which really has been done 
by public or private charity. I don't mean to say that there are 
not individuals who have grossly neglected their duty in Lanca- 
shire. On the other hand, we know there are many, though I am 
not about to name thera, who have acted with the moet princely 
munificence, liberality, and generous feeling, involving an amount 
of sacrifice of which no persons out of this county can possibly 
have the slightest conception. I am not saying there are not 
instances of niggard feeling, though I am not about to name them, 
which really it was hardly possible to believe could exist. Will 
you forgive me if I trespass for a few moments by reading two or 
three extracts from confidential reporta made to us every week 
from tho different districts by a gentleman whose services were 
placed at our disposal by the government ! These reports being, 
as I have said, confidential, I will not mention the names of the 
persons, firms, or localities alludeAto, though in some instances 
they may be guessed at This report was made to us on the 25th 
of November, and I will quote some of the remarks made in it 
The writer observes — ' It must not be inferred when such remarks 
are absent from -the reports that nothing is done. I have great 
difficulty sometimes in overcoming the feeling that my questions 
on those points are a meddlesome interference in private matters.' 
Bearing that remark in mind, I say here are instances which I am 
sure reflect as much credit on the individualsason the interest they 
represent and. the county to which they belong. I am sure I shall 
be excused for trespassing on your patience by reading a few 
examples. He says, under No. 1, — ' Nearly three thousand opera- 
tives out of tbe whole, most of them the hands of Messrs. 

and . Mr. , at his own cost, employs five hundred and 

fty-five girls in sewing five days a week, paying them eightpenc© 



IDS FACTS OF THE COTTOS FAMINE. 

a day; sends seventy-six youtlis from thirteen to fifteen yean 
old, and three hundred and thirty-two adults above fifteen, five 
days a week to school, paying them from fourpence to eightpence 
per day, according to age. He also pays the school pence of 

all the children. Mr. has hitherto paid his people two day^ 

va^s a week, but be is now prepaiing to adopt a scheme like 

Mr. to a great extent I would add that, in addition to 

wages. Mr. gives bread, soup, socka, and clogs. 2. Mr. 

has at his own expense caused fifty to sixty dinners to be provided' 
for sick persons every day. These consist of roast beef or mutton, 
soup, beef tea, rice puddings, wine, and porter, as ortlered ; and the 
forty visitors distribute oniers as they find it necessary. Ostensibly' 

all is done in the name of the committee ; but Mr. p^ys all' 

the cost. An admirable soup kitchen is Iwing fitted up, where tli9 
poor man may purchase a good hot meal for one penny, and eitlier' 

carry it away or con.wme it on the premises. 3. Messrs. are" 

giving to their hands three days" wages {about i;500 a week). MessiB. 

and are giving their one hundred and twenty bands, ami' 

Messrs. their two hunilred and thirty hands, two days' wages a' 

week. I may mention that Messrs. are providing for all tbeiroDtf 

thousand seven hundred hands. 4. A great deal of private charitj'l 
exists, one firm having spent ^1,400 in money, exclusive of weekly' 

doles of bread. 5. Messrs. are providing all their old hands witbi 

sufficient clothing and bedding to supply every want, so that their* 
subscription of J150 is merely nominal C. The ladies of the villa^' 
visit and relieve privately with money, food, or clothing, or all, if 
needed urgently. In a few cases distraint has been threatened, but 
generally the poor are living rent free. 7. Payment of rent is 
almost unknown. The agent for several landlords assures me he 
could not from his receipts pay the property-tax, but no digtralDtA' 
are made. 8. The bulk of the rents are not collected, and diatrg^ta' 
are unknown. 9. The millowners are chiefly cottage owners, and* 
are asking for no rents.' That leads me to call your attention 
the fact that, in addition to the sacrifices they are making, the mill- 
owners aie therasetvcfi to a large extent the owners of cottE^es, and' 
I believe, without exceptioii, they are at the present momenf 
receiving no rent, thereby losing ji large amount of income theji 
had a right to count upon. 1 know one case which is curious 
showing how great is the diiBculty of ascertaining what is reallyi 



LORD DERBY. 193 

done. It is required in the executive committee that every com- 
mittee should send in an account of the local subscriptions. We 
received an applicationfrom a small district where there was one mill, 
occupied bj some young men who had just entered into the busi- 
ness. We returned a refusal, inasmuch as there was no local sub- 
scription ; but when we came to inquire we found that from la&t 
February, when the mill closed, these young men had maintained 
the whole of their hands, that they paid one-third of the rates of 
the whole district, and that they were at that moment suffering a 
yearly loss of £300 in the rent of cottages for which they were not 
drawing a single halfpenny. That was a case in which we thought 
it right in the first instance to withhold any assistance, because there 
appeared to be no local subscription, and it shows how persons at 
a distance may be deceived by the want apparently of any local 
subscription. But I will throw out of consideration the whole of 
those amounts — the whole of this unparalleled munificence on the 
part of many manufacturers which never appears in any account 
whatever — I will throw out everything done in private and unos- 
tentatious charity, the supplies of bedding, clothing, food, necessaries 
of every description which do not appear as public subscriptions, 
and will appeal to public subscriptions alone ; and I will appeal to 
an authority which cannot, I think, be disputed — the authority of 
the commissioner, Mr. Famall himself, whose services the govern- 
ment kindly placed at our disposal, and of whose activity, industry 
and readiness to assist us it is difficult to speak in too high terms 
of praise. A better authority could not be quoted on the subject 
of the comparative support given in aid of this distress in Lanca- 
shire and other districts. I find that, excluding altogether the sub- 
scriptions in the lord mayor's Mansion House list — of which we 
know the general amoimt, but not the sources from which it is 
derived, or how it is expended — ^but excluding it from consideration, 
and dealing only with the funds which have been given or pro- 
mised to be administered through the central executive committee, 
I find that, including some of the subscriptions which we know are 
coming in this day, the total amount which has been contributed 
is about £540,000. Of that amount we received — and it is a most 
gratifying fact — £40,000 from the colonies ; we received from the 
rest of the United Kingdom £100,000 ; and from the county of 
Lancaster itself, in round numbers, £400,000 out of £540,000. 

o 



194 TACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

Now, I hope that these figures, upon the estimate and authority of 
the government poor-law commissioner, will be sufficient, at all 
events, to do away with the imputation that Lancashire, at this 
crisis, is not doing its duty. But if Lancashire has been doing its 
duty — if it is doing its duty — that is no rea.<ton why Lancashire 
should relax its efforts ; and of that I trust the result of this day's 
proceedings will afford a sufficient testimony. We are not yet at 
the height of the distress. It is estimated that at the present 
moment there are three hundred and fifty-five thousand persona 
engaged in the different mauufactoriea Of these forty thousand 
only are iu full work ; one hundred and thirty-five thousand are at 
short work, and one hundred and eighty thousand are out of work 
altogether. In the course of the nest sis weeks this number ia 
likely to be greatly increased ; and the loss of wages is not less 
than £137,000 a week. This, I say then, is a state of things that 
calls for the most active exertions of all classes of the community, 
who, I am happy to say, have responded to the call which has been 
made upon them most nobly, from the Queen down to the lowest 
individual in the community. At the commencement of the dis- 
tress the Queen, with her usual munificence, sent us a donation of 
£2,000. The first act of His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, 
upon attaining his majority, was to write from Rome and to request 
that his name should be put down for £1,000. And to go to 
the other end of the scale, I received two days ago, from Lord 
Shaftesbury, a donation of £1 ,200 from some thousands of working 
men, readers of a particular periodical which he mentioned, the 
British WwlcTnan. To that sura Lord Shaftesbury stated many 
thousands of persons had subscribed, and it embraced contri- 
butions even from the brigade of shoe-black boys. On the part 
of all classes there has been the greatest liberality displayed ; 
and I should be unjust to the working men, I should bo 
unjust to the poor in every district, if I did not say that in 
proportion to their means they have contributed more than their 
share. In no case hardly which has come to my knowledge haa 
there been any grudging, and in many cases I know that pocff 
persons have contributed more than common prudence would hava 
dictated. These observations have run to a greater extent than I 
had intended ; but I thought it desirable that the whole case, 
far as possible, should be brought before you, and I have only noif 



H THE BEIDGEWATER HOUSE PRINCIPLE. 195 

eamestlj to request that you will this day do your part towards 
the furtherance of the good work, I have no apprehension, if the 
distress should not last over five or six months more, that the 
spontaneous eSbrtiS of individuals and public bodies, and contri- 
butions received in every part of the countiy. vrill fall short of 
that which ia needed for enabling the population to tide over this 
deep distress ; and I earnestly hope that if it he necessary to apply 
to parliament, as a last resource, the representatives of the country 
will not grudge their aid; yet I do fervently hope and believe that 
with the assistance of the machinery of that bill passed in parlia- 
ment kst session (the Rate in Aid Act), which will come into opera- 
tion shortly after Christmas, but could not possibly be brought into 
operation sooner, I do fervently hope and believe that this great 
manufacturing district will be spared the further humiliation of 
coming before parliament, which ought to be the last resource, as a 
claimant, a suppliant for the bounty of the nation at large. I don't 
apprehend that there will be a single dissentient voice raised 
against the resolution which I have now the honour to move." 

An inspection of the list of subscriptions banded in at this 
meeting, showed that about £70,UU0 had been added thereby to 
F the relief fund. 

I The Bridgewatcr House committee, in handing over their funds 
*tO the central executive for distribution, laid down the principle 
that they should be applied only to such operatives as were not in 
receipt of relief from boards of guardians — thus opposing directly 
the doctrine of The Times and the Rev. Mr. Kingaley. If a pre- 
judice be ever justifiable, sm-ely that which inculcates a wholesome 
fear of a board of guardians, and makes a man hate the workhouse 
(familiarly called, in Lancashire, "th" Bastile"), must take high 
rank ; for it keeps up the feeUng of self-reliance under many diffi- 
culties, and often stimulates exertion when rest or the expectancy of 
help from without would be ruin. And there is no doubt that if 
the central committee had been first in the field, and hod deter- 
mined that, come what would, no well-behaved cotton operative 
who had been thrown out of work by the cotton famine should be 
allowed to go to a board of guardians for relief, they would have 
engaged in a noble but also in a most difficult task ; for, clear and 
well-defined as the term cotton operative appears to be, a httle 
■flection will show that the line between cotton and other operatives 



FACTS OF THE COTTOS PAMraE. 

is practically very difficult to draw. Each cotton mill requires 
"mechanics" (machiniBta) and joiners for the repairs which are 
daily needed. Are these cotton operatives ? Engineers, carters 
and labourers, clerks and warehousemen are also reiiiiired. Are 
these cotton operatives J Tlie makers of machinery, and the brick- 
layers, and other operatives in the building trades, who would, ' 
under ordinary circumstances, be in full work, preparing and fitting 
new mills for the natural increase of trade, were also idle. Were all 
these to be sent to the boards of guardians, whilst the persons who 
directly handled the cotton fibre were kept away ? Or should the 
whole of the persons whose livings were swept away by the Ameri- 
can war be maiutfuned by the relief committees, leaving to the poor- 
law guardians simply the normal amount of pauperism to deal with I 
This latter would probably liave been the_wiaer course, if it could 
have been thought out and planned beforehand, and funds sufficient 
for the purpose secured ; but where wore such funds to come from J 
The workers amongst half a million people, used to average wages 
of ten shillings each per week, were either already or would probably 
soon be out of employ. How could they be kept t Evidently funds 
sufficient could not be calculated upon, and some modification of the 
Bridgewater House idea was therefore necessary. The normal pau- 
perism of the cotton districts is not quite two per cent, and the average 
poor-rate ranges from about one shilling to one shilluig and sixpence' 
in the pound per annum. If this state of things was to be main- 
tained whilst subscriptions were received from places wliere the ave- 
rage rate waa from three shillings to five shillings in the pound, what 
reply could be made to such arguments as those of the Eev, 
Charles Kingsley, who pleaded that the subscriptions raised would 
go simply in abatement of poor-rates I The law provides a resource 
for the indigent poor, and makes houses and lantl. resjwnsible to 
the last pemiy of their value for the maintenance of the helpli 
why should not the poor of every locaHty be kept by the local pi 
perty ? The only possible reply to such reasoning is the value 
the anti-pauper prejudice already alluded to, and the wide-spi 
ruin which excessive i-ates would have brought upon shopkeej: 
cottage owners, and others, whose mainstay was already gone in 
loss of their customers and the indigence of their tenants. 

It was argued in the newspapers that property in Lancashu 
was not doing Its duty, and that the only way to reach it was 



HIGH POOR HATES. 197 

Tt^lier rates. But those who so argued, did not know that in the 
most diat.ressed diatricta cotton mills bear a large proportion of the 
assessment, and that one half of these were stopped, and yet cost 
heavy sums to maintain them in idleness, whilst their occupiers had 
also to pay poor-rates as if they were in full work. And it is only real 
property which is assessed to the poor, whilst a great proportion of the 
wealth of our richest men consists of personal property, in the form of 
goods at home, on the sea, or in foreign lands, together with balances 
in iheir ledgers due from various places. Thus a man who is the 
owner of property to the extent of a million sterling may rent a ware- 
house at £100 per annum, and he assessed to the poor of the distressed 
district at five-sixths of that amount ; his residence being situate 
beyond the distressed boundary, and the bulk of liis property entirely 
beyond the reach of the assessors. So that a rate which would crush 
the poor shopkeeper and cottage owner would scarcely bo felt by the 
rich merchant, or the large stock or fund holder. Level taxes cannot 
reach the rich; and if duty is to be measured by pecuniary posses- 
sions, then there is no course left but voluntary organisations and 
the power of public opinion to make the owners of property feel 
that to whom much is given from them much also is required. But 
even if there had been no other difficulty, the fact that various local 
committt^a were already in existence, and had adopted modes of 
action which could not be at once given up without much difficulty 
and some danger, would have rendered the suggestion from Bridge- 
water House impracticable. In Manchesteralone there were two or 
three committees at woi-k collecting and distributing funds, and 
discussion in the central committee brought about a resolution to 
affiliate these to the District Provident Society, which had already 
an organisation for the investigation and relief of cases of distress, 
and which Iiad for years past also stimulated provident habits, by 
taking chaige of the smallest savings of the poor. But this 
society had adopted as a practice, whether or not enforced by rule, 
to relieve, except in rare instances, only sudi as had already been 
accepted by the boards of guardians. And in the discussion of the 
Bridgewater House proposition, one of the committee of this society, 
replying to the arguments for keeping people away from the parish, 
said that the best cases of the provident society were parish cases. 
They might well be so under the existence of such a practical rule 
I that above alluded to, which, had it been made known at the 



198 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

time, would possibly have given another turn to the dtscnmoil^ 
aod have prevented the iiamedlate reconsideration of the reaohi- 
tion of the Bridgewater House committee. Under existing <nieaia* 
fltances, the conclusion arrived at was, that each local committee 
must use its own discretion as to the persons to be sent to the guar- 
dians, and those to be kept away, but subject from time to time to 
instructions from the central executive. Tlie District Provident 
Society was adopted as the distribution committee for the townships 
of Manchester and Hulme, and other existing committees in the 
borough of Manchester were made branches of that socie^ and 
subjected to its control, whilst Salford had an independent local com- 
mittee. In dealing with the outlying towns, the central executive 
decided that in order to secure uniformity of action they would 
recognise only one committee in each place ; so that where more 
than one had been already formed it was necessary either for them 
to unite, or to make a representative committee of one, whilst the 
others either dissolved or became sub-committees of the priadpai 
existing committee. 

In Ashton-under-Lyne, where religious and political feeling 
ran high, there were already two committees; the manor com- 
mittee and the borough committee. The most active man in 
the first waa the Rev. Mr. Williams, a Church clergyman ; 
whilst the second committee, of which Mr. Hugh Mason was the 
most energetic member, excluded clergymen and dissenting 
ministers. The first, or manor committee, had obtained a grant 
from the Mansion House fund, which constituted its main pecuruaij' 
strength ; whilst the members of the borough committee had sub- 
scribed liberally amongst themselves, and thus established a targ« 
fund. The central executive had resolved that, so far as possibly 
each local committee should contain representatives of every reli- 
gious sect and every political party ; and they sent over a deputa- 
tion to try to reconcile the two committees at Ashton, and to ireU 
^em into one. But in this effort they signally failed ; and tieing 
obliged to choose which they would recognise, they adopted the 
borough committee, because it fairly represented the wealth of 
the district, had collected the largest fimds in the locality, 
also consented to modify its own constitution, so as mote effec- 
tually to represent all sects and parties. 

As the constitution of the central executive rendered it 



4 



VABI0U3 HATES OF BELIEF. 139 

ude sonse representative of localities, one of ita earliest duties 
was to group the existing committees round certain central points, 
so that, when the boundaries had been drawn, each member of the 
ceatroJ executive might represent the wants of his own locality. 
Thus, Mr. Piatt, M.P., represented not the township of Oldham alone, 
but also the whole of the committees existing in the poor-law union 
of Oldham, which comprised committees at Chadderton, Crompton, 
HolUnwood, Middleton, Royton, Thuruham, and Tonge. The wants 
and wishes of these various sub-districts were made known to the 
Oldham committee, and presented on a schedule to the central 
executive by Mr. Piatt, and money was voted in certain proportions, 
according to the necessity of each case, over the whole district. 

The principles by which the executive should regulate its 
distribution of funds raised some nice points for discussion. It 
was requisite to secure active exertion in every quarter to meet 
the emergeneie? of the crisis ; and it was a great object so to distri- 
bute funds as to stimulate, rather than supersede, the necessity 
for a thorough canvass in every locality. It was therefijre proposed 
that before a local committee should be recognised a subscription 
in the locality must have been raised, and that the sums voted by 
the executive from time to time should have regard to the amount 
of funds subscribed, and to the presumed wealth of the district It 
was objected that this principle might leave the most needy places 
without aid, either in consequence of their poverty, or of the nig- 
gardliness of the richer inbabitaots; but the importance of a strong 
moral spur to duty was felt to be so great that the principle was 
ultimately adopted, with the understanding that it was not like the 
laws of the Medes and Persians, to be inflexibly carried out in every 
instance. Next came the question of the scale of relief to be allowed. 
The cotton operatives were accustomed to good wages and good 
living, and their expenditure for rent and other fixed charges was in 
accordance therewith. The amounts ordinarily allowed by boards 
of guardians would make payment of rent impossible, if health 
was to be maintained ; whilst too liberal an allowance would lessen 
the inclination to seek for independent work, and would thus pro- 
duce the permanentdemoratisation which it was the grand object of 
the committee to prevent The central executive ultimately adopted 
& scale which would average about two shillings per head per week, 
giving rather more to small and rather less to large families. But 





FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 



it was a matter of considerable difficultj to assimilate the rates 
already in use by existing local committees, which varied from two 
shillings to four shillings and sixpence for a single man, and tna 
seven shillings and sixpence to seventeen shillings and sixpence foi 
a man and wife with five children ; and this assimilation was not 
eotirely effected until the month of October, 1863, when, in s 
manual issued as a guide to the various committees, the execnti?e 
submitted the following three specimen scales, but allowing also in 
winter a supply of fuel and clothing in addition : — 




Single person 
Man and irira 
Mnn, wife. Mud 1 child 
Uaa, (rile, and 2 childreD 
Mm, wife, and 3 children 
M«n, wife, and 4 children 
Mat], wife, and 5 children 
Man, wife, and G children 

It was assumed, and probably with good reason, that nicb A> 
scale, varying from one-fourth to one-third of ordinary yra^jea,: 
would not materially lessen the inclination for any kind of work 
for wages, whenever such work was to be had, especially as relief 
was coupled with what the executive called " disciplinary work," 
which consisted either pf out-door labour, or of elementary instruc- 
tion in schools for men and boys, and instruction in sewing-schoola for 
women and girls. The importance of these arrangements cannc4 
well be over-rated, for an economic and fair system of relief witl 
out discipline would have been utterly impossible. 
under a board of guardians is required from time to time to visit 
the recipients of out-door relief, and if any are reported on two ox 
three successive visits ss absent from home, it is assumed that they 
are deriving income from some source, and they are either struck- 
off the list, or are required to work at au occupation provided by the 
guardians. If such an inspection be constantly necessary with the 
forty or fifty thousand ordinary recipients of out-door relief, it ia 
certain that it would not l>e leas so with some thousands out of tha 
half million who were dependent during the cotton famine upoa 
guardians and relief committees; and if there be any truth ii 
the adage that " one black sheep spoils the flock," a mischievous 
example of laxity, if once allowed, would soon have become veigj 



^boftrds 
^Bm eafi 
^^ Po. 

school 
of out 

■hlief 



ORIGIN OF ADULT SCeOOLS. 201 

infectioua But what disciplinary lalwur could be provided, which 
would answer the purpose of mustering the men and women under 
BuperinteDdence, and be useful without being felt to be degrading I 
Inherently all useful labour is honourable, and persons in seaport 
towns do manage to earn a decent livelihood by tearing up worn-out 
ropes, so that the hempen fibres may be respun. But this employ- 
ment, when introduced into a Rutlandshire gaol, became at once a 
maxk of degradation, and its value as a pauper occupation may be 
^dged by the fact that the earnings of "oakum" pickers under 
rds of guardians do not average twopence per head per week. It 
8 easy enough to provide for the children ; a recent alteration of 
> Poor-law Amendment Act allows guardians either to establish 
schools or to pay for the teaching of the children of the recipients 
of out-door relief at schools chosen by the parents ; and the guar- 
ins of Manchester had before the occurrence of the cotton famine, 
D cases where children were neglected, rec|uired as a condition of 
dief that they should be sent to school. But for the men it was im- 
possible to find sufficient out^door labour.and the objection to oakum 
picking and stone breaking was ao great, and the pecuniary results 
were so contemptible, and the system was consequently so deraora- 
^^^mng, that some substitute was in the highest degree desirable 
^^biring an interview between the guardians of Manchester and a 
^^wputation of operatives on the subject of this "labour test," an intel- 
^H[p!nt member of the deputation named Evans, in replyto a member 
^^■F the board, who asked how they were to prevent imposition with- 
^R^fft a test, and if those in operation were objectionable what they 
could substitute, asked, " Why not adopt an educational test T 
This simple question excited some thought at the board, and being 
anxious to treat as kindly as possible these victims of a social 
convulsion, the guaniians concluded to try the effect of mental im- 
provement instead of depressing physical labour, Mr. C. H. Rickards, 
the chairman of the board, and Mr, Daniel Clarke went heartily 
into the project, and originated the establishment of elementary 
schools for men and youths ; tl]e plan of which, being approved 
and adopted by the central executive, soon spread tliroughout the 
cotton district 

In these schools might sometimes be seen the extraordinary 
Bpectacle of youths with their fathers and grandfathers, all learning 
~ p read and write iu the same class. Men who had pa.ssed through 



202 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAXIXE. 

the snows of sixty winters, and whose means of gathering knowledge 
had hitherto been limited to the observation of occurrences passing 
under their own eyes or appealing to their own ears, learned now 
to read the thoughts of other men and to write their own reflec- 
tions thereon, and rejoiced in the new world of wisdom thus 
opened out to them ere they were called away from all earthly 
pleasures and troubles. 

In the winter of 1862-3 there were at one time no less Uian 
forty-eight thousand men and youths in attendance at these 
schools, and great efforts were put forth to render them in- 
teresting as well as useful Competent masters were provided, 
at wages varying from fifteen shillings to thirty shillings per 
week, tosrether with assistants selected firom the most intel- 
ligent pupils, in the ratio of one assistant to fifteen scholar^ 
who were also paid a weekly sum in addition to their relief allow- 
ance. Conditional grants were also made every three months in 
aid of the salaries of the head-masters, at the rate of £20 for eveiy 
one hundred and fifty scholars in regular attendance. The 
attendance required in order to secure relief was only in the 
day time, but many of the schools were also open in the evenings 
for instruction and recreation : and in Manchester and its vicinity 
a scheme of lectures and concerts was arranged, in which, very 
much to their credit, the professors at Owens College took an active 
share. By these means the minds of the adult pupils were kept 
c-oc-ipieJ with disquisitions on popular science or with social topics; 
or T'.ey wore recreated with music and recitations, and thus kept 
tr.:;i brvxv.in^ o\\:r their own misronunes. The rooms occupied 
^*lrc ;:i ir.aiiv cases those of old cotton mills, the heavy unceiled 
r.'ittvTs ct" c.u*h :?,vr Ivir.i: su-op.Tt^.\i by iron columns, exposing 
tV.o ::v.;Ih r> .ilwo. 1:: so:::e cases water-ci:»lours and brushes were 
vrA ,:rv\: bv :ho oivrstivcs. At-d in a few davs the rooms would be 
c.,\;v a: up ,;:;d .vl. v.r^v. :v. iv*v.cls with ornamental devices until thev 
^v:\ ;v:;.i;:v.d ,r.:.:.\<: r.t fcr lull rcoius ; and the effects produced 
.:;\v. ::\- :-..v.-.ds .:':/.,' iv\ vl;* I v those et:>ts were most exhilaratinff 
;i s', a; .,..!.:. S:r J .^v.u's T K ,i v -Shtit tie wonh. the vice-chairman 
' .vv.:-,.;l c\iv..:.v,^ u-.,^ w..^ tl.c r.r^t secretar\' to the Com- 
• *. . .V .- vVuv.c. ,- VM.:.v,v.,- ;iv.d to whom the cause of eleraen- 
, , , V. '.V. K:;;;l/,:t.l :> vr.lv.l'.y tr.ore indebted than to any 
. \y:vsvA: h.s ^»Ar::; /.yprc\:»l of the scheme ; and very 



N. 



THE AUSTRALIAN FUND. 203 

opp orto nely there arrived from Australia a large fund consigned 
to the care of Sir D. Cooper and Mr. Edward Hamiltoi]^ and which 
they in a letter to the committee desired to devote in some special 
manner. Sir James immediately proposed, and the consignees of 
the fund agreed, that to our Axistralian brethren should be given 
the honour and privilege of providing for the mental occupation 
and improvement of the operatives, so as to fit them for the more 
complete performance of their social duties whenever physical 
labour could be again provided for them. Sir James stated to 
the central executive, that he was authorised by Sir Daniel Cooper 
and Mr. Hamilton to inform them that the whole of the New 
South Wales fund was to be specially appropriated to schools for 
youth, sewing classes for females, and the payment of the school 
pence of children. This fund would probably exceed ^15,000 ; but, 
reckoning on the basis of that sum only, he (Sir James) was de- 
sirous to submit for the consideration of the committee a scale 
of distribution which, if adopted, it might be desirable to make 
known for the guidance of local committees in their administra- 
tion. If, as was too probable, two hundred and fifty thousand 
factory operatives were out of work at Christmas, and one-half of 
them were dependent on the relief committees for support, they 
would consist of the following classes : — Five-tenths of that half, 
or sixty-two thousand five hundred, would be women ; about three- 
tenths, or thirty-seven thousand five hundred, boys and girls ; and 
about two-tenths, or twenty-five thousand, men and youths. If 
thirty-five thousand females attended the sewing classes, twenty- 
seven thousand five hundred would be left at home to attend to 
the families of one hundred and twenty-five thousand factory 
workmen. If thirty-five thousand females were divided into two 
hundred and thirty classes of about one hundred and fifty each 
on the average, the superintendents would require stipends of 
£18. 15a for six months, or fifteen shillings per week, making a total 
of £4,312. Twenty-four weeks' schooling for an average attendance 
of thirty thousand boys and girls, at twopence per week, would cause 
an outlay of £6,000, and £1,000 might be granted towards the 
cost of the schooling of younger children of families in receipt of 
relief The stipends of masters of one hundred schools, containing 
fifteen thousand youths, would, at thirty shillings per week, amount 
in six months to £3,730. 1 Os. These schools would also each require 



204 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 



eight asaiatants, selected from well-qualified youths out of work, 
and remunerated by an extra rate of relief. The superintendence 
of the work of thirty-five thousand women, the schooling of thirty 
thousand boys and girls and of fifteen thousand youths, might 
thus be provided for £14,062, and £1,000 might be applied towaidi 
the school pence of the children who were too young to work. The 
anticipated further remittances from New South Wales would pro- 
vide, at least partially, for any increase of these forms of dcpendenoe 
beyond these limits during six months. 

It was then resolved, " That with due regard to the local circum- 
stances, and to the information to be given in the schedule appended 
to the circular issued by this committee, applications for aid from the 
New South Wales fund be regulated on the basis of this e 
on the understanding that any grant for schools for youth or for 
sewing classes ia also applicable to the hiring of rooms and inci- 
dental expenses, and in sewing classes for the purchase of material 
to be made into clothes and distributed as relief; that the grants 
from this committee will be made in support of any school or 
sewing class for three months, so as to enable the local committee! 
to engage teachers and superintendents fur that period ; and that 
applications may he received prior to the expiration of that tim% 
to enable them to renew the engagements." 

By these means the scheme was perfected and the Btaff of 
teachers and assistants oiganisod, and the daily tasks carried on until 
the gradual increase of emplo}-ment in mills, and on public work^ 
the migration to other counties, and the emigration to America, 
Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.had drained the schools of their 
pupils, and enabled the committee to relinquish this portion d 
their duties ; but leaving them the consolation that tens of thou- 
sand.s of men and women had there learned valuable life lesson^ 
which would be carried to every quarter of the civilised world, anij 
make of the recipients better husbands, better wives, better parent^ 
and better members of society. Men who were earning their own 
livings before popular education began, have in these schools, 
tored the rudiments of knowledge ; men who were neglected by tb&i 
ignorant parents have, in some measure, repaired the evil ; mei 
who wasted their opportunities at school, and bitterly repented 
their folly as soon as hard-working life l>egan, have had anothei 
chance ; whilst the children of drunken or vicious parents, who. 



MISUNDERSTANDINa IN THE COLOXY. 205 

ordinary times, would have got only the education of the streets, 
have been regularly subjected to good tuition. Tone of thousands of 
girls — who were sent to factory labour as soon as they had passed the 
l^al age of thirteen years, and who had never been accuBtomed to any 
domestic occupation ; who could not darn a stock iug, make a pinafore, 
or even properly cook a potato — ^have also learned to read, and write, 
and sew, and cook ; have listened to, and been instructed for months 
by, wealthy and refined ladies — the result being a great improve- 
ment ia manners, and the acquirement of knowledge and skill in 
various domestic occupations upon which it would be difficult to 
Bet too high a value. The number ia attendance on the sewing 
classes in March, 1863, exceeded forty-one thousand. 

It is a great pity that the honour intended for Australia was not 
at once as highly appreciated in the colony as at home. The Austra- 
lians have apparently shot ahead of the old country in the matter 
of education ; they love fair piay, and, not being encumbered with 
our traditions, our prejudices, or our religious establishmente, they 
dislike the denominational system (the only one at present possible 
in this conntry); and knowing that Sir James Kay-Shuttleworth 
had been the principal instrument in its establishment here, they 
feared the diversion of a fund, sent to find bread for the people, to 
the purposes of religious proselytiam. Tliis misunderstanding 
could scarcely have arisen if the whulo ]>lnn, as sketched in the 
minutes submitted by Sir James to the cuii^igneee of the fund, had 
been forwarded to the colony ; much loss could it have arisen if 
they had known that the man whom they so fiercely denounced 
was, at the very time, actively engaged in removing the denomina- 
tional character from the very few sewing schools, which, as origi- 
nally organised, were open to the charge. But the feeling in 
Australia against the appropriation was so strong that, when the 
mail arrived, bringing accounts of the meetings held in the colony, 
the central executive proposed to the general committee to repay 
out of the general fund the amount already spent upon these schools ; 
but if they had waited the result of an explanation, no sucli revo- 
cation would have been needed, for the colonists, when they 
properly understood the matter, were not only satisfied with the 
proposed devotion of the fimd, but proud of the distinction con- 
ferred upon tho ilonors. The schools were, from this period, how- 
supported out of the general fund. 



k 



M 



206 



FACTS or THE COTTON FAMINE. 



It has already been intimated that at the origin of the central 
committee, many reasons made it necessary to allow existing local 
committees to decide for themselves what applicants to relieve^ 
aod whom they should send to the hoards of guardians ; and also to, 
allow them aa much genera! liberty of action as was consistent witt 
efficient and economical working. But the members of the central 
executive could not meet week after week without discussing and 
comparing the different systems of procedure ; and a desire to 
economise the funds in their charge would naturally lead towards 
some common and generally-approved plan of operations. 

Ultimately, the results of the experience of the executive wersi 
embodied in the manual aheady alluded to, for the use of the local 
committees. Tbia manual recommended that a local committeo 
should include the chief landed proprietors and large employers of 
the district, certain of the clergy and ministers of religion, and othex 
influential persons. That an executive should be composed of sucb 
of the most experienced and active members of this committee, 
would devote themselves to the administration of relieC That 
Buch sub -committees as were needed should be appointed for stoi 
keeping and for the administration of relief in kind — for superin*' 
tendence of labour and finance— for the management of the sewing^ 
and adult schools, &c., &c. Specimen forms of accounts, relief caid^ 
relief books, &c., were also provided. 

Originally relief was not confined to factory operatives, 
even to those immediately dependent on factory work ; and whilst 
some committees confined themselves to supplementing the relief 
given by boards of guardians, others relieved only such as kept 
away jrom the guardians. The manual endeavoured to define the 
classes to he relieved, and reminded committees that the fundvt 
were entrusted primarily for the relief of persons deprived a( 
work in cotton factories, and secondarily only for other partiallj 
dependent occupations ; that cases of chronic indigence, and ca 
of indigence not connected with the cotton trade, had no claim 
the funds ; that famihoa who had been wantonly deserted, or wh( 
heads had emigrated, should in all cases be referred to theguardiao^ 
as likely to be permanently dependent ; and that the public worl 
were intended to absorb the able-bodied men. 

Relief had been given in money and in kind, the latter eitht 
from a general store, or by tickets on shopkeepers ; and 



I 



MANUAL FOB RELIEF COMMITTEES. 207 

tickets were in some cases upon particular shopkeepers, and in 
others were left to the discretion of the recipients. The manual 
approved of rehef in kind, because it prevented the waste of help in 
money on intoxicating liquors, and secured the largest amount of 
wholesome food, but atill allowed some money for articlcH not 
otherwise provided. It also recommended that when tickets were 
used they shoulJ bear the name of a particular shopkeeper, in 
order to prevent their being purchased by improper persons (beer- 
shop keepers or others). The same precaution which dictated relief 
in kind originated also this recommendation ; for cases had occurred 
hirhere men had sold their tickets for money, and dissipated the 
Esnoney in intoxicating drink. It was recommended that single men, 
■ or youths of sixteen years and upwards, should be assisted to find 
employment on public works, or should be referred to the guardians; 
the only juatification for which latter course would be in the belief 
that a reference to the guardians would stimulate to extraordinaiy 
efforts to find employment somewhere ; for it would be a great 
mistake to familiarise young men with the brand of pauperism and 
thus permanently lower their self-respoct. Practically, we know that 
3 poor-law is an embodiment of benevolence and of self-interest 
the same time, and that it is as necesHary to the public as to the 
recipient that the helpless poor should be relieved; but we also 
know that the poor-rate is a forced dole, and that the practice of 
saving the pockets of the ratepayers makes guardians act with 
suspicion, and give grudgingly. On the other hand, the funds of 
the relief committee were of the nature of a free gift, which any 
needy man might accept without feeling ashamed. 

The manual recommended an entire separation between the 
.cases relieved by the guardians and the relief committees, on the 
ground of economy ; and, as a measure of discipline, that any men 
who were not diligent in out-door work, or who were irregular at any 
other required occupation, or who misconducted themselves in any 
way, should also be sent to the guardians. It was also ui^ed that 
the reports of individual visitors should always be reviewed and 
checked by a committee, so as to prevent the possibility of favour- 
itism or fraud ; and, as a further security, it was recommended that 
the districts of the visitors should be periodically changed, and that 
the relief given should not be distributed by the visitors, but by a 
leBpoDsible person at the office of the committee. Schedules, to 



be filled up periodically Iiy employers, were to be required at stat«d 
periods, so as to show the earnings of the fanjily when any portioD 
of them were in employment; and frequent revisions of the relief 
liate in connection with the employment schedules were ui^ed, in 
order to prevent cases of imposition. 

Work was in every instance, if possible, to be required in return 
for relief, because, if wisely ordered, it promotes cheerfiilneBS and 
health, and prevents demoralisation ; and such labour was to be 
paid for by the hour, and so many hours' labour to be required per 
week as would amount to the sum given in relief Thus in the 
sewing schools the rate was from three farthings to one penny per 
hour, which latter sum, at five hours per day, would give aa 
relief two shillings and sixpence per week. The salaries of super- 
intendents of schools varied from ten to twenty-five shillings per 
week, with conditional quarterly grants of £10 for every one hun- 
dred and fifty females in attendance. On applications by local 
committees, tlie central executive also paid twopence each per 
week for the children of the recipients of relief, to enable them to 
be kept at school. 

Wlien the provision of out-door employment was urged, some 
of the committees, being desirous of progress in that direcUoD, 
undertook contracts of various kinds. On this subject the manual 
contains the following minute, dated 14th September, 1863 : — 

" Minute aa to contracta by relisf committe^a, and employment of 
indigent cotton workvien on 8V.ch contTada. 

" The relief of indigence in the cotton dbtricts has hitherto 
proceeded mainly from two sources, viz., — the legal charge on pro- 
perty, and the voluntary contributions of charity to public funds. 
These two sources of relief are subject to a law of economy. 
When the poor-rates and the relief funds have provided to the 
indigent the means of sustaining health, they have discharged thdr 
function. 

" 1. The laws for the relief of the poor never were intended to 
provide employment with wages. Such an obligation would con- 
vert the poor-laws into an organised system of labour conducted 
by the state, and establish a form of socialism destructive to pri- 
vate capital and demoralising to labour. Every step, therefore, 
from that legitimate use of the poor-rates, or of public charitable 



MAWTll. TOR HEMEF COMMITTEES. 

fends, wliii'h restricts them to the mainteoance of health, to 
another which proceeds to asHume obligations to provide weiges 
from such soiircea, is ftill of danger. 

" 2. Wages are given to the able-bodiod without respect to the 
■wants of their families. A single able-bodied man receivea as 
much, at piece-work, a.s a man with a wife and four children. To 
I find employment with wages, therefore, if general, necessarily 
Orates a heavier charge than the simple miuntenance of health. 

" 3. A relief committee has no corporate power to enter into 
wiy contract to secure employment for those whom it relieves. 
Such a contract could only be legally entered into by individual 
members of the relief committee in their private capacity. If 
.such private persons enter into such a contract, they can receive 
'j»o legal security for its fulfilment from the committee. 
' "4. Supposing these technical difficulties to be overcome, and 
Itfiat the majority and mo.st influential members of such a com- 
mittee sign such a contract — if they determine to provide from 
dieir relief funds ordinary wages, either for piece-work or day- 
-work, they have no warrant to espect any aid from the centtal 
>4zecutive committee, to carry out a scheme inconsistent with the 
.«coaomy of funds intended simply to support health. 

" 5. It is possible to adjust a scheme of labour to a scale of 
■xelief adapted simply to sustain health, by paying for work done 
'by the hour at the usual rate, and not requiring more houn*' work 
than will enable the workman to make his labour and that of his ' 
fiunily equal, at that rato per hour, to the scale of relief intended 
to sustain health. Any other plan involves a very grave departure 
from the true principles of relief administration. 

" 6, Contracts for public or private works can only be safely 
i-eDtered into by boards or committees charged with the execution 
of such works, apart from the question of relief of indigence. Such 
, boards or committees of public works reduce the sum of indigence in 
Ae same way as any private capitalists may do, by such works as they 
I undertake. But they assume no obhgations to find employment, and 
I they strengthen the relations between capital and labour by increas- 
iJbg the employment of capital and the demand for labour. These 
lanctions, though they indirectly relieve indigence, are not to be in 
nmy degree confounded with the functions of boards or committees 
[frhose primary duty la to relieve indigence, so as to sustain heajll^^ 



210 FACTS OF THE COTTOK FAMINE. 

Some committees had also supplemented full time wages, In 
cases where the material to be worked up was so wretched that 
weavers, who used, in ordinary times, to earn from ten shillings to 
twelve shillings per week, could not earn the amount of relief b3 
wages. This practice also was condemned by the manual, which 
declared — " It is better that such operatives should be entirely 
withdrawn than that they should labour sixty hours weekly for 
little more, or even less, than the scale of relief." There is vo 
doubt that such work would add somewhat to the wealth of society, 
but it would terribly depress the workers ; and it is false economy 
to uphold an employment by which men cannot live. Labour as 
discipline, even if it does not pay, is justifiable; but labour for 
wages ought, in every case, to mean living wages. 

But, whilst discouraging any systematic addition to wages, the, 
central executive, subsequently, in the cases of men employed under 
the Pubhc Works Act, sanctioned aid during the first six weeks of 
such employment, which they considered to be sufficient training 
to enable a factory operative to earn twelve shillings per week on 
out-door work. 

These arrangements, although not embodied in the manual tmtit' 
5th October, 1863, were in process of adoption from an eariyn 
period, and were constantly being pressed forward by the execntive-, 
amidst much obstruction and many difficulties. They were never 
mpletely carried out, for the honorary secretary's report for May, 
1865, shows that a month before the executive adjourned sinedU^ 
'' the relief of three thousand eight hundred and seventy'two per- 
Bona from the guardians was being supplemented by the loot 
committees at a cost of .£901 per month, when the total expend!^ 
ture of the relief committees was only £5,090 per month." We 
have never been able to learn why the central executive allowect 
its own rules to be set at defiance ; but it is probable that they 
not unanimous in their proceedings, and could more eaaily adopt 
rules than enforce them, or they would certainly have put forth 
a strong hand and have stopped the grants of such committees a» 
continued to supplement poor-law relief. 

Tho following table will show the numbers who were employed 
out of doors, or sent to the various schools by committees, during 
the period of the distress : — 



■"8 



KETXniK OF SCHOOL ATTENDAMCBS. 211 

IM WOIK Olt EDDUnOHiX 





M^ 


Do,, or. 


,rI6. 


Womsn 


Children 
>t Hohool 






















School 


OaW«.r 
Libuut. 


flchooL 


Juttooi 


oiX. 


PV. 




1863. 
















JannaiT ■ 


17,638 


2.670 


23,111 


— 


22,766 


19,360 


84,636 


Fabnury 






19,75a 


2,916 


28,396 


— 


22,207 


24,480 


9S,760 


March 






20,348 


3,800 


16,740 




41,034 


63,703 


133,626 


April . 






I6,S6I 


5,483 


fl,a03 


— 


33,836* 


52,892 


114,166 


Umj . 






9,850 


6,621 


3,678 


— 


33,958 


43,921 


87,928 


Jane . 






6,167 


7.263 


2 742 


— 


19,411 


39,412 


74,985 


Jnlf . 






B,4H7 


7,B33 


2,025 


— 


11,916 


30,857 


54,836 


ADgOBt 






2,219 


6,963 


1,417 


— 


9,190 


26,925 


4G.719 








2,562 


4,361 


1,340 


— 


7,214 


21,834 


37,244 


Ootober 






3,036 


a,9S2 


1,532 


73 


6,006 


19,155 


33,694 


NoTembBr 






1,526 


4,239 


700 


633 


6,790 


18,772 


33,650 


December 






1,661 


4,605 


1,034 


208 


7,045 


18,164 


32,757 


ISM. 




















Jftiioujr 






2,208 


3,;)3B 


1,169 


211 


7,600 


16,649 


31,575 


FebniKj 






2,593 


2,628 


1,319 


31 


7,804 


17,740 


33,115 


Mirch 






2,232 


3,602 


1,223 


64 


7,323 


17,489 


31,034 


April . 






1,545 


2.3G0 


1,210 


4 


5,i-.7a 


16,813 


27.004 


1 "■? ■ 






6bU 


1.646 


7a3 


20 


.4,337 


16,012 


23,417 


Jane . 






!50 


1.040 


C44 


— 


2,362 


10,217 


14,519 


1 Jnly . 






188 


693 


455 


9 


1.943 


7,127 


10,315 


1 Aagnit 






142 


209 


372 


— 


1,766 


6,732 


9,311 


1 Septamber 






1S3 


337 


366 


— 


1,717 


0,017 


B,C03 


Octobei 






200 


1,176 


359 


— 


2,225 


8.207 


12,167 


1 NoTember 






919 


1,215 


404 


3 


2.179 


9,284 


1.1,304 


December 






1£5 


970 


212 


4 


1,747 


8,946 


12,064 


1865. 




















J»nn«ry 






331 


1,008 


212 


11 


1,630 


0,220 


1!,4I5 


February 






297 


1,H13 


217 


G 


1.556 


P,326 


12,5(15 


March 






831 


•813 


204 


12 


1,171 


9,0Si; 


11,587 


April . 






132 


591 


151 


7 


1,13'J 


7,nso 


9.043 


May . 






39 


■ CO 


10. 


— 


547 


4,402 


5,249 



Of course these schools, especially under boards of giianlians, 
had their dark as well as their bright side. The ordinary able- 
bodied recipients i.f poor-law relief jumped at the change from the 
stone yard, the oakum shop, or the hand corn mill, to tlio sehool; 
because it enabled them not only to dispense with a disagreeable 



21S FAciB or THE coROK ruoxm 

taak» without low of inoome, bat ^ven gmve them a chanoe of 
getting poor-law relief supplemented by a relief committee, and 
occasionally, through laxity in the management, to get a further 
supplement by eanuBgs from irregular employment Bascaldom 
was in dover ikiring the Mrly period of the distress^ and the revi- 
sion of the school lists, in the spring of 186S, turned out d o m esti c 
servants from the sewing schools, sent hand-loom weavers to their 
normal dependence upon the poor-rates^ and evtsn committed to 
prison swindlers, who, whilst in regular work, and in receipt of 
good wages, were also getting assiBtanoe from the relief committeea 
But these cases of imposition occurred only amongst hrg^ popula- 
tions, and certainly did not at any time oomprise five per cent of 
the recipients of relief. 



CHAPTER XII. 

N FoGcf oF Emigntion—Tbe EmigranU' Aid Sooiet^, Mid Natioiul Cnlonial Emi- 
^ktion 3od«t7— Anitud* of thupLoyan— Diuppeuwice of Op«rtUive»— Mr. 
funall's BloDiler— Govamjoent Emlgntiou RHunu — The Moiududi FrsBSure 
of DUtrera— Deore»*e of Iniiigenca, and RavimoQ of Relief Lialti — PreMUTB by 
Centntl BiecuCive — Difficulties of IVadera — Haw Cotton dearer tlisn Cnlioo — 
niggftinacy at Wlgui— Tbe Baatudy Fmmatiim Fund — Deoreaao of Eraploy- 
tnest in October, 18C3— The Turn of the Tide— The Peae* Panic and its Effect*— 
TJiB Death of theConfedamcjr— Mr. Macluro's Last Report — Close of the Ashtoil 
Ctoiiuiiittce — Percentages of Panous Ralievttd to those Out of BmidoyiaHd at 
Vaiious Peiiods. 

In the first few moatlis of the cotton famme, many persons at a 
distance from Laacasbire advised that the only proper remedy for 
the distress was a large measure of emigration ; and if means bad 
been supplied, a very large proportion of the operatives would 
doubtless have left the country. But the employers having faith 
in the future, and probably calculating that the pressure would be 
over in a year or two at the utmost, discountenanced any such 
proceeding, and refused to aid it pecuniarily. Nevertheless, emi- 
gration committees were formed in moat of the distressed di-stricts, 
and an "Emigrants' Aid Society" was established in Manchester, 
in April, 1863. The expressed object of the society was not to 
encourage emigration or to seek out emigrants, but simply to aid 
such aM were determined to go to the colonies. This society sought 
an alliance with the National Colonial Emigration Society, but its 
work was very limited in extent. The tQtal funds placed at its 
disposal were as follow r — 

IfiabiORptioni and donation!, with banli intereit £!,37S 8 6 

Uaniion House graots 1,0!1 16 
Nationtl Colonial and London Branch Committee . 1,300 



These funds assisted in the outfit of eight hundred and thirty- 
four statute adults, and aided the passages of three hundred and 
alghty-five, many of whom were also included under the former head. 

But the National Colonial Society continued to act indepen- 
dently of the Mancliester committee, and scarcely played a fair part 
^•either towards the public generally or to Lancashire in particular. 



2U 



PACTS OP THE comra TAMmZ. 



From the tenor of tU atlTertuementa, Raf)Gcnber« wooldl 
naturally suppoflc that wliat they gave to the society would go ta 
rclievu lAocaHliire diHtrcae, but its emigrants were selected sot 
from tli<^ Cotton diHtri'.'tH nlonc, but from tbe whole rarfoce of t 
United Kin({il»m. The UUfresa in Lancashire directetl attcotiai 
to c-inigmtiun, and lusisted the fundi5 of the society; but tboy 
wonted laboiircrs, not cotton opcrativea ; and took the latttT, eithn 
when the foimer were not to \k had, or only to tlie extent thai 
they wero composed of readily convertible material Novortheles^ 
with or without help, many thousands of operatives must have 
got away. The first return by Mr. Uaclure of pt^raons out < 
work was obtained from thu mills and factories, and wus basc^ 
u|)on tliu uurnlicm usually employed in those cstablisbnifliits ; 
but so soon ns it Itccfimo evident that considerable nigratioa wai 
going on, tlie return was corrected from time to time by Iiousfr 
hold visitation. The return in Jimuary, ]8(i3, comprised fi« 
hundred nnd sixly-lhreo thousand seven hundix-d luid twenty- 
thmo oponitiviis ; but by Dccotubcr, 18(i4, thoy were reduced l( 
four hundred luiil forty thousand eight hundred and one, abowing 
tt decrease of more than twenty per cent. What had become of n 
ouo hundreil and twenty-three Uiousand operatives it is not easy u> J 
lirum. The great bulk of emigrants who belong to trades whicth 
do not obtain in tlioir cIioncu colony, either rt^g^er thcmsulves i 
" l&bourere," or in some handicraft of which they hitvo a sm 
toring knowledge. Thus the government emigration agent c 
givo no account of thorn, and it may bo aa^umed that the foUowiBfl 
nitum is wholly {allacious, so far as Lanawbiiti in concerned :— 

RxTVsa Snanix*, m txk am cm 



Tm. 


IHT 


Wiilw»Wt 




IMI 


Its 


IS 


i-O^-O 


1883 


MS 


» 


T.rsa 


im 


l,ili* 


ff 


T.POI 


ISM, 


tiw 


1 


T,80 



& Wiuvn. O wn — n l fiBifistiaa Oftsk. 



MK. farnall's blunder. 215 

If we assume that the whole of the fourteen thousand extra 
emigrants over the avenge of 18G1 in these claaacs were cotton 
operatives, they still furnish no proper solution of the great disap- 
pearance of hands. 

Mr. Famall fell into a gross blunder In his report on emigration 
to the poor-law board, which happened tlius : Macclesfield, which 
is principallv a silk manufacturing town, had a relief committee, 
and, a» in other places, did not at first restrict its relief to cotton 
operatives, and the whole of the unemployed at Macclesfield there- 
fore figured in the early returns, liut, when the time for revision 
came, silk operatives were pronounced ineligible, and the proportion 
of the Macclesfield operatives who were employed upon silk were 
dropped out of the returns, Mr. Famall, in making up his table, 
referred to the early and the late returns from Macclesfield, and, 
finding the hands accounted for immensely decreased, jumped to 
the conclusion that all who had ceased to appear in the returns hod 
either migrated or emigrated, and that the operative population of 
Macclesfield was reduced by 7842 per cent, or from fifteen thou- 
sand six hundred and twenty-three to three thousand three hundred 
and seventy-two between May, 1863, to May, 18(54. nds portion 
of the report the poor-law board very wisely suppressed. 

Nor is the emigration movement likely to cease until employ- 
nt has reached its old standard. The following paragraph, which 
ired in the Manchester papers, 25th September, I86i, exhibits 
a feeling of the operatives upon this and other subjects : — 

" At a delegate meeting of the Associated Operative Cotton 
unuers of Lancashire, Cheshire, Yorkshire, and Derbyshire, just 
held in Manchester, the following, amongst other resolutions, were 
passed : That the question with reference to the organisation of a 
central plan of emigration be adjourned for the present, and that 
each locality be urged to carry out, if possible, more extensively than 
ever its own system of emigration, experience iaving proved that 
it is only by emigration that the position of the working classes 
can be improved. It is, moreover, equally certain that any indi- 
vidual member of this association who neglects to promote to the 
•utmost of his power the emigration movement at this important 
cruas, neglects a duty which he owes to himself, while inflicting a 
serious injury upon his fellow workmen. That the spinners of 
kucaahire, Cheshire, Yorkshire, and Derbyshire he requested to 



FACTS OF THE COTTON .FAMINE. 

constantly bear in mind, so that when trade shall have once more 
assumed its normal character they may be prepared to vindicate an 
equitable price for spinniiig on coupled mules and compensatitm of 
extra turns. That LaQca(<ter be admitted a district of the ass 
tion. That our fellow membera of Chorley, having beea wholly 
and entirely thrown out of employment by the dispute now pend- 
ing between the cardroom operatives of that locality and tJieii 
employers, this meeting begs most respectfully to recommend tba 
ciise of those connected with this society to the kind and humane 
consideration of their fellow members throughout the district, and 
to request that tbey will .spare no exertions on their behalf hut 
obtain for them all the assistance in their power. The following 
state of employment was submitted to the meeting : — 



Tyldesloy 18'J 

Prenloo 938 

Blaokbam 71S 

Over Damren .... 87 

FariDgton 43 

HydB -143 

Bolton .300 

Heywood as* 

Accrington ..... 9B 

Auother district (nut qbidciI) . 236 

Weat Leigh . . . . ?U 



Total 



3,496 



Of course, even if the above return be correct, it is only an 
approximate guide to the state of employment, because of the great 
diminution of operatives in the district. 

Agents came from the United States during the crisis and 
sought out liands for weaving and spinning; and, having made en- 
gagements with tliem, paid their paifsage fees to America, But 
these would all go by ordinary passenger vessels they would pro- 
bably not be reckoned as emigrants. Nevertheless, the fact remain* 
that a larger number than any government measure would bava 
been likely to provide for as emigrants to the colonies, did mai 
by some means at home or abroad to provide for themselves and 
their families, and thu.s relieved both the poor-law guardians and 
the various committees from a very heavy extra charge upon their 
funds and their care. 



DECREASE OF INDIQENCE. 217 

The maximum pressure upon the relief committees was reached 
early in December, 18lj2, but, a.s the tide had tumeil before the eud 
of the month, the liigheat number cViargeable at an; one time is 
nowhere sJiown. The higheat mimber exhibited in the returns is 
(ot the last week in the year 18U2, viz. : four hundred and eighty- 
fiTe tliousaud four hundred and thirty-four persona; but in the 
previous; weeks of the same month some thousands ntore were 
relieved. The public waited with eager anxiety and with trembling 
^ipe for tlie Januiiiy return, and when that showed only four hun- 
dred and ^ty-one thousand three hundred and forty-three recipients 
ti relief the rejoicing was mingled with fear that there was some 
mistake in the figures, for they ohowed a diminutjon of above thirty 
thousand dependants as compared with December. The news was 
thought too goo<l to be true; for there was no viHible circumstance 
to account for the change. Cotton, which in December sold at 
twenty-three pence halfpenny, was in January" twenty-six pence per 
pound; and mule yarn, which in December was twenty-two pence, 
was now only tweikty-six pence per pound, thus showing no margin 
whatever fur spiuniug; and shirtings, which in December were 
twenty-three pence, were in January twenty-five pence per pound, 
being in each case less than the price of middling fair Orleans 
cotton ; so that any increase of employment must have been based 
entirely upon the speculation that goods would rise ; whilst cotton, 
if it did not fall, would at any rate not exceed its then prettent 
price in the market. 

The truth is, probably, that the committees had now become 
masters of their work, and found that, in tlieir early anxiety not to 
let any person die from neglect, they had gathered into their nets, 
amongst the proper and deserving objects of charity, many who 
were neither proper nor deserving ; and that the organisation, which 
was now getting perfected, enabled them to dismiss some of their 
dependants without danger either to health or life, whilst the 
remainder were absorbed into employment; for the returns showed 
about twenty-six thousand more on full-time, with a decrease of 
five thousand on short-time, so that upwards of twenty thousand 
were demoustrably ho absorbed. The February report showed a 
further decrease of about nineteen thousand dependants, and the 
rejoicing now became earnest : men shook bauds with each other 
ily ; and, instead of the usual empty compliments about the 



^Mftily 



218 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE, 

weather, the mutual congratulation was to the effect that the worst 
was past — that the substitution of liuen and worsted aud woollen 
had reached its limit, and that the world must have calicoes and fus- 
tians, even at famine prices. But there was still no margin between 
raw cotton and id's mute yam, whilst shirtings were one halfpenny 
per pound below the price of raw cotton. Sis thousand persona had 
been reduced from full to short-time since January. Employment 
was considerably worse, and nineteen thousand fewer persons wem 
relieved : organisation was evidently at work, and pressure was 
beginning to be employed somewhere. The March return showed 
a further decrease of about twelve thousand recipients ; whilst 
the employment schedule exhibited an increase on full-time of 
about seven thousand, and a decrease on short-time of sixteen thoo 
sand ; so that nine thousand more were entirely out of employment, 
whilst the recipients of relief were diminished by a still greater 
number. 

April showed a further decreaae of recipients of some fifty-eight 
thousand, above an eighth of the whole number, partially accounted 
for, on this occasion, by an increase of employment, which was very 
gratifying ; nearly thirty-four thousand more were in full work, and 
twenty thousand less on short-time ; so that some fourteen thou^nd 
additional hands had been absorbed during the month, whilst nearly 
four and a quarter times that number had disappeared from thft 
relief lists. AVell might the central executive boast its economy, 
but such pressure furnished an excuse to the newspaper correspon- 
dents who charged them with unfairly withholding funds given for 
the support of the poor, and which were much needed by many of. 
those who were declared ineligible as recipients. In Hulme, in 
Salford, and in Chorlton, members of the relief committees declared 
that the central executive were starving the people. But these sen* 
timents were not held by the guardians of the township of 
Chester, who declared that they would have been quite equal to th( 
task of supporting the poor without the aid of any relief 
mittee; and it is tolerably certain that more imposition was prao- 
tised upon the different committees in Manchester than in any 
other place, Asbton district perhaps excepted And it is singnlai 
that the only breach of the peace, induced by this extreme pre*" 
aura of the central executive, through the committees, was a( 
the very place where the allowances hod been largest and tlw 



PRESSFRE BT CENTRAL EXECUTIVE. 219 

mane^ement, owing to the existence of two cftmpeting commit- 
tees, most lax, and where pressure was therefore most needed, 
in fainiesa to the fund and to tlie interests of otlier places. The 
result of the revision of the rehef lists by guardians and com- 
mittees will he readily apprcciatetl when we state that, in Decem- 
ber, 1802, the total cost of relief was £289.225, being equal to 
elevenpence halfpenny in the pound on the assessment of the 
whole of the unions. In June, 18G3, the total coat was £102,241, 
whilst the numbers relieved were two hundred and fifty-six thou- 
sand five hundred and seventy-eight ; so that, whilst the recipients 
had decreased about forty-nine per cent, the expenditure had 
decreased sixty-five por cent. Whether wholesome or not, this dis- 
cipline drove a large number of operatives to seek employment at 
other occupations ; and an impiiry, undertaken by the honorary 
secretary, on its being pointed out to him that his successive returns 
accounted for a continually decreasing number of hands, led to the 
.Conclusion that some fourteen thousand had been absorbed into 
jotber employments, whilst some thousands more had migrated into 
Terent counties, or emigrated to America and the coloniea. The 
ilea of the executive for such severe pressure was — first, to oblige 
possible source of independent employment to be tried, so an 
io prevent men from settling down into permanent pauperism ; 
second, to get tho able-bodied meu into training for employment 
under the Public Works Act ; and, third, to economise their funds 
for the ensuing winter ; when, unless the supply of cotton should 
exceed every prudent estimate, there would be, on the cessation of 
ontnioor labour, a large accession to the list of necessary recipients. 
The month of May, 1863, further reduced the recipients by the 
immense number of seventy-two thousanS, thirteen thousand more 
going to work full-time, with no decrease of short-time workers ; ho 
ithat, for thirteen thousand absorbed into the mills, five and a half 
limes m many were struck oflf the relief lists. The Stalybridge 
liots bad only increased tho determination of the central executive 
and of the guardians, who were determined that, at any rate during 
^e summer months, the operatives should be obliged to look out for 

Kbemselves. The increase of full-time working since December had 
bsorbed eiglity-four thousand eight hundred and 'forty-nine, of 
rhom thirty-five thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine had 
^□e from the ranks of the short-time workers, leaving the nett 



220 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMDSI. 

iDcreasc of persons in employmeat forty-nine thousand and twenty; i 
but the relief ]hts had in the same time been depleted to the exteot I 
of one hundred and ninety-five thousand four hundred and fifty- 1 
nine, or, as nearly a,i possible, four times that number. 

Notwithstanding this gratifying increase of employmrait, iha I 
difficulties of trade were very great, as will be seen by the pricerl 
quoted for cottoa yam and cloth at various perioda 



18M. 


Filr DlinllflAh. 


Orloiui 


3a'> Tvirt^ 


aa'.T-irt. 


BkiRlusK 


March 2*. 


ITd. to ITJd. 


2M. 


23id. 


asid. 


25 Od. 


Juaa 23. 


IM. to 18}d. 


B3d. 


!Sd. 


!5d. 


«6-9d. 


Sept. 2-1. 


22d. to22id. 


21Jd. 


sod. 


sod. 


!$-9d. 


Dec. 22. 


221d to22|d. 


aajd. 


31d. 


3ld. 


81-Jd. 



It will here be seen that between the prices of Orleans cotton 
and shirtings there waa never so much as fourpence per pound 
during the whole nine montha from Lady-day to Christmas ; and 
that between Dhollerah cotton and shirtings the higbe»t DMrgin 
at any time was ninepence per pound, whilst between yam anii 
cloth the largest amount was one penny three farthings ; and that the 
balance was occasionally nearly twopence per pound against the J 
manufacturer. Persons who are acquainted with the trade will 
affirm that it was possible, even under the.w circum.stances, to con- 
duct it without loss ; and those who are unacquainteii will ask, if 
that were possible, why did not more spinners and mauufacturen 
get to work ? The reply is, that employers were quite as auxioiu 
as the oporativeit to get to work, and that qiute as many did H' 
could do so without ruin ; but the operatives are not more sensitJTfl 
to the introduction of " strangers" in times of good trade, than thi 
cotton market was at this time to an extra purchase of cotton ; for,, 
if OD any day the sales were much in excess of the known consump* 
tion, the prices immediately went up, and the margin betwewi 
cotton and cloth disappeared. Nevertheless, the increase of em|^c^ 
ment went on till September, when the additional hands on tiiU-tiint 
had reached one hundred and forty-six thousand eight hundred aad 
thirty-three since December, and the decrease ou short-time 
sixty-one thousand six himdred and twenty-nine ; showing s ' 
absorption of eighty-five; thousand two himdred and four into ent 
ployment. But the relief lists had decreased, in the same time, b^ 
three hundred and one thousand two hundred and ninety-«igbt. Of 
more than three and a half times as many as the extra worket^ 



"THE BASTARDY PROMOTION FUND." 



ar each worker U> represent two and a half persons, we may 
i become of sixty-eight thousand two >nindred and 
>«iglit of these people, whose guardians were noither in the 
Ittills ooT yet dependants on the poor-rate or the relief committees 1 
lit is evident that twenty-seven ihoneand three liundred and fifteen 
9 had found means by outnioor work, absorption into other 
K.Mnployments, migration or emigration, to support themselves and 
I'frniilies, for no coroner's jury accuse*! either relieving officers or 
I relief committees of manslaughter ; the tables of mortality tell no 
tales of cruelty or deprivation ; nor do the sanitaiy returns speak even 
of increased sickness. The central executive were evidently justified 
in so regulating their grants as to seriously reduce the balances at the 
oommand of the committees, and thus to necessitate great circum- 
spection on their part in distribution. The p'essurc brought to 
' bear was very severe, but it was ii|>on the whole very healthful 
I Ko doubt great hardshipi were felt in acfrae locaJitJes and in 
I many individual instances, but the result was, in the main, good ; 
^and in cases where rehef committees felt that it was impossible 
carry out their instructions without danger, and overdrew their 
inking accounts, the next meeting of the central eiecutive gene- 
tlly restored the balance by extra grauta. One of the recom- 
Daendations of the central executive was, that all cases of suffering 
iduced by improper conduct should be referred to the poor-law 
dians, and a singular result was produced at Wigan by the 
I attempt to enforce this rule. It appears that in this town ille- 
F gitimate births bad considerably increased during the distress, and 
ol course the victims would, by the arrangements of the central 
executive, be excluded from relief. But the Wigan distributing 
committee were of a different opinion, and having appealed in 
vjon against the rule, tbcy actually resigned and made an applica- 
tion to the Mansion Houite committee, and got a grant of £200 
towards what was designated in Manchester " the bastardy promo- 
tion fund," which fund waa distributed separately. 

There may, perhaps, have been reason to complain that the 
I central executive were too severe upon this point, and that they 
I added punishment where nature and society were already ovor- 
I whelming in their inflictions ; but the existence of a separate fund 

liar class was not likely to tend mach to the imp rWfr- ^ 
I ment of the morality of Wigan. 



222 FACTS or THE COTTON FAMME. 

Tht! month of October showed that work had been going on too 
rapidly. Middling Orleans cotton waa twenty-eight pence half- 
penny, whilst shirtings were twenty-eight pence per pound; and the 
operatives on full-time were decreased by one thousand five hundred, 
whilst those on short-time had increased by three thousand; 
but the numbers relieved were again reduced by sixteen thousand 
five hundred; that is to say, six thousand five hundred and eighty- 
three operatives additional had to shift for themselves and families 
although the staple employment gave evideiice of retrogression. 
But the elasticity of the operative element was now exhausted, 
and could be pressed no further ; for November showed a further 
decrease of nearly eighteen thousand on full-time, and an increase 
of ten thousand on short^time, thus adding about eight thousand to 
those wholly out of employment. The increase in the number 
of persons relieved, however, instead of being twenty thousand, 
was two thousand six hundred only; so that the strain upon the 
committees was not relaxed, and great vigilance was evidently exer- 
cised as to the admission of any additional recipients. 

In December the (iill-time wcffkera were again decreased by 
ten thousand six hundred, all of whom were added to the unem- 
ployed ; and the relief lists were also swollen not by twenty-six 
thousand (the number of individuals represented), but by less than 
the additional number out of work. The price of money had some- 
thing to do with this decrease of employment, for the rate of 
discount rose in a month from four to eight per cent, owing, pro- ' 
■ bably, to the immense amount of specie required to pay for a half 
crop of cotton. We had been used to pay America with manu- 
factured goods both for cotton and com, but India demanded gold 
and silver ; and men who could work and pay their agents five per 
cent for advances, were stopped by the demauJ for eight per cent 
on balances, whilst all other charges were, by the altered value of 
cotton, at least doubled. January, 18G4, decreased the fuU-timB 
workers again by more than twenty-seven thousand, and inci'eaaed ■ 
the short-timers by more than eight thousand, thus adding ei^^bteen 
thousand and niuety-five to the numbers out of work ; and this 
time the relief lists responded a little more liberally, for they 
admitted tweuty-two thousand four hundred and eighty-seven addi- 
tional recipients. They admitted also an extra six hundred in ' 
February, But in the meantime the tide had turned again ; mon^ ■ 



THE TUHN OF THE TTOE. 

had fallen two per cent ; middling Orleans bad fallen one penny 
per pound; and more tlian thirteen thousand additional hands were 
in full employ, whilst those on short-time were eight thousand less, 
giving a nett addition of five thousand workers from the lowest 
point 

Mr. Commissioner Famall had recorded his judgment in the 
autumn of 18G3 to the effect that in March or April, 1864, the relief 
committees would be able to suspend their labours. But he had 
no sooner committed himself to writing than the panic came, and, 
notwithstanding the severe pressure exercised by guardians and 
relief committees, added in four months no less than thirty-five 
thousand four hundred and ninety to the number of recipients of 
relief. How he must have wished he could erase that line in 
his report before it reached the inevitable blue-book for future 
reference ! 

From the month of February the increase in employment was 
regular, but not rapid, betokening the growth of a healthy demand 
for goods ; and merchants began to say that what was wanted was not 
80 much lower prices as steadiness and confidence. From January 
to August, 1804, the increase of operatives on full-time was eighty- 
eight thousand four hundred and ninety, and the decrease on short 
time aixty-six thousand seven hundred and eighty-two ; so that tlie 
nett increase of workers was only eleven thousand seven hundred 
and eight, showing that not many new places of employment were 
opened, but that those who were in the mills worked longer, hours. 
At the time indicated by Mr. Famall for closing tlie relief com- 
mittees, there were still one hundred and forty-seven thousand two 
hundred and eighty on the relief lists, being two hundred and 
seventy-two per cent in excess of 18(;i ; but by August, whilst the 
additional workers were as above stated, the relief lists had been 
decreased by nearly eleven times that number ; and we are again 
entitled to ask what had become of ninety thousand eight hundred 
and thirty-five persons, whose guardians, to the number of thirty-six 
thousand three hundred and fifty-four, had been left to shift for 
themselves ? 

In September, discounts again advanced to eight or nine per 
cent ; middling Orleans was at thirty-one pence, and shirtings were 
thirty-three pence per pound ; and again employment decreased. 
But another and a more powerful cause than the price of discounts 




cnand the AdMtie tftit B 

ta anmage the tanna of peace. Staa^Mtwaja 



nai the peatnt cane «paa earA. Nor wm it wiAoat 



» 



wMtBMlezpnnaL Mi«MiingOrirgM nnW 
MI ften Ifair^-oiie pcMe to two^-lline peace hal^ i—y, «! 
Aiiliiip froB thiity-tkrae peace to twar^-&ar peaee per poaedj 

aad Ben who held bi^Bly ^i' <^>'>**(>^ **i^ <* (^<>*^ f'B™'^ ^<r '■■'^ 
taan Taaished n a ai^* at the breath «t this lu mo u r . AM t 
■nangementx wefe ngun in cbaoa. The wockeis oa fnll-tiiBe worn 
■educed in two moada by eoe hmdred and bctjr-imtr tbooaaod an) 
fif^F-aine, and thou OB Aort-time we macaaed bf nxt^«iz than* 
nod two hnndn^d and t a ui^-t ipa^ thai t hn w ri^ eereafy-e 
tbonmnd eight hnodred and thit^-^aer^i pefeons entitelj out fit 
mtk ; whilst emploTen, mercfaanti^ aod cocton apecolatois fell Bka 
haO on every side. At tbe same time the relief hsta were iBCR 
by fifty-three tfaoasand two hnadred and five, and, in November, 
by &n addition&l thirteen lliiiiiniiiil six bmdred and fifty-five. The 
panic bad dtme its teiecfaief before tbe news of the &iluie of the 
negotiations reached En^and; bat peace was not to be acfaiered at 
preeent The mea who were strong enoagh ia means, and cooift- 
geons enough in spirit, to ri^ the result, saw cotton and goods oa 
the rise again liefore Christmas ; and thoee who were both rich and 
prudent, having often watched the e6ects of panic, and calcolatei 
on the rebound, bought cotton and vara at the lowest prices and 
prepared for work. During November and December, 1864, the 
opeiatives in fuU employment were increased again by ei^ty-flix 
tfaooaand one hundred and ninety-seven, whilst those on short-time 
decreased by fifty-two thourajid eight hundred and thirty-nine, 
thus adding thirty-three thousand three hundred and fiftj-«ight to 
the numbers at work, or about one-half of those who were thrown 
oat by the peace panic. 

January, 18^5, added nine thousand one hundreii and twenty- 
four more to the full-time workers, and three thousand nine hundred 



^^^^^H CLOSE OF THE ASHTON rOMMITTEE. 235 

and six to the short-timera, being a nett increase of thirteen thou- 
sand and thirty in employment. During the same period, from 
Novemljcr to January inclusive, the relief lists were tlecreaeed 
by thirty thousand three hundred and seveuty-nine. 

In February, when it became evident that the Confederate 
government in America must die, the fall of Richmond renewed the 
panic in this country, and again the prices of cotton and cloth fell 
suddenly and considerably ; the full-time workers were again reduced 
by eleven thousand two hundred and twenty-four, whilst the short- 
timers were increased by nine thousand nine hundred and twenty- 
five, thus throwing one thousand two hundred and ninety-nine out 
of employment ; and the relief lists, for once, more than responded 
to the increased necessity, for they registered six thousand three 
hundred and forty-one additional recipients. But although the 
ueWB of Confederate disasters was on this occasion true, and the 
proclamation of peace in America speedily followed the fall of the 
Confederate capital, whilst the most fabulous accounts were given 
of the quantity of cotton in the Southern States, yet the mischief 
of October could not be repeated ; the rebound of prices came 
within a mouth, enabling employment henceforth to increase regu- 
larly and rapidly, up to the date of the last meeting of the central 
executive in June, 1S65. 

The last report of Mr. Maclure shows the increase on full-time, 
from February to the end of May, ta be eighty thousand three 
hundred and forty-nine, and the decrease on short-time forty-eight 
thousand persons, thus making a nett increase to the number 
employed of thirty-two thousand, three hundred and forty-nine. 
The relief lists also showed a decrease in the same period of 
fifty thousand one hundred and one, leaving only seventy-five 
thousand seven hundred and eighty-four persona chargeable to 
boards of guardians and relief committees ; or about one hundred 
per cent in excess of the same date in 18G1. In Aahton union — 
for the benefit of which locality the central executive was smi- 
lingly said to have existed for the last six months — the numbers 
relieved were still six hundred per cent in excess of 1801; hut 
the committee, even there, had passed a resolution to close in a 
fortnight ; and the passage of such a resolution, imder the circumr 
stances, is the best possible commentary upon the evil of having 
two local committees, with two principal sources of supply. Hod 



1 



220 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

the central esecutive forcibly closed a committee twelve moDths 
before, where tUe persons chargeable were in the same proportion 
aa in Ashton at the end of May, 1865, the whole country would 
have cried shame upon them for cruelty ; yet what would then 
have been charged as gross cruelty was now voluntarily done by 
the committee itself, and quietly submitted to by the people. Evi- 
dently, a greater pressure, at an earlier period, would have op&- 
rated bh healthily at Ashton as elsewhere. 

With one esceptiou, the decrease in the number of operatives, 
accounted for by Mr. Maclure's returns, was regular, month by 
month ; the exception being after the harvest of 1SC+, when in 
October, two thousand, and in November other six thousand, aeem 
to have returned into the lists ; but at Christmas, 1864, they bad 
decreased again by eighteen thousand. It is impossible to say what 
has become of the greater portion of these people, or whether they 
will appear again in the list of cotton operatives on the return of 
prosperity. If any considerable number have emigrated, it muet 
have been at the expense of their own hard-earned savings, or by 
means of private assistance. That some thousands have gone to the 
United States is certain, some upon their own means, some by the 
help of relatives and friends on either side of the Atlantic ; and 
aome by the help of American agents who have engj^ed workere 
on this side, and paid their passages to New York, intending some 
for factory work, and others for the Federal armies. The author 
was applied to on behalf of one of these agents in search of spin- 
ners and weavers ; and having beard of a district where the chief 
employer was using his workpeople very unfairly, tried to arrange 
to send the whole of them to America, but soon found that passages 
would only be paid for actual workere ; that our Yankee cousins did 
not waift "incumbrances;" and he therefore gave up the attempt 

The trade of Yorkshire has received such an impetus during the 
famine that it is probable many thousands of operatives have only 
crossed Blackstone Edge. Mr. Baines estimates the total hands 
engaged in the woollen and worsted trades in 1856 at two hundred 
and seventy-five thousand, and as the imports of foreign wool in- 
creased by thirty-three per cent from 1861 to 1864 — in which latter 
year they exceeded the estimated home-growth by twelve and a half 
per cent — we may safely assume from twenty to twenty-five per 
cent increase of trade; and at twenty per cent increase there would 



PERCENTAGES. 

l>e room for fifty-five thousand additional hands. It would not be 
Wonderful if the cotton districts supplied one-half of this increase ; 
so that in the event of sunshine returning to Lancashire, most of 
these people would bo ready to return, unless already employed at 
increased wages, Some thousands have also doubtless found employ- 
ment by the vast increase in the linen trade, and they will aLw be 
ready to return whenever cotton wages will pay them better. And 
ftbout six thousand have been absorbed for the present, under the 
Public Works Act and in other out-door employments. 

These absorptions and migrations do not affect the per centages 
«f persona relieved to those out of employment, and the following 
"table, representing the continually increaaing pressure of the central 
:ec\itlve and the boards of guardians, will bo perused with interest. 
It wili be seen that on the assumption that each unemployed ope- 
I&tive represented two and a half persons, one-fifth of the whole 
were without relief when the proportion was at the highest ; and 
that with the exception of three months in the depth of the winters 
18G3-4 and 18C4-5, the percentage relieved regularly decreased 
from two hundred down to seventy-seven per cent of the numbers 
out of employment; and these percentages relate only to those 
■irho were entirely out of employment, including the normal depen- 
dants on the poor rates, whilst there have been from two-thirds to 
three-fourths as many more working short-time, varying from two 
to four days per week, and in many cases earning wages very little 
ibove the relief standard. 



NmaiM Odt 


r Wore, Ncubeiu 


RlLtlVRD. AND 


PaoPOnnoHa 




RCLIEVED TO THOSE EHTIHIt-V OuT 


o» Woke. 


laea. 


Out Pf Work. 






Jnne 


— 


12M,774 




Jdy . 


— 


153,774 




August . 


— 


216,437 






— 


277, tya 




October . 


— 


371,496 




NoTsmbor 


24t,(;ie 


458,441 


. . 16 


December 


247,330 


435,434 


. , 19 


18S3. 








JiDOmiy 


238.992 


461,343 


. . 19 


Febnury 


239,751 


432,477 


. - 18 


lUreh . 


240,466 


. 420,243 


. . 17 


ApHl . 


2I5.S12 


. 882,076 


. . lee 


M.r . 


191,199 . 


. 289,975 


. . 16 


Judo 


168,038 . 


256,678 


. . 15 



FACTS or THE COTTQSr FAMDTE. 



l'^63- 


<>is •i£W-nk, 


aaSmtmi. 




Julr 


1TS.203 


313.4U . . 


l?9per( 


Angoat . 


171.535 . . 


2t)4,603 . . 


n» « 


September 


loO.SSo - . 


194.136 . . 


114 ^ 


Ocfiuber . 


1.34.21^ . . 


167.679 


108 „ 


Xovember 


139. U7 . . 


170,268 . . 


lOT „ 


IXecember 


l^,Od» . . 


180,298 . . 


liO „ 


1864. 








Januanr . 


150.tU3 . . 


•02.785 . . 


m „ 


Febniarr 

4* 


153.564 . . 


203,168 . . 


l» r. 


March . 


148.320 


130j)27 . . 


120 „ 


April 


li4.S2S 


147.2S*) . . 


117 ., 


Mat 


IH.Sot) 


116,088 


99 ,, 


Jane 


106 J «1 . . 


100,671 . . 


95 » 


July . 


101.568 . . 


85.910 . . 


84 „ 


Aa^nst 


1»K.«)90 . . 


83.>}63 . . 


81 „ 


September 


135.521 . . 


92,379 . . 


« „ 


October . 


171.568 . . 


136.268 . , 


78 „ 


Norember 


153,2'.)3 . . 


149.923 . . 


»7 „ 


December 


126,977 . . 


130^97 . . 


102 ^ 


18«. 








Jarnunr . 


1U.4S8 


119544 


IW n 


Febnxary 


115.727 


125.885 . . 


IW t. 


March . 


113,794 


llljH)8 


w „ 


April 


104.571 


95.763 


91 „ 


Mat 


86,C'01 . . 


75,784 . . 


88 ^ 



It i^ abundant I V clear from the aK>ve table that the central 
exeo-itive were very early alive to the Jan;::er oi promoting per- 
manent p'Uip*:rrism, an-i that they repressoil with firm hands all 
tendenoie-: in that direction : first by the exclusion from relief of 
all except cotton operatives, and then by ci.mtinual pressure upon 
the abIe-lH>lie»;l. so :is morally to compel them to seek for other 
emplovment. To the return is.sued in June, ISiJo. the following 
fxjt-note was appen^led by Mr. Maclure : — 

'* The impetus recently given to the cotton trade, which there 
is everv reas«jn to l>elieve will be steadilv maintained, has enabled 
all but nine of the one hundred and seventv Lxral committees to 
either discontinue, or fdve notice that thev will immetiiatelv sus- 
pmd the distributi'»n of relief. Under these circumstances I do 
not intend to publi.sh further rt^turns; and therefore take this 
opportunity of stating, in justice to the honorary- secretaries of the 
various local committ^.-es. that it is mainlv due to their care that 
80 accurate a statistical record of the cotton famine has been kept 
during the years 1802-5." 



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r^r^,.^,.H^p4rHi^r-li-ie4(NC4C-IC«0JC4C4C4 



•J 

o 

Si? 

n 
o 



CHAPTER XIII. 



King Cotton — MiflMke of Sonthern ^ympftUusen— SuffaringBof the People— Sid:- 
nna uiil Mortality not iDcmwd — Analyde of the Sulwcriptinns— Colnnutl ud 
Foraign CoDtribationi—Tlie "G«rg« Cnsin)ld''~AdiirCM to raptain Lnnt— 
Coutributioii of the New 8od«y uf Fkinten in W»tcr Coloura — Mr. Ansdcll— 
List of Subscriptions uid Baluices T«muim^E iii huid — Compuimii of the Smu 
■ubacrihsd to the Cotton Funine, th« Koir&l P&triotic Fiuul, the Indian HalJll]r 
Fuinl, the Hartley Colliery Puni Jtc — CompariLtive Statement of Local Sub- 
ioription*. Poor SaXe, and Central EiecalivB Contributious— Causes of the Vmd 
Preoure of Diatrcaa — Itemiwions of Kent in Various Localities — Percentage of 
Unoollected Rates, lSGl-4— Batea and Factoty Awmuents at Aahton, Buy, tad 
Gloamp— Adjournment of Central Executive ritM die— ProiMied Dupou^oCtha 
Balance of the Fund. 

The word famine has hitherto beea almost exclusively applied to 
the existence of a short supply of food, resulting from bad harvests ; 
and much foolish fury has from time to time been vented against men 
who have "forestalled the market" and hoarded stocks of grain for 
the Bake of higher prices ; but who, whilst pursuing only their own 
selfish interests, have really performed for society the office which 
the captain of a ship disabled at sea does for his crew, when he puts 
them upon short allowance to enable them to reach the destined 
port alive. In Lancashire, in 1S61-5, whilst bread was plentiful 
and cheap, we yet had all the evidences of famine except fever 
and pestilence ; and these were only prevented by the extraordi- 
nary liberality by which the universal public, from the Queen on 
the throne to the brigade of shoeblacks who ply their vocation in 
the streets of the metropolis, met the cry of distress, and rushed to 
its relief. The advisers of the Southern States of North America, 
when they declared Cotton to be King in EngLinJ, and calculated 
upon the aid of Groat Britain in their struggle for independence, 
knew that the arrangements of modem society had rendered cotton 
almost a& important and necessary to the well being of Lancashira 
as even com itself. They foresaw the trouble of the Lancaiihire 
operatives, and perhaps remembered the former reputation of the 



F 



SUPFKRINOS OF TOE PEOPLE. 

county for lawlessness, as illustrated by the frequent inquiries of 
tlie second King George, who. when visitors from that county carae 
to court, frequently asked, " Well, we!l, well ; are you all quiet in 
Lancashire now ?" They doubtleaa calculated that the operatives 
of Lancashire would oblige the government to fetch them cotton to 
spin at all hazards. They saw clearly enough the trouble which 
must arise from the blockade of the cotton ports, hut they did not 
see the hundreds of thousands of hands which would be stretched 
forth to help ; tliey saw half a million of men, women, and children 
deprived of the means of earning daily bread, but they did not 
see that, whether earned or not, bread would be supplied; and that 
the mora! tone of the people would even bo improved under their 
sufferings, by the universal sympathy extended towards them. Nor 
did they calculate upon the appreciation of causes and the intense 
love of fair play, which now forms a large element in the conduct 
of the operative claases of this country. In matters where they 
can, or think they can, trace their sufferings home to the conduct 
of an individual or of a class, the operatives are still a formidable 
body to deal with ; but when a trouble is inevitable, heing demon- 
strably due neither to the conduct of employers nor of the govern- 
ment; or when they believe that they suffer in a good cause, the 
trouble ia borne just as bodily illness woidd be — patiently, if not 
stoically, and with a belief that, in some way or other, good will 
come out of it. So much we owe to the iafluence of day-schools, 
to penny newspapers, and other cheap literature. The suffering 
during the cotton famine was very great and was nobly home ; 
the email hoards of the most prudent operatives were gradually 
exhausted — the best clothes were turned into food— the neat 
household furniture wa« consumed — the beds were exchanged for 
straw — the much-loved musical instruments and the little cottage 
Kbrary were sold — and the trim cottage itaelf was often ex- 
for a single room, an attic, or a cellar; until many a 
■well-conducted and saving man found himself at last, after all his 
struggles, and all his self-denying care, at the door of the relief 
committee or the boanl of guardians ; on a level with the idler or 
the spendthrift who had for years despised advice, and who had 
long lost all sense of shame. But now came in the strong help- 
■ing hand, ner\'ed by the patriotism and benevolence of the whole 
empire; aud the last and fatal effects of famine — pestilence and 



trouble 
Btoicallj 
■ come ou 
^■to penn; 
^^ during 
^K the ema 
^K exhaust 
B houaeho 
H straw — 
H Kbrary 
1^ changed 



p'i"'* -I 



FiiT--? :f thz ■"T7:.!r tajcss. 



ir'tr.'^;:': irr r- i • t r :«:tL '■■ r • t^- -^iiiiii;?. mil rre. were sup- 
0'. r-: :z ■■•irn/.'Tii- "jr r;. r^..:n> -. zuuz.m:d. jt-t -ih': h^ral'.h: and the 
-....-r: T-rrir- t ^'rf- ^iiT-ro;; pjiasei .^-r 'JL*7 -Mrr-ia 'iiiCricts with- 
: ' : * i r. ~ -Jr^n.-: ': ■> . j.i t vl-t f ii.-T-ki- iz« i "v:: !i. : ii: i^izreiisi n:? the fe- 
. : v.-.-T .-■ -^T :-:i-i- -■ l1 E'-rr-- izt/iir^ -•tt: .:e. ro.c b^ ^Le central 

- :-:'•.':•:■-: rr>':> -'• 12. -lie :• r.-l7:iij.-i. G. r -Ji^se pLcaain:^ iicis. and in 
■:--T ..L-- ..:-Tri>^ rrT:#:r: i:;.-::-!. ":i:»f I-.e- mrv •jecr-r-arv xriTe as follows: 

* 'T'.'t v-^.-ir !'?«'+ "'-ili "ri:-; -razie zx^^ ic? :::»r rw-;. which went 
-^'' r^: w 1-Ji T'-iifT-.^s i-rzs.'-.r^TTt.'.r: ''znz 'JL ?*:• 'JXT is rtgiscers <rf 
:-;--■;. ir.i ii>*r:i.T*r '-i/L-f-i zuij ':»r l:«:i-i:<i 'ip* a is an evidence of 

- .- -'/.■:■ ':^ir:.. ->.- :■ r^-.c r^iznz- lu^ :j£.tfti :-:■ brJi:^ in its train 
i;.- : -.L: -tr -r-.-.r t-*.-:*! "L-e zl-^t ?;iz--:iz.-r ^Lrh: have fearvd. 
I;. "..^ -. . :--rv .--r^Lrr-i.lv -.1^ i-rii-l :.L "Vaj -in-i-S^iailv hi^^h. A 
- .. I'i'.lj -ir-ri'iri -.-r.-fr- .: •rM->r: s. -rii.- r:t«::ni the experience of 

• ■:. •.■r;--r-. -:>. vt rLi: tL-r iT-rrjuTT irjiiiu racrr 'i-f mortality among 
•-.-r :*-r*.Ur= in •.■■vn.'? ::. Enji.Loi i= •fxt-r'rS'iei bv f4i in the 

• . . :-;:Li : Lis' v-rar :: r j.-tirL-^i :L-r biji-^r a^^T*:'rite of 25*81 
S- "r. '-.^:rij :":.•= Mr^i'.: .:' "l-r rrT'ir:!.' rr ■--:. :Lr ot.Hin'.rv i^enerallv, 
!: :.-. '.v.:-:a.v TV v.- d-i :L^r. ii. s: r'ir i^ *.'va? dl^rlcti arecon- 

■ r:."\. Zi'.\ wL-T T'is -.h.-rr^ i.:- i-r i.-:r:::cA:r: in .Tease over preced- 
::.j ■ ;:>. ^;;': •;::-? -i.:*:':il :.. r':;>.l.":y :-ll :^I:-v rLe avor:i^e of the 
.■-••■ /-: ■ V ::ir- : :-Lr ^■■"^^ -1 vi-'. 7^.! . 1 :.. '^.-f- S^T-i'^ry Asc?*x-:ai ion's 
r :' . ■:.- Ir. ■■:".. -7 ~ .-i.-: "...r i-r ■.".'_- :" -r ■'..i- vrir ^v^re at the rate 

..■ . - .r_-y_^:_^-; . -.-. -'.^ . *'._ .•>,,:. : A* . .7j.-.'arT'i '.vi:!- :-.vcn:y-niiie. the 

[f._-".:r Drrir- '.\'.\:i :•:> tL- rv.i:: :.ii\i:::oe> '»-.iI'.i not have; 
•:■. • :::r;::j ki:.:: D:^::^ :.::.i^-rl: :ir:r:i.- :1.a: tl.vir urran^emeLts, 
i;. i ,-.;:]:: *'..-■: >::rr\ li^^-rL-i-y ..-: ^.rir !- -f z-.iAr-l: i:i<. hnvt^ n«-»t only 
pr vTir'- i :t:i i:i-:r-:ri.v"r ot i;i* hirv--*. 'tiu: iiAV'.' vv^ii hindered his 
',-!:. '. -rk. I.'Ti U.-r t:i-.--e •;:>■:■ :::i-r;;iiioes wo '?;iu Mtt.T'i to think 
i!j- :.*!.' '.f r.:i*,- ir:if»'">airi"n- pr:i.:-Vi-e'i tr lu time t" ti::if iijv«n the 
f .■■:. ./.r--:^ ]}•: -ui i-,— Tvin^f nv.-ijiieiii-, a:. I t'> l.^.'k widi interest to 
r.li'- - ^.rr:-'. ;iirl rl.-- ch/irrtctor or' th?:: mtaii< by which tliis great 
n-~.i:* wh". .'tolii^v.r'l. 

'I li'- b*'.k- or" rlj'r contral ex-outivr- sli"W thirtv-nino thousand 
t-'.j\r Iriri'lr^-'i jui'I iiirj»-ry-:i,;ht s<.'p:jrito eiitri •> i»f subscript ituis up 
r-, '\.' t-uA h\ fj«'0«-mb-r. IS04. r-invr-vt-d in ri*jlirv->ix thousand seven 
II ■Ml- if '■'!;. nil -i\tv-r"';iir l»-t:<-rs: whirh lon.rs.in Doc-.-nibor. 1-M>-. and 
J inu:ijy, l>s<;:;, c:nn(i to haml at the rate ot\ij[lit hundred per day. 



ANALYSIS OF THE SUBSCRIPTIONS. 

The letters despatched up to the end of December, iSdi. were one 
ihundred and fil'ty-five thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, 
besides five hundred and eighty-two printed documents, which 
BQmbered one hundred and aisty-jive thousand seven hundred and 
Iwenty-four copies. 

The total sum dealt with in the balance sheet of 31st December, 
1864, is £931,398. Is., of which amount £13,510. 7s. is set forth 
" promised but not collectable." In some instances the donors 
have themselves, after partial payment, fallen victims to the crisis ; 
in others, payment is probably refused upon the plea that the 
Snoney is not needed ; aud we hope that the men whose consciences 
will allow them to enjoy the reputation of having given, whilst the 
money ia still in their own purses, are very few indeed. 

The total sum dif^tributed in relief by the central executive 
through the various committees was £841 ,809. To this the Mansion 
[ouse committee added ^£419,61)2, besides sending ;£53,53l to com- 
mittees in Ashton-under-Lyne district which were nut recognised 
by the central executive ; and the various committees themselves 
le local collections amounting to £297,008, and received direct 
Etom other sources £49,Cd9. To the amount of local subscrip- 
£oDS is to be added about £80,000 collected in Manchester, and 
Mid direct by the collectiog committee into the funds of the 
pneral committee. Thus the total sum of money distributed by 
Sommittees was £1,661,079 ; in addition to which there passed in 
bod and clothing, through the hands of the central executive, 
iutteen thousand five hundred barrels of flour, nine hundred and 
dnety-seven barrels of beef, bacon, &c.; five hundred barrels of 
biscuits; four hundred and ten cases of fish ; two hundred and 
renty-eight sacks of potatoes, carrots, turnips, &c.; two hundred 
id twenty-five deer ; with many hundreds of pheasants, bares, 
nbbits, &c.; twenty-eight chests of tea ; two and a half pipes and 
ne hundred and eight dozens of wine; eleven thousand five 
lundred and nineteen tons of coal ; and eight hundred and ninety- 
!e bales of clothing, blankets, and clothing materials. The 
'hole of these contributions in kind were valued at ^111,968. 
:ing the total amount of public subscriptions, £1,773,647. 
targe contributions of clothing and materials fur clutbing passed 
through the Mansion House commif.tee, but of the value of 
le no accurate estimate seems to have been made. 



Tii '.iilui'T-^LT-rT : -.Ir r-ntrL -rirriurlTe to 31«t December, 
'.'*•'?. *j^ ^'? '^r r-:-:]:- :: ".^^-—'7:^-: -h.iii'saz.d nine hondred 
iz : z..--:-7-:i_:it ---;Lri-T .z.L~ :lj1 iiUkC'rc*. azzioantin^ to 
c-ri'*' " li' '*'L : _: -. 1- 1- -L-Tr-z zL .'Zi^iz^'i ind ninerv-threc 
:.:::".-. .5 az. i .•■:ir*f!j? :: £'.*• i. ." ■;'?. 'L: xLl-ecriona fri:>ai fire 
-- :v:^i : ::r iiz-It:: ii.: t^tt^ riLTji-i? ■:£ £^j'^.5l7. >&. 2A; 
:•:.-£- ::z> izi- z^** ".lie "«" riT»i- "— .z :cr "il'.iian'i four hundred 
JL-: ,:-ir.--:- ::r i::z^ .c £'-'t1* s. 4«i G: Il-firtin:? ci^mmineea 
■*":7z . r^.ir.".> -i. ii. :zt !::• r^i-.- -■^; '--r-.'-^.i Azii :ortv-«^ne places 
m : -Lr.:::- "^".:L :!:; :\LTr-il :■ z-ZiIti^z^ \z M^nocester. excliiave 
-:" :!:- :• Tim.":.-.^ .z .■ Lz-f-.-i- z. y.'z. '-i ilir^:*. c Hoase frxnJ : and 
- : i r. ~> c" :!i:'?«f -vji rT~-_-T.-: : il-in-.L-r^'.-r r=&iilic»l in the 
* ...1 :" £?.•"" T'*'! !'-. li > tiij.:. Lz'i'irjLZ^ irini tb.^ individual 

i .:.■■-- :L- .".• -cj-L-rL i'^ ••• rsii-i ii. '.j lie M^uichcster 

• - . • « « » ■ « 

1 -* ;:*.. :? ■_-: >•.• z:.iz~' :* j: -.: ". :„.I ". •tZ.t'^ . ".-tL. >r. c-ne-icvcntli 
"7 :.. :..-.•;:: 'i- ._ '.-w-.^ .: ^ r>!i:T. mi j..- :: :::T-fir::eiIi tr;«m 
:';. . v ta:: ^ ">.• -. .e : •!: ;. 1 ' - i ■ ■-in :i? dnis. L.«: kin^: to the 

-.-■■■- . Au, ->.. . ■. r . ... -■ .ii.;-.--:" '^ :-> :.r either 






"> r 



^ ■ 



^' " — 



7%'.*-: 






"* _..?. »• tr 




THE "OEOROE GEISWOLD." 235 

I utterly ashamed of the few rich men who in various localities 
isod to subscribe, we are yet eminently satisfied with the total 

lult ; and feel that Lancashire may stand any amount of honest 
and fair criticism without a blush. 

Of the whole amount of foreign and colonial eubBcriptious 
(£93,041. 178, Id.), fifty-five per cent was sent from Australia, 
including New South Wales; a sum which, compared with the 
population of the colony, had no equal out of Manchester ; and 
this contribution speaks very eloquently for the character of the 
people, and for the prospects of emigrants to that country. Next 
on the list of foreign donors stands North America, credited for 
£1,333. OS. lid. in money and about £27,000 in provisions. 

This subscription from America, occurring during their own 
terrible civil war, was so unprecedented, that some people thought 
it a bribe to induce England to take sides with the Federals in the 
struggle ; but conversation with persons coming from the Northern 
States always tended to show that all they wished and cared for 
was t« be let alone; and the various official or unofficial offers at 
mediation, from this side of the Atlantic, were always similarly 
met by the Federal government. The subscription originated with 
George Oriswold, a merchant of New York, who freighted liis own 
ship, bearing bis own name, and paid the salaries of the officers and 
sailors, and sent them across to the old country, to help the dis- 
trossed operatives of Lancashire. And it is probable that his noble 
example, aided by the knowledge that the United States were indi- 
rectly the cause of the trouble, increased this solid expression of 
sympathy, and sent supplies of food to tens of thousands of unwil- 
ling idlers on this side the water. When the " George Griswold" 
arrived in Liverpool, the Custom House officials had learned 
from the government that they had no duties to perform on board ; 
the Liverpool authorities declined to receive dock or town dues ; 
and everybody engaged, down even to the dock porters and landing 
waiters, alike declined to be paid for their services. So great an 
act of benevolence on the part of foreigners even broke through 
the red tape bands of the government, and inspired everywhere the 
same benevolent inclination ; in which the railway companies also 
joined, carrying the cargo free of cost ; and the occasion was fitly 
celebrated by making the captain of the "George Oriawold" 
the guest of the corporation of Liverpool, and of the general 



1 



FACT8 OF THE COTTON FAMISE. 




At the Uanchester dinner, the fol- I 
a morocco caae, was presented to 



committee at Manchester, 
lowiog address, eaclutied ii 
OaptaJQ Luut : — 

" To Captain LuDt, commander of the ship ' George Griswold' 

" St. — ^Tiie general committee of the fund for the reliftf of tie 
4istre3s tu the maiiiifacturing dietncLs feel that Id meeting yoa, u 
the representative of the New York iutematiooal relief fund, u 
ordinary words c^n exprais the welcome they desire to give to tiu 
muniticeut contribulian which vou have home from the New World 
to the Old. They welcome you as the citizen of a great nation. 
which, in the troubles of her own domestic strife, cannot forget th« 
sufferings of those whose languj^e, traditions, and faith are insepa- I 
rable from her own. They recognise in this generous sympathy ' 
for the unmerited privations of the cotton workmen au overflow of 
that charity which is alike the bond of social harmony and one muQ 
security for international peace. They desire to say, on behalf of 
the workmen who have t-ndure<l with such intelligent patience the ' 
calamity which you corae t« mitigate, that the remembrance of tbi^ 
help in the time of need will be treasured up, to yield hereafter an i 
abundant harvest. For themselves, as representing those possessed ' 
of wealth and all its attendant advantages, thuy assure you that, 
in proportion as their own hearts liave been stirred by the danger 
and misen,' of their poorer countrjmen. are they rendered anscep- 
tible of all the grateful emotions which they desire to express to yott 
from the whole English people, who have succoured the cottOfl < 
workmen in their need, and especially from thoso counties whidi^ 
have been the scene of a crisis marked by a wonderful concert rf 
exertion, sacrifice, and patience. They hope that, on your return tS 
America, you will, on behalf of all classes, in this country, ex] 
the united British wbh that nothing shall ever occur to intemi] 
that brotherly feeling which now exists between the two count 
a feeUng which this noble and generous act must tend gre*tly 
strengthen and cemenf. They desire, finally, to thank you, 
Bonally, most warmly, for the generous self-devotion which indi 
you to take charge of the ' George Griswold,' and they ask you 
convey to the owners of that vessel their grateful acknowledgmt 
for the noble manner in which they placed it at the disposal of 
munificent donors of its precious froigh t. These acta have u 



ADDRESS TO CAPTAIN LUNT. 237 

a corresponding feeling in this country. Your cargo has been 
received without port or dock dues, and carried to its destination 
without charge. In conclusion, they desire to express a hope that 
you may long enjoy the cheering recollection of having been able 
BO greatly to assist in this work, and thus inseparably to connect 
your name with this great proof of international sympathy. 

" Signed, on behalf of the general committee of the fund for the 
relief of the distress in the manufacturing districts, 

" Abel Heywood, mayor, chairman. 

" John W. Maclure, honorary secretary." 

Captain Lunt, in responding, said : ** Gentlemen, — ^The address 
that has now been read to me, I have-listened to with greater plea- 
sure than I have words to express ; and I tender you my warmest 
thanks, in the name of those I this day represent here — the owners 
of the ' George Griswold,* and the donors of the cargo. Tliey will 
be highly gratified with this most cordial welcome. The contribu- 
tions of the merchants of New York were given solely for their 
sympathy with your suflfering operativea Stevedores, tug-boats, 
pilots, shipping masters, all contributed their services. I am happy 
to publish this, the right good fellowship of the labouring classes 
in so good a cause. On my arrival at the port of Liverpool I found 
the steam companies vieing with each other to tow my ship to port 
free of charge. The dock and town dues were remitted — the ship 
docked and discharged — the cargo coopered and landed — and trans- 
mitted to its various destinations free of any charge. My heart 
warms to each and every one of those volunteers whose liberality 
I deem it only right to them publicly to acknowledge. I shall ever 
cherish the friendly feeling shown to me in Liverpool and Man- 
chester ; and I shall carry back to my country the noble reception 
given to the * George Griswold* and her cargo, and the good feeling 
expressed for the United States by many able gentlemen, at dif- 
ferent times, since my arrival. God grant that the war desol.iting 
our land may soon be settled — that trade and commerce may 
flourish once more — and that England and America may evur 
extend the hand of good fellowship to each other." 

Subscriptions were also received (chiefly given by British resi- 
dents) from Austria, South Africa, the Brazils, China, Canada, the 
Cape of Good Hope, Egypt, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Holland, 



l-alj. Luna. Jbevx liMfwrm 3K]«» 3eod% TXewbamBmad, New 
Zi^k.-mif. IfciHHBk SoBiL SmyrsA 
TizsLST. ami loe W>sk Istxxisa. 



AsbBUCsc ^oe 31I1R ixixs9R9cnff of ciie borne safaKriofeiDBS wm 



ac :& z^saiSBaL austismiru razoiac •ocn.iiiemlMBrtocaDtnlNrtftaBeCcr 

yiiirntfsoHC. aoit IrsnopiwL ami juia w jiLilii aDocted to — Vf^lftf 
aspriaea. T&m .tegagawaitaftimiTaoAyqeriedqag^AeeJ^^ 
pci:»bjr ^oKe immxreii amitaggxHiBL cuunbucniaa^ rained mk £/iJSM, 
aaii r^ssoIoHi izi an. unrnson u tsb& prtirf tdnd rf A^OlL 16k 9i 
Xr. A3AXi£iI zivni 3i sie jmii ^aoi^ ac hni amssc woAsr '^Tke HinlBd 
SL&^rif .'' voiesL was au» ibpiKM.jt bjIiKUsafaflmbon^HidMlind 
£ol>^. Se. The KaikSB s£ ^oje A-Am& Wartrnktm «!■> sabnlnd 
£3.-3o-4 I0& liL As ;&!mKcbicw&ka die anshor steaded iaMajk 
je<H:iie. Ljri Kteasiuirk iCkKii taiAC s adbscc^cuaL bad be^ mmk 
a2b:a:£sc she L}iu&iiL bngaift^ of Jioeblackak ami tbafe womm of &b 
{ifs wunlil if imatRxreti bj die ■Tmrmntanimi of die daHa%pit 
CO sOiiaxe mAzij of die jftz^esc caBoexiMiixxs. Tbe leada^vDao 
•ioubc mui a &c of die prmcipal cintcnbiEQbiis ii m'H' iiM ng , Borii 
i^ -k:^iT dios ^ime -vill jeggea die iimxnrauice of die record. 






F^acFi^ Ljca:. '^-juucrsn CoBxzma a -m Ca 









i$. L £ 3. L £ %. I. 



Ajdenhac ?«jU 1* i — 

JLc:a — — 

JLnndtix ijg J 1 — 

Aiinriim : . . . . i**5 < i: I ) ) 

Asinitt.raie ..... Jl4 -fc 2 

ATJairjirj i'i4 li 3 

.Lambnrr ..... 141 4 ) — 



^j ^sw KiBBOB Bum 



SUBSCBIFnONS AND BALANCES. 



239 



Amoont Remitted Amoant Remitted 



Brought forward 
Ab e ryi t with 
Aberdare 
Alfreton 
AberaTon 
Btrmingham 
Bristol . . 
Burton-on-Trent 
Burton -on -Trent (Working 

Men's) 
Brierle J HiU 
Barnard Castle 
Blackpool (Operatiye 
Banbory 
BiomsgroTe 
Bradford, Yorkshire 
Beanmaris . 
Beocles 
Boxton 

Buxton (Special Fand) 
Bideford . . 
Barnstaple . 
Bridport . . 
Bury St. Edmonds 
Balham HiU, Sarrey 
Bererley 
Backingham 
Batley . . . 
Bridgenorth 
Birkenhead 
BirstaU . . 
Bilston . . 

Bamham (do retani) 
Brentford 
Brighoose 
Boumemonth 
Briton Ferry 
Bedford 
Hath . . 



to the 
Central FoxuL 

£ S. d. 

2,562 18 8 

270 3 10 

675 12 6 

238 1 8 

30 

8,000 

5,000 

665 15 2 

280 

286 7 

77 1 3 

90 9 

800 

10,500 

294 

93 8 6 

156 



38 
322 
469 

1,167 
194 
244 
728 
500 
153 

1,240 
227 
200 



16 5 

6 2 

5 4 

11 2 



10 

10 

19 





1 

7 
6 




17 9 



9 9 





171 9 10 

500 

300 

170 



to 
Other Fondi. 

£ s. d. 

9 



«20 



•17 6 
•711 6 6 

*97 11 11 



•150 



•333 17 7 

ns 



•2,333 10 9 



Balance in Hand. 
£ s. d. 



6,816 19 7 



24 13 7 
11,178 4 



5 2 2 
200 7 5 



150 

23 11 

156 4 8 

1 18 3 

50 9 7 



38 10 8 



Carried forward £36,647 19 6 £3,667 14 3 £18,645 17 3 

*To Ifacdesfield *To the hospital Aind, for cotton operatiree* benefit 

*To the hospital fand, for cotton operatires' benefit Balance not arailable for the g«neral por- 
poeee of the central relief committee. 

«To Halliwell, £30 ; to Oldham, £48. 16«. 7d. ; to West Bockland, £10 ; to Hindlej, £8. ISa. 4d. 

*To Sheffield. £218 ralue in goods sent to the central committee in addition. 
•To the Mansion House committee. 'To BippondeiL Yarioos sums still to collect. 



240 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FABQNE. 



Amoant Remitted Amount Remitted 



BroQght forward 
Bath Eaaton 
Berwick -on Tweed (English 

side) . 

Cotton Districts Relief Fand 
Canterbarj 
Chapel-en4e-Frith 
Cheltenham 
Cirencester 
Carmarthen 
Cambridge Uniyersity 
Chichester . 
Chester (City) . 
Chester (County) 
Crewe 
Cleckheaton 
Cardiff . . 
Cockermonth 
Chelmsford 
Crayen 

Chesterfield ^ . 
Chestal 

Castletown, Isle of Man 
Carnarvon 
Christchurch 
Dudley 
Darlington 
Doncaster . 
Devon port . 
Durham 
Derby . 
Dewsbury . 
Dowlaifl 

Dolgelly (no return) 
Dartmoor 
Droitwich . 
Dorsetshire 
Dorchester 
Duraley 
Denbigh 
Exeter 



to the 
Central Fond. 

£ s. d. 

36,647 19 6 
138 8 9 



85,732 

1,748 

200 

3,678 

148 

648 

3,301 

1,303 

1,685 

4,405 

1,138 



12 
14 

7 2 
19 6 
4 
3 10 

5 10 
3 6 
3 3 

6 6 



406 6 1 

1,200 

156 12 6 

212 14 1 

2,500 5 1 

1,358 13 

902 17 3 

1,590 17 9 

500 

141 3 3 



527 12 9 
141 9 3 
188 6 2 



to 
Other Fonda 

£ 8. d. 

3,667 14 3 



»557 7 3 

»1,000 

•32 14 9 

•428 7 1 



*28 15 



Balance in Band. 

£ f. d. 
18,645 17 3 



55,995 
88 5 7 



4 5 



140 8 8 



•100 



830 



130 6 1 



Carried forward £150,502 16 3 £5,814 18 4 £75,284 2 7 

*To the Mansion Hotiiie committee. 

*Di«tribtited locally. Balance rcMrved for local dlstrera. 'To various local committeea 

*To Rev. F. H. Willianu, Aahton-nnder-Lyne, £13. On. ; to Quoonjiland emigration fiind, £15. lOa 

•TV) Sheffield. 



SUBSCHIPTIONS AND BALANCEa 



241 



Amoont Remitted Amoant Remitted 





to the 




to 


BaUnoein Hand. 




Central Fand. 


Other Pondi. 








£ 8. 


d. 


£ S. d. 


£ 8. 


d. 


BroQght forward 150»602 16 


8 


5,814 18 4 


75,284 2 


7 


ETesham 


534 12 


5 


— 


— 




EIUnd-cnm-Groetlmnd 


803 11 


1 


— 


32 





Earlsheaton .... 


180 





— 


— 




EbbwYale .... 


422 4 10 


— 


— 




Eccleshall 


140 19 


S 


— 


— 




East Monlaey 


60 





— 


20 





East Dereham .... 


202 8 


4 


— 


— 




Fayenham 


— 




— 


— 




Fenton, near Stoke 


185 7 


11 


— 


— 




Falmoiith 


147 3 


11 


— 


— 




Felfltead, Essex . . . 


— 




— 


— 




Fleetwood (no retom) 


— 




— 


— 




Great MalTem 


1,141 


9 


— 


— 




Gateshead .... 


362 19 


2 


— 


— 




Gloucester .... 


5.752 6 





* 2,942 12 2 


— 




Grantham .... 


776 18 11 


— 


— 




Gainsborough 


— 




— 


— 




Godalming 


— 




— 


— 




Grimsby .... 


343 6 


3 


— 


1 11 





Gaisborongh 


117 12 


10 


— 


— 




Gladestig (no return) 


— 




— 






Grangemouth 


45 





— 


4 14 


8 


Greenfield .... 


— 




— 






Gofiport .... 


300 





— 


— 




Hastings 


3,080 


8 


— 


— 




Heme Bay 


.— 




— 


>^ 




Hanging Heaton, Dewsbur} 


r 10 16 





— 


— 




Hnddersfield .... 


2,000 





•972 


5,134 5 





Harrogate .... 


550 





— 


90 





Hitchin 


450 7 


4 


— 


-~ 




Huntingdon 


374 19 


2 


— 


— 




Hasel GroTe .... 


50 





— 


— 




Heckmondwike 


314 12 





-» 


U9 1 


6 


Homcastle 


169 12 


9 


• 


— 




Hertford 


543 2 


10 


— 


— 




Howden .... 


191 8 


7 


— 


.— . 




Hanley 


793 19 


8 




— 




Hartlepool ..... 


106 3 


6 


— 






Holywell .... 




9 


— 






Carried forward 


£170,153 10 


£9,720 10 6 


£80,715 1-1 


9 



^Sent thmngh Tariotu channela. 
'DiHtribnted in local relief. Cloth ami inAiorialii, purchaaed at a ooflt of £.t07. sent in arldition. 
£500 fttr Sheffield lias boon placed at the dupoiwd of the committee, and £100 haa ninuo iK-eii vuttxl to 
the guardianii fur the relief of local diitreaa, and more i« iikelj to be rec^nired for this ptiriMHe 

R 



242 



FACTS OP THE COTTON FAMINE. 



Amoant Remitted Amount Remitted 



Brought forward 
Holmfirth . . 
Harting, Peterafield 
HorBham 
Hereford (Gty) 
Hangerford 
Hetton-le-HoIe 
Handflworth 
Hatfield . . 
Honiton 

Halifax . . 
Ipswich 
Kidderminster 
Kentish Town • 
Kensington 

Kendal and Lonsdale Wards 
Kingswinford . 
Kingston 
Keswick 
Kingsbridge 
Kettering 
Knaresborongh 
Liverpool 
Lewes . 
Llangollen 
Leeds 
Lowestoft 
Launcestown 
Longton 
Llanelly 
Leicester 
Leek 
Lichfield 
Leominster 
Langholme 
Loddon 

Lambeth (no retnm) 
Loath . 

London Unirersity College 
Long Buckby 



to the 
Central Fond. 

£ s. d 

170,153 10 9 

'599 19 4 

86 19 6 

846 14 8 

802 8 4 

• 63 9 6 

124 6 4 

150 

180 8 4 

147 7 8 

1,000 

2,000 

215 6 

1,670 

1,900 

186 14 

25 

95 

261 8 

200 

57,125 

133 3 2 

7,000 

314 1 9 

44 

660 

5,265 16 

370 

886 10 4 

283 6 7 



79 17 

255 10 

6 15 6 



to 
Other Fonda. 

£ 8. d. 

9,729 10 6 



•3,271 8 2 



•392 1 8 



*1,544 



*o67 4 



•60 



•60 



Ml 15 



Balance in Hand. 

£ 8. d. 

80,715 14 9 

90 



1,977 
1,088 



1,100 • 
1,600 • 



15 18 • 
35,579 II 11 



18,064 2 3 



Carried forward £252,130 17 3 £15,655 14 4 £140,175 2 6 

* Goods porchoned at a ooet of £200 8ont in Addition. *To various local committees. 

•To various local committoos, .€192. Is. 8d. ; to Sheffield, £200. •To whom not stated. 

'£200 to Lisbum, for Iritth distrew ; and £.tr>7. 4*. to the Tiee<la ladies' relief oommittea 

•To the Society of Friends* committee. 
'To the Mansion Honse and Dailtf TeUgraph committees. 



SUBBCBIPnONS ASD BALANCES. 



ludno 
sHurwood 
iMboroagh 
hyrTydTil 

.u>.i : : 

noath . . 
on . . 
italnAth 
eld . . 
l«m 

ton In tbo Man! 
Jaon 

m Mowbray 
BuheAd . 
>.mptoD . 
Bifleld . . 
iwlch . . 
«rt Pftpiell 
K)rt, Monmouth 
ieh . . 
■«fltlo-(in-Tjiie 
.rlt 

aBtlu-under-Ly 
wry . . 
SmndoD (GrMt 
Iwny Com puny 
d (UnWenuty) 
il (CUy) . 
d ICoantj) 
Btry . . 
t . . 
iry »ni Liiigle 

1 Gates 
mth . . 
th . . 
nee 
Agn . . 

DOUtb 


abin 

Qe 
Wet 


»„ 



Cwtnl Fuml OUm Fnub. 

£ ■. d. £ •. d. £ ■. d. 

!S2,1B0 17 8 15,666 U 4 140,176 3 S 

lOU 13 B — — 

1S1 14 1 — — 



60 
2 13 S 



Catriad forward £232,157 13 10 £15,665 15 7 £Ul,a37 3 I 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FASnNK. 




Ciutnl PuDd. 
t B. d. 

Btoaght forward 382,157 13 10 

Pi>ol8 880 16 1 

Pnntfpool 2 4 

Kipon 1.163 4 — — 

Ricbmond 915 o 9 — 

Beading ^i.iw — 18 19 11 

Rbyl 333 18 — — 

Rnncorn 84S 9 I *tO — 

Reddiloh 429 8 a — — 

Bngeley 322 13 6 — — 

Rnthin 60 — 

Raiahill SIO 

HomtBy 132 15 fl — — 

Rnabou 133 13 10 — — 

Bye 68 18 6 — — 

Ryda G03 — — 

Romford li)l 9 8 — — 

Retford East .... 83 — — 

Rotherluuii .... 1,041 00— — 

Bhrairabnrj .... 1,603 ID 1 — 

8l Fanona .... 3,739 19 — — 
Bt. Uargarat'a and St Joliu's, 

Weatminster . . I,M0 9 11 — 

Hi. BartboIoDiew'a ... 49 11 — 

fiL Lake's, Middlesex (do 

Bt. Marylubone 10,000 — 889 10 10 

St. Helena 2,550 8 6 — _ 

Stroud BoronKhJ . . . 3,1153 16 — — 

Siiffordahire (County) . . <,936 1 11 — _ 

Soathport 3.96-1 4 7 — 

Sydenham and Foreat Hill . 721 4 1 — 

Scarhro' 250 *410 — 

Settle 506 7 11 — — 

Swanaea 1,500 — 450 

Sunderland .... 1,787 4 6 — _ 

Seaham TTnrbaar ... 98 18 6 -- — 

Sevan Oalca .... 249 U 10 — — 

8toico-n pan-Trent ... 638 1 6 — _ 

SliaftelbnTy ..... 115 13 9 — — 

Stonehonae East . . . 30O — 69 5 

. . . , 163 9 '10 _ 

Carried forward £33G,6U]I1 1 £16,16314 2 £142,765 019 



SUBSCRIFnONS AND BALANCKa 



245 



Amount Remitted Amotuit Remitted 



Brooght forward 
Sheffield 

Stockton-on-Tees 
South Shields 
tteltssh . . 

Sudbury 

Shelf . . . 
Sandwich 
Sowerby Bridge 
Sandown 

Sonthwark {no return) 
Tunbridge Wells 
Teig^ mouth 
Tewkesbury 
TsTistock 
Thetford . . 
Tilbury (no return) 
Tredegar 
Tunstali . . 
Tenby . . 

Uttoxeter 
Upper Edmonton 
Ulverstone (no return) 
West Bromwich 
West Hartlepool 
Wordsley 
Worcester . 
Wolverhampton 
Whittington (no return) 
Workington 
Wetherby . . 
Wellington, SomerDot 
Wilton, Salisbury 
Wakefield . . 
Wimbledon 
Ware . . . 
Walsall . . 
Warwickshire . 



to the 
Central Fond. 

£ S. d. 

326,691 II 1 

2,&00 

483 16 3 

80 10 

199 12 3 

177 U 1 

61 10 1 

10 



733 8 2 

215 15 7 

203 11 5 

107 19 10 

84 7 4 

170 

268 8 

167 8 4 

144 11 4 

145 17 9 

500 

304 12 6 

356 5 U 

2,(.K)0 

3,616 6 

247 3 6 

240 

215 6 4 

75 

745 1 4 

321 12 11 

1.020 5 2 

6,017 11 4 



to 
Other FoimU 

£ S. d. 

16,163 14 2 



>424 7 



•1.080 8 6 
•70 



•114 



•188 19 6 



•17 10 6 

'55 



Balanoe in Hand. 

£ S. d. 

142,765 10 

8,161 



834 14 3 



121 8 8 



163 2 11 



710 



Can ied forward £348,055 1 £18,113 19 8 £152,285 G 8 

»£178 to RipiMiiHlen ; £10 to Blackburn; and £-2'M\. la, distribute*! in local reliet B.ilance 
rojuirfxl for the hjuho puri>o!*e. 

'DisburHmi in varidUM way:*. 'To whom n«»t xtatotL 

•To Hht'ffiolci, £100 ; to Mr. Lee. Manche«t*;r, JtU. 
•To Blat-kbuni, £l.'il. IK; to the Manoion Iluuse coniinittoe, £'M. 17»j Ml; to the IJaj)ti»*t relief 
fund, £^. ll^. Ml. 

•To Preston, £17. lOs. Od. 'To Salford, £60; to Bhickbum, £.0. 



246 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 



Amount Remitted Amoimt Bamitted 











to the 




to 






Central Fund 




other Funds. 




£ S. 


cl. 


£ 8. 


d. 


£ 8. d. 


Broaght forward 848,055 1 





18,113 19 


8 


152,285 6 8 


Wolverton 373 17 


4 


.— 




— 


Whitby . . 




• 


• 


368 7 


7 


— 




— 


Writtle . . 








146 7 


6 


— 




^^ 


Whitehaveii 








513 10 


6 


»665 4 


5 


— 


Warrington 








3,060 19 





— 




— 


Wrexham . 








9U0 





_ 




82 4 10 


Willenhall . 








100 





.— . 




11 4 7 


Wednesbury 








— 




— 




— 


Wareham 








163 12 


3 


-^ 




^. 


Workgop 








100 





— 




— 


York 








3,085 





— 




1,930 9 b 


Yeadon 








100 





— 




2 16 6 


Yarmouth 








4 1 





•715 





119 7 


YeoTil . . ' 








— 




— 




— 


Total . . . 


£356,970 16 


"2 


£19,494 4 


T 


£154,431 2 7 


IRELABD. 


1 








Belfast 4,378 


10 


— 




~. 


Cork (aty) 


• 


* 


1,800 





— 




— 


Cork (Coanty) . 


i 


1 


1,550 17 


11 


•27 7 


3 


— 


Down (Coanty) 


• 


• 


— 




— 




313 


Dablin 


• 


» 


25,000 









— 


Tyrone (County) no return 


— 


9 






— 


Total . . . 


£32,728 18 


£27 7 


3 


£313 


SCOTLAND 








Alloa 250 





— 




266 10 6 


Aberdeen 








8,000 6 


2 


— 




— 


Arbroath 








1,136 15 


8 






_ 


Alford . 












•85 8 


6 


— 


Blairgowrie 








— 




— 




— 


Banff . . 








1,063 18 


11 


— 




— 


Brechin 








— 




— 




• 


Berwickshire 








— 




— 






Cambusnethan . 








401 





— 




— 


Dysart 








263 19 


1 


— 




— 


Dundee 








6,125 9 


2 


— 




— 


Dumfries 








4,500 









^^■^ 


Dumbarton 








200 






M"0 





138 


Carried forwarc 


I £21,941 9 


£235 8 


6 


£404 10 6 



»To Cariiflle, £465. 49. 5<L ; to Dalston, £200. 
'Tn the Mansion JIoujio conimittoe. £700 ; to Blackbiim, £7. 10a. ; to Preston, £7. 10a. 
'Ti) the Dublin committee. *To the Aberdeen committee. 

•To Dontochor, £120 ; to Kirkintillock £30. Will send £70 in dne e «i 



SUBSCBIFTI0M3 AND BALANCES. 



247 



Aourant Bemittad Amount Remitted 



Bnmght forward 
Dankeld . . . 
Edinburgh 
Falkirk . . . 
Forfar .... 
Fife (Goontj) . . 
Qalashiels . 
Hawick 
Haddington 
Jedbargb 

ApOIbO ■ . . . 

Kirkcodbright . 

Kincardine on the Forth 

Kiriusaldy . . . 

Linlithgow 

Montrose 

Perth (City and County) 

Port Glasgow 

Peterhead 

Renfrew 

Selkirk (Coantj) 

SelkiriL (Burgh) 

Thurso . . 

Tillicoultry . . 



Total . 
N.B.— Parochial 



to the 
Central Fond. 

£ 8. d. 

21,941 9 

163 13 

84,265 4 8 

650 14 6 

817 11 6 

2,379 

488 19 

240 7 6 

527 7 7 

457 7 6 

135 5 

787 2 

49 5 7 

1,110 

4,023 10 

200 

803 6 

150 8 7 

108 4 1 

816 15 6 

126 



to 
Other Fonda. 

£ 8. d. 

235 8 6 



Babukoein Hand. 

£ 8. d. 

404 10 6 



*30 3 



£68,641 5 6 £265 10 6 £404 10 6 

collections are not included in the above returns. 
Compiled for the central executive committee, 

JoHH Wm. Maclubb, Hon. Sec. 

We insert also — 

Rbturhb fbom ths PaiHciPJLL Local CoLLaoma Committbcs n thb UHmn Kiho- 
DOM, SHowuia THB Balahcbs Rbtauied in Hand March 13, 1865. 



Ch$$hire . 


• 

. ^Birkenhead . 
♦Crewe . 

. *Bnxton 

•Cbapel-en-le-Frith 
•Chesterfield . 

. •Dorchester . 
. •Plymouth 

•East Stonebouse . 

•Tavistock 

Carried forward . 


£ B. 

23 11 
4 5 


d« 




£ 8. 

27 16 

379 1 
130 6 

193 6 


d. 



Derbjfshire 


200 7 

38 5 

140 8 


5 

7 
8 


Q 


Ihr9€t8hir$ 
Devonshire 


2 13 

69 5 
121 8 


3 


8 


1 
1 1 




• • 


• 


1 1 




£730 10 


8 



^Tu the Perth oommittoe. 



248 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAHINK 







£ 


8. 


d. 


£ 8. 


d. £ 8. 




Brought forward 






730 10 


8 


Denbigh . 


•Wrexham 








82 4 


10 


Essex 


•Brentford 








1 18 


3 


Olamorgansh in 


; •Swansea 








450 





Lincolnshire . 


•Grimsby 








1 11 





Middlesex 


•Kensington . 








1,100 





Norfolk . . 


Yarmouth 








119 


7 


Oxfordshire . 


•Banbury 


24 


13 


7 








♦University . 


10 


10 











City . 


1,000 








1,035 3 


7 


Staffordshire . 


•Bilston . 


156 


4 


8 








•West Bromwich . 


163 


2 


11 








•WiUenhaU . 


11 


4 


7 


330 12 
20 


Q 


Surrey . 


•Elast Moulsey 








4 




jrarwickshire 


•Birmingham . 








6,816 19 


7 


Westmoreland 


•Kendal 








1,600 





Worcestershire 


•Worcester 








740 





Yorkshire 


Bradford 


. 11,178 





4 








•Batley . 


150 














•Brighonse 


60 


9 


7 








•Dewsbury . 


330 














Huddersiield . 


. 5,134 


5 


*0 








•Harrogate 


90 





I) 








•Heckmondwikc 


149 


1 


6 








•Holmfirth 


90 














Halifax 


. 1,977 














•Knaresborough 


15 


13 


8 








Leeds . 


18,004 


2 


2 








♦Otlcy . 


50 














Sheffield. 


8,161 














Sowerby Bridge 


334 


14 


3 








♦Yeadon . 


2 


16 


6 








•York . 


1,930 


9 


5 


47,707 12 


5 
— 60,735 13 


Outstanding in 


England . 










Alloa 


266 


10 


6 








Dumbarton 


138 








404 10 


6 


(~)iif fttiirifliiirr in 


Scotland . 








V/i& vOM»&J.UiIJ L^ iU 




^^ *UtI 1 \J 



£61,140 3 

The committees marked thus (•) have remitted to the central fund sixty p 
cent of their hubscriptions. 

Triuted by order of the central executive committee, 

John Wm. Mac lure, Hon. iiee. 

The above list, whilst showing no great haste on the part < 
some of the collecting committees to strengthen the hands of tl 



ANONYMOUS SUBSCRIPTIONS. 249 

executive, is yet, with the addition of the balance at the 
i of the executive, the measure of the excess of benevo- 
fond the necessities of the crisis. 

f of the individual subscriptions were anonymous, and 
[ of very small sums, but they showed sufficiently that 
3[e of the suffering had become general, and that sympathy 
confined to any class. We append a few specimens : — 

£ 8. d. 

Money Box 090 

I Mite (various sump) — 

the Carrier, ditto — 

.n'B Mite 010 

rmpathies 07t) 

I 10 0* 

icar (weekly) 10 

8 in London, M. and K j 

2 6 

I Help of Man '. 050 

'onviviam Germanium 12 6 

ryman 050 

Dinner Weekly, per Fast and Give 6 

^ 6 

Shrewsbury 020 

rl 6 

rking Men, Shrewsbury 10 

in (prizes foregone) 2 

} the Distressed 6 

)r . 10 

trgeant, Market Bos worth ...... 010 

[aid 050 

ring of a Staffordshire Farmer 5 10 

wo weeks) 010 

rus Mali 12 6 

a Bachelors* Club 6 6 

Mechanics 086 

1 1 

y at St. Andrew's (half of his whole savings) . . 10 
1 

10 

Man of Cardross 2 6 

ler, Wroughton 10 

broad 16 

ek 10 

eed 053 

Fane, helped by Miss ilary 1 U 

son 6 

IJoy and Girl 050 

)f a Tarty at a (iame of Speculation 2 



250 FACTS OF THE COTTOK FAMIKE. 

£ S. d. 
A North Worceiterahire Rector 10 

Odds and Ends (oolleeted in FUey) t 

Six-Sevent7 . . . .' 100 

Alpha O20 

A Few Coachmakeis, DrifBeld 3 

Plain Roast and Boiled O40 

A Labourer 006 

A Widow 1 

A Poor Woman OOS 

Forty Little Boys (saved from pleasures osnal on 5th NoTember) 7 

With G. P. D/s OomplimenU U 1 

Savings of an Old 8moker*8 Pipe 2 

Instead of Giving New Tear*s Gifts 5 

^Sympathy . . ' 14 

'Ada 10 

Gertie 2 6 

Sea N 5 

Compromise for an Offence Against the Game Laws . 9 6 

A Penny Lecture on Cotton 16 8 

A Few Poor Boys, Boston 016 

Price of a Tnrkey, and Two Sobscriptions 14 

Three ChUdren, Mirfield 200 

A Triflo from a Housemaid 3 6 

Schoolboys, Scholes, Cleckheaton 6 

Servants in a Family 026 

A Poor Woman OlO 

Penny Gatherings, Creeshrook 6 6 

An Unionist American, Hong Kong 5 

A Lancashire Lad in Egypt 2 

A Sunday School Class OlO 

Proceeds of a Raffle 14 

It may safely be asserted that this outpouring of benevolence 
never was equalled ; and such a proof of the power of voluntary 
effort is demonstration, that whilst for normal requirements ratable 
contributions, under authority, are the proper sources of reliance, 
yet that for any extraordinary or imforeseen occurrence, the public 
spirit, the manliness, and the benevolence of the Anglo-Saxon race, 
will always efficiently provide. 

The subscription to the Indian Mutiny relief fund was in Lon- 
don £440,200. 18s. Gd.; and in Manchester, £17,394. 10s. 5d.; and, 
after supplying all calls, it left a disposable balance. The amount 
subscribed to the Royal Patriotic fund was £1,459,739. 14s. 3d., 
and there remains a disposable balance ; the Hartley Colliery fund 
amounted to £83,234. 17s. 9d., and left a considerable balance ; the 
subscriptions to the sufferers by the Holmfirth and Sheffield floods 



COMPARATIVE STATEMENT. 



251 



left in each case a disposable balance ; and the cotton famine fund 
leaves in the hands of the central executive about one shilling, and 
in those of the Mansion House committee about sixpence, in the 
pound, of the respective subscriptions unappropriated. 

We have spoken of the contributions of Lancashire as satis- 
factory ; it will be interesting also to compare the amounts collected 
in each locality as measured by ita ratable value, and the amounts 
received by the same locality from all » 





Qmtiibuled from I<™1 BouMi. 


ContribnWJ 


TM.] 




Eitn i 






CqUbjUdm 
Ijrpo^dQn 


Fwr-liir Looil 




Bom™. 
IMM. 




i d. 


■ , d. 


.. d. 


•. d. 


». d. 


1. Aahton-under 


I.yn« 1 9 


9 n - 


in 111 


19 gj 


311 9 


2. Barlon-on-Irn 


,.11. 2 4 


43 - 


2 83 


1 ?i 


4 4i 




4 6 


4 a = 


8 Ui{ 


B Ij 


18 1 


4. Bolton . 


2 2 


I 61 = 


3 SB 


! Ij 


6 1 


6. Bary . 


4 


3 log = 


6 log 


4 4 


11 26 


6. ChoTUy . 


. 1 114 


1 8i = 


3 8 


S SI 


7 aj 


7. Clilhcroe 


2 6i 


Hi = 


3 6 


9J 


4 n 


8. Tho Fyldo 


. H 


4! ^ 


11 


11 


1 OJ 


9. GareUng 


. 4i 


fii = 


ona 


li 


1 1 


10. QJa«wp . 


* 


6 4 - 


10 4 


IS 2§ 


32 6i 


11. HuliDgden 


. 8 7i 


* a = 


7 91 


' 43 


IS 21 


12. UocMter 


2 10 


3 = 


3 1 


7! 


3 8) 


13. Leigh . 


1 2 


1 01 = 


S 21 


71 


2 H 


14. HMcleafield 


1 2 


1 7 = 


2 9 


1 4i 


4 18 


rMaDChGBter, 












IS < Chorlton, an 


6 1 


81 - 


10 91 


I n 


13 61 


fMford 












16. OldhuD 


2 2 


3 81 = 


5 101 


» « 


13 11 


17. Preeton . 


6 61 


6 Si = 


12 01 


B 101 


20 103 


18. Freatiricb 


1 


1 If " 


2 IJ 


1 5! 


a 71 


19. RMbdcIa 


2 6i 


4 2g - 


6 91 


5 11 


12 81 


20. BaJdUwoith 


4i 


3 91 = 


4 IJ 


41 


4 ei 


21. Skipton . 


. 3 8} 


51 = 


4 1| 


71 


4 8S 


22. Stockport 


5 Ti 


3 7i = 


b 9 


13 11 


22 6 




2 2 


1 61 = 


3 81 


a 21 


G 11} 




. e 


9g = 


1 sa 


S 0) 


3 ej 


3& WiglQ . 


3 91 


1 91 = 


& 6J 


6 «i 


11 7 



232 FACTS OF THE COTTOK FAMINE. 

The last report of the honorary accretary sets forth in fiill, the 
various contributions from vrliich the above proportions are calcn-' 
latcd, and deserves to be preserved entire, as exhibiting the kind of 
materials which were laid before the central executive every montli 





B 


"s«S8Fil n"i|S|iSi*Si i=Sl 1= 1 


il 


t;l 






1- 


S5Ss5!.3'g||=EllliH8l|3|l!5- i 


S! 


13 






I'lSl"-"!!!" 


1 \ |"^S"| 1 1 1- 1 1 1 


it 


SI 




1 


igaiH!iissisr = 


K 


'5 


I'Jl 
I'Uj- 

1 H ' 


PilllliJ^'ll 
liliipi'-il 


aippPPiPl 1 


i 


'!■ 




:S 


'=silPi=PP'l 1 


II 


'? 




g 
1 


ii-:;-^-'|| 


33 


'5 




1 


i 1. 

J 

ji 
1 


|5J5!il|aHJE5i«jjis5j-^jjij S 


11 


Is 


1 
1 
i 

1 


g 

Pi 

Pi 
?! 


i3HPip5i|isi|ip|»5«ii!| « 


ii 


■i 


X 


1 




■^ 


s ■■ 




H I 




|liv:.i.:i 


' "■■•-# J 11 



CAUSES OF VARIED PRESSURE OF DISTRESS. 253 

Judged by their wealth, Preston, Stockport, Manchester, 
Blackburn, Bury, and Gloasop were the largest voluntary contri- 
butors to the fund ; wliilst the largest recipients were, according 
to the same measure, Glossop, Ashton, Stockport, Blackbura, and 
Preston; and the places which imposed on themselves the heaviest 
local taxation were, Ashton, Preston, Glossop, Manchester, Black- 
bum, and Rochdale. 

The stranger to Lancashire will naturally ask why the distress 
varied so widely in the diflFerent cotton towns, and why Ashton and 
Glossop should have suflFered so disproportionately to all other places. 
It will readily be comprehended that the first measure of distress 
must be looked for in the proportion of the inhabitants of any place 
who were dependent on the manufacture. Thus, in Warrington, The 
Fylde, Garstang, Saddleworth, and Skipton, where a very small sec- 
tion only of the people are dependent on the trade, the distress was 
only slight ; whilst in places such as Ashton, Glossop, Blackburn, 
Bolton, ajid Stockport, where the cotton industry forms almost the 
sole maintenance of the people, it would naturally be expected to 
be very severe. But this pressure would be modified where the 
mills were devoted principally to the production of fine goods, 
because the quantity of cotton re(|uired being less, and the cost of 
labour much greater in proportion to the cost of the raw material, 
the rise in the prices of cotton would produce much less efiect, than 
in places where coarse spinning and fustian weaving formed the 
staple employment of the people. Thus Bolton, which spins fine 
yams, although almost wholly dependent upon the cotton industry, 
suffered much less than Rochdale, where a considerable proportion 
of the people are engaged in the woollen manufacture; because the 
cotton goods produced by Rochdale required a large amount of the 
very cotton which the American war had deprived them of 

Again, the pressure would depend to some extent upon the 
character and position of the employers. When the demand for 
goods is much reduced by a considerable rise in prices, it then 
becomes a question who shall supply the reduced quantities ; com- 
petition is increased in keenness, profits fade away, and only the 
most skilful or the most reckless continue the contest in full force. 
If a man has plenty of capital, and can see sufficiently far into 
the future to induce him to hold stock, he will go on working; but 
in crises like the cotton famine this is a dangerous game, as many 



SS4 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 



men have found to their cost In the early days of the famine, whilst' 
cotton was continually rising in price, work was very profitable, and 
large sums of money were realised ; but by-and-by came the reaction, 
and owners of from £50,000 to £200,000 found themselves beggared 
in a month, atript as completely and as rapidly as if tfaey had' 
indulged in roitge et noir at Baden Badeu. In sucii times it is 
not wonderful that pnident men who have made money in the 
regular course of trade should take advantage of the opportunity 
for retiring from business ; especially when the rates of discount 
rule so high as to give them without risk, almost as much for the 
use of money as the ordinary profits of trade will yield. In this 
way many mills which were closed during the crisis have had, or 
will have to find new proprietors, before getting to work again. 
At Ashton, where the bulk of the productions are coarse goods, and 
the population almost wholly dependent upon cotton, several large 
establishments will have to change hands; add to these circum-' 
stances the fact that the existence of two committees, with diffe- 
rent sources of supply, prevented the amount of pressure upon the 
workpeople which elsewhere sent them in search of independent 
employment, and the excess of distress is explained. 

Lord Derby, at the county meeting held in Manchester, in 
December, 1862, gave credit to employers and others for ,£200,000 
distributed in private charity. The flow wouhi doubtless decrease 
as the central fund increased, but it is not unreasonable to suppose 
that the succeeding two and a half years added one-half as mud) to 
the above sum ; and there were also in some places organised dis- 
tributions by the Society of Friends, by the Swedenborgians, and 
by other religious sects whose efforts have never been tabulated. 

A considerable amount of controversy taok place in the news- 
papers on the subject of cottage rent«, some persons asserting that 
employers ruthlessly exacted their rents whilst the hands scarcely 
earned salt, whilst others affirmed that large amounts were forgiven 
in various places. Probably there was truth in both assertions, and 
we have endeavoured to collect reliable information upon the suV 
ject. and here present the returns supplied, through Mr. Maclure, 
in the spring of 1865 : — 

RESTS REMITTED, Jkc. 

Ashton-under-Lyne. — HuTst : Arrears of rent are not leea 
than £1,500. Not aware of any voluntary remissions. Jhtkin- 



BEMISSIONS OF BENT. 255 

fijdd: Bents owing to employers, £5,115; voluntarily remitted, 
X70. Denton : No voluntary remissions, but a large amount of 
arrears. Mosdiy : Arrears of cottage rents, £8,147 ; almost all 
uncoUectable, but not voluntarily remitted. Newton Moor; Two 
firms have remitted cottage rents to the amount of £4,000, and a 
third firm to the amount of i'300. 

Babnoldswick. — Only one employer owns cottage property, 
and he has been a very heavy loser, without prospect of recovery. 

Barton-UPON-Ibwell. — Woraley: The position of one firm, 
illustrative of the neighbourhood, is as follows: arrears, £150; 
cancelled, £20 ; but not more than ten per cent of the balance is 
recoverable. 

Blackburn. — Livesey : One employer remitted about £5G0, 
but his example has not been imitated. Bishton : The principal 
owner has reduced his rents ninepence per cottage per week, but 
there are no large owners, and although arrears are heavy, all hope 
to be paid. Blackburn : No voluntary remissions, but very heavy 
losses have been sustained, and rents have been considerably re- 
duced, in some cases as much as one-half. Several small owners 
of cottage property, who used to live upon their rents, have been 
reduced to beggary. 

Bolton. — Belmont : Only thirty cottages belong to employers. 
Cottage rents reduced one half, and very much in arrear. Opera- 
tives getting work elsewhere are allowed to go without giving 
security for rent. Famwoiih : Much has been forgiven, many 
operatives not having paid a penny for two years. Bolton Township : 
Upwards of £4,000 has been remitted in rent. One employer kept 
his own hands whilst out of work, and there have been large private 
subscriptions. 

Burnley. — Burnley Toion : No voluntary remissions of rent, 
but very little paid, and many forgiven on leaving the locality. 
Higham : The collection of rents was generally suspended during 
the distress, but none were formally remitted. Colne : No actual 
remission of rent, but present payment generally waived. 

Bury. — Shuttleworth : One manufacturer, employing some 
eight himdred persona, has paid wages to his hands during the 
whole period of the distress, and not allowed one of them to go 
either to the guardians or the relief committee. Another firm has 
given about £150 in rent, and has also supported ten families. 



Z'}] PA»TS iJF THE oriTToy FivrvE. 

Ahi-.i'it £100 in rent; has b^ren jiTen bv oth.«rr firms. £lu.e Pits: 
Ao«;rit: £20 h;id been ^iren br .}ne drni in r'rnw. besides their sub- 
soripfloQ t;o the r^rliet •^■.•niinitt.re. Another tirni tiistributed soup 
tr-relv :.>r -tjme riiLi-?, bt:si'I-> ^u' s^^rlbinvr to the t'liaA iZam^- 
hottoTii : Tiie arrear-i .j-nrji'j 'y> ctt.:- ririiu* amount to ab«>iit ^.000, 
of whii!h. alth'jU;Th n-jt rV.'mial^ remitteii. a veiy small portion will 
bi: recoverable. P*iere have been no diatraints for rent for two 
yeara ariii a hall. ex':ept where the conduct oi the tenants was 
verv l>:iii 

iVH''»P.LEY. — Withp.M : <">ne tirni has remitted rents amount- 
in;:: ^.«> ah«>>it i-SOu. Hor^.cn:h ■ Ntj rent remitted, but one firm has 
a«iv-Ln'?ed £i](>0 to their hand?, expecting only a small portion 
to b.> repaiii. 

TrARST-OfG. — C'lHerfill: Rents remitteti hv one firm. £377. 

TtLOSSOP. — /j^w*>p ; Arrears '>t rent estimated at £20,000, but 
n".«t formally remittoil ; n-.'t many »:rmpl'>yers are owners of cottages, 
an<l lanill>rils and tenants are equally undesirous to make any state- 
ment. TintivUtU : At least £o.O«X> must be owin^r for rent, but 
many persons who nevii-r exyieot d.» i;et paid avoid the formal remis- 
si'>n in ordtrr to retain the tenants. One firm hivs given from 
L-2.ni)') to £3.<KM). jn-t U.-v.>iid t'u.- K-ii: Imp*- oi this district. 

Haslixgdex. — IIa.sl[}i>r.h}'. : N-.* r'^!.:s havo h-xn romitteJ. 
and ill '»iie c.-iS'^ an emi»l"Vtr has ri^'r-r-'i-lv t-XLun-id the f'«rtnii:htlv 
r-':iit, n-Lrardl-irss **i th- :iiii"i;i:r *A 'ho l-alaiic-/. -.Vt »y>*^ >nv/< ; 
S'.-v.-r;d «."is*,-.s iA rernis-:.»Ti i.f renr. b-it the :i:a«>uut cannrit bo i:ivon. 
ArrriniJ^'jn : One irr.-iitl' man hn< rt-miiiol about £100, but this is 
th».- onlv in-tanco. Stac'^-^^^'fto.h: Tiio arrears of c»»tta«jre rent.s is 
fi\>'}UX i'TOO. of whioh ■•iilv a vt^rv small iiortit^n will In? reoovertHl. 
Il^ihitJihore : R'jnts o«»nsidorod l"^t. about i'liO; none voluntarily 
rt- ! 1 1 i T r f.-d. Cra irsha icboofh. : Vnc* *\ h-ota t ik* arr».'ars « •! cot tavro rents 
fp)iii £iOO to 4*500. Bact'p: L\»ttii;L' r»-uts aro larL,^.dy in arroar. 
but liav<- n«jt l»een ruuiitted : a lad v. latolv tl..ooa.<od, has hersolf 
di-ii'-n-od about £<jOO in charitv tlurinir thu distress. Oak'tHslunv : 
'J'li«; tni>t(ros uf a decua.sed f^ontluman rouiittod rents in 1^63 
aiiioimtiM'^ t'j £24*J, and have roduoi'd tho cottage routs sixjience 
r;i' 1) |H:r w«.M.*k. Another firm paid during many weeks half wages. 
arii'iiintin<4 in the \vli«»]e to about £700, and did not allow anv nf 
tlnir ban«is to ^""o to the rtjrn.-f ronirmttoe: another tirm distributed 
about /-. ">()() during tho time their mill was closud. 



BEMISSI0S8 OF RENT. 25? 

Hebdes Bridge. — There aro only three employers who are 
owners of cottages. The rents are iu airear, but not formally 
remitted. £60 is owing to one of them, and he does not expect 
to get any of ii 

Uanche5TI:r. — BlackUy .■ The only firm owning cottages has 
remitted rents, but they decline to give a stateroent. Wliiteji^ .- 
No actual remissions, but operatives removing from the neigh- 
bourhood have not been distrained upon for arrears. 

Oldham. — Tkomkam : In many cases the rents have been 
remitted ; there has been no turning out. With the exception of 
two or three cases, the landlords are themselves working men ; and 
thoee two or three almost contributed our relief fund. Chadder- 
ton : Annual cottage rental, £5,U50 ; remitted, .£835 ; arrears, 
£3,083 ; nncollectable, £1,041. HoUinwood : No rents volun- 
tarily remitted, but heavy arrears, which are not expected to be 
paid. 

Pekston. — Preston: Some owners have reduced their rents 
by one half. In other cases the collection of rent has practically 
been suspended during the distress, particularly by manufacturers 
who are cottage owners. The absolute remissions are few, the 
sum, so far as can be learned, not reaching X300. The rent roll of 
the lai^«st cottage owner in Preston shows .£1.428 per annum, and 
his receipts have been as follows :— 1860, £1,420 ; 1861, £1,367 ; 
1862, £962; 18G3, Xl,047 ; 1864, £1,176. Most of this property 
being subject to building clubs, the collection, so far as possible, 
has of course been a nucessity. Bomber Bridge : The cottage rents 
voluntarily remitted amount to about £950, a large portion of 
which was by one firm. Farrington: Only one firm own cottages, 
and they have remitted rents amounting to £4,090, and distri- 
buted food and fuel to the amount of £2,100. 

Rochdale. — WhUworth : The rule has been for employers not 
to collect or ask for cottage rents during the distress ; during the 
last two or three months of 1864, some persona have paid whilst 
they have had work, but many have left the neighbourhood without 
any acknowledgment of debt 

Stockport. — Stockport : No cases of remission of rent, but 
very heavy amounts of uncollectable arrears. MtlloT : A great 
amount of irrecoverable arrears, but no actual voluntary remission. 
Marple : Rent in arrears, about £1,200, but no distraints. One 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMC'E. 



employer has advanced to his workpeople more than -^IjOOO. of 
which it is expected but a small proportion will be recoTereil. 
Hazel Orove -" One employer remitted all his rents (about X400) 
from September, 1862, to April, 18(i4. He distril>ute<i in provi- 
Bions and coals about £300, besides giving largely to the relief 
committee. Bredhury " About ^737 are in arrear, a large portion 
of which is irrecoverable, ffeaton Mtraey : Irrecoverable arrcan 
of cottage rents, -£360. Offerton : The arrears are heavy, but there 
bas been no formal remission. The principal employers have 
freely distributed bread, milk, arid coala 

Warrington. — Ashton in Macker/ield ■ One firm has remitted 
£139 ; the only case so far as known. Warrington ■ One firm hat 
remitted rents amounting to £1,100. 

WlGAS. — HvnMey ■■ No rents remitted ; one employer stopped 
arrears out of wages, leaving scarcely anything to live uptm. 

In connection with this subject, it will doubtless interest the 
reader to learn what allowances the poor-law overeeers have been 
obliged to make ; but in order to properly appreciate the following 
table, it is necessary to explain that where the allowances nw 
smallest, the practice of compounding with owners indncea them 
to pay and to include the poor rate in the rent; whilst, where the 
allowances are largest, the taxes are collected direct train tin 
occupiers of cottages as well as from others. 

Peekibbtaok of RiTu UnnoLLiCTRn 01 AoooDNT or Eumra, ok Eiccint 



Aihton-Dnder 
Bluokbarn 
Durnlej 
Bary . 
Ciiorley . 

GIlJMOp 

Maiiohestar 
Otdhnm 

Stirord 
Wigaa 

The following table of factory assessments will illustrate t 
severe pressure upon employers, in the most distressed distrii 
whilst their mills were stopped :- 



FACTORT ASSESSMENTS. 



a Other Propkrtt. 



1 



Bury . 9.M5 19.187 *4,8I5 78.7*7 3 4 

Adhton-iiQaer-Lyiie 23,100 62,\05 — 74,!06 

Glossup . 10.767 39.2M — 60,OU3 



isds-t. iSM-t. 

U,399 11.083 

13,406 1(1,638 



When the central executive, in June, 1865, Adjourned »ine die, 
the circular to the general committee anuouaciDg the pleasing fact 
stated that under the circumstances it bad not been thought neceB- 
aary to call them together. Why this excuse should have been 
mode, it is difficult to say. It is quite certain that a meeting of 
the general committee would have expressed ita gratitude to the 
executive for its arduous labours, constant care, and successful man- 
agement, quite a« heartily as the executive thanked the president 
of the poor-law board, the government engineer, and the special 
commissioner ; and they would not have passed over the honorary 
secretary, who for four long years had forgfjtten the claims of busi- 
ness and of family, for the sake of the poor of Lancashire ; who 
liad worked day and night in the collection, the management, and 
the distribution of the largest benevolent fund upon record; aud 
who in bis reports has left official documents which will be valu- 
able for refeivnce in all future time. " In the multitude of council 
there is wisdom ;" but with all the shrewd suj^estions of the noble 
cbairmao, and all the weight of his great influence ; with all the 
intense activity of brain and persevering energy and administra- 
tive ability of the vice-chairman (Sir James Kay -Shuttle worth), 
and the aid of other members of the central executive, the work of 
the relief committees would soon have come to a dead look, without 
the earnest willingness, the untiring industry, the prompt decision, 
the active control and practical frankness and kindliness of Mr. 
Ji^clure. He was always at baud, to receive deputations, to give 




I 



to flobs j n iKi m lti* *^ tgii t» fat wrttr n^ctiatl diua 
~~ to the ccecotire committee ; I 

ke vanini bcal miwittritB leplied to 
( frwjTWt^ i i w otriiigttBdt labrnxr, for pDP 
poses of wfaidi di^ woe not vHi^ or of wluA they eooU noi 
the DtiKt<r). aObad » ihmiiBiiliiiliiM that he bad won and retoitod 
their entile eoaSAoKtt, 

TheeenCial execntm eooBittoe k idiDDEaed MM die, bat then 
■tin Rmama one dnqr wfaieh ontf the gencfal oommittee can aeconi- 
ptkh, nx, the diipcMal of the bahnee of die fsnd, vnounttng t* 
about fire per cent of the ooDectioa^ and dda is a matter wfakb 
leqoiiea grave i.'wwiidfTiition, bttl whkb cmght not to be ioog de- 
h^yed. Tbefimd«aaa»tnbatedfaraqMeialobject,thereliefi^tlie 
cotton opemtnes who woe thiown oat of osploy bv the *MtwT»* 
poli^ m tqpnd to the Ameri ea a wax. HBeertainij as to the 
dutat ion of (be strag^, ami the fear of o^e&denng petmaiieDli 
p ii pfrifi". alike <tictated th^t the distribatioD sboold be lio 
to the amoimt nec cmar y to preserre life and health. That < 
haa been accomjdiafaed, and whilst about one-foortb of the jopoa- 
tires have fotrnd^ocher homes or other oocopatiooa for th^nselreit 
retursing prosperity is dow rapidly ahtorbing the renuuDder; aad. 
the occarreDce of smal! strikes in rariom jiiacea for increased wage^ 
whilst the poaidoD of the employer in the market is still a lattarjr 
imperatively demand that relief committees ahoold be disbanded, 
and the trade be left to its natural comse. And what is to be done 
with the balance of the fimd i I>otibtless it coold be well uaed in 
paying the onavoidable debts of pradent operatives, who have 
reduced from comparative opulence to the deepest poverty ; bat 
the invidious duty of picking oat the men to be relieved would pn>- 
duce intense diaeatisfaction; it might be funded for a case of futiuv- 
necewity, but who knows what another generation of trustees wouU 
consider themselves justified in doing with it, or to what purpose it 
might be applied. And there is no need for such a course. Society 
not likely to grow worse, and the overwhelming benevolence whidi 
providiMl enough and to spare for the cotton famine, will not fail ii 
any future calamity. It would be a heavy task to re-distribute th 
remnant of the fund amongst the eubscribers; nor would it be quite 
fair tu retiistribute it in equal proportions, for a reference to the list 
of localities will show that whilst from some places every penny 



i 



PROPOSED DISPOSAL OF BALANCE. 261 

which was Bubscribed was abo remitted to Manchester ; other col- 
lecting committees remitted less than sixty per cent of their sub- 
scriptions. and have re-appropriated the remainder. If the general 
committee were to propound a Bcherae for appropriating the balance 
2>ro rata amongst the infirmaries and hospitals for the sick in the 
cotton districts, according to the number of beds in each, and to 
submit it to the different collecting committees for approval; they 
might then, in the absence of objections, appropriate the balance 
either to the genera! uses of these establishments ; or, better still, 
to grants by the trustees of each infirmary to convalescents, to assist 
them until their renewed strength enabled them to return to work. 
Peraons who are ac<iuainted with these establishments know that 
a family will frequently manage to live whilst one of its number is 
in hospital ; but when he returns home, free, indeed, from disease, 
but too weak for work, the extra burden breaks them down and 
drives them to the boards of guardians. In such cases a convales- 
cent fund would be of immense value, and would be appropriated 
tocottonoperativesand those of affiliated trades almost exclusively, 
The honorary secretary has issued a circular containing suggestions 
of this kind, which will doubtless have due cousideratioa 



CHAPTER XIV. 



Hednctlon of Rolief, and Introdnction of Ticket Syjtem, at StaJybridgv — Eidt«niat 
of the Operitivw — Position of the I'leivy— The Hsgged TtoaBenin the Pul{«l— 
The Strike »guiiBt TicliBta — Aaaault upon the Offid»l8 — Window Smaahing — Tlf 
PolicoDcfented— Sacking of the KeliefStureBuul Shops —The TUot Act Rsul- 
The Soldiera ami the Folioe -Sunday Vinton— The Mob M Ashton— Sacking ■/ 
Proviiion Shops— Tha Eiot Aot and the Charge of the Militaiy—Eicitemnil U 
DukinGeld- Sacking the Co-opentiv« SMre — The Police and the Roughi tl 
ABhton— Tha End of the Riot— The Deputation to the MaDBion Hoiuo— Tke 
Premiumfor Violence —Sir J. P. KayShuttleworlh at SUlybridge- Addraxf 
the Centra] Executive — The Bev. Mr. EiHiar at the (ji«neral Committee — "^1 
Apology (or Riot 

In the report of the central exeaitive committee, dated HaicL 
30th, 18G3, occurs the foilowing paif^^ph ; — 

" Many of the district committees have been engaged in a 
careful revision of the cases of recipients of relief, in order both to 
arrest every motive for undue reliance on the fund, and to increase 
the number and foree of proper incentives to salutary exertiona. 
The scale of relief during the winter season had in some districtt 
exceeded the standard which the central executive committee had 
uniformly recommended. That standard was based on an average 
of two shillings per head weekly, exclusive of fuel and clothii^ 
This amount of a.s&istance having been found sufficient to keep in 
health during the rigour of the season lai^ numbers of people in 
so many populous relief districts, where no extnuieous aid hai 
been a\'ailnble, there caq be no doubt that any excess beyond it » 
and ought to be abandoned. Some variatioD in 
s adapts to tbe numl>ers tn families, may properly occur ia 
mt districts ; but the average amount should not exceed tm 
AiDings weekly per Head, with fuel and clothing. The native 
mergjr and independence of the population thus co-operating with 
Uw eotertioos of the more wealthy elasses, and of the district retirf 
oommittoefl^ have dtmini^ed the number of persons dependent on 
the tdief funds ; hot the reduction in the weekly expenditure ha* 
hitlMrto beea ooofined to that tncuired in the sui^y of clodiiag,' 



REDUCTION OF RELIEF. I 



The committee had for a considerable time, on the approach of 
winter, anxiously endeavoured to get the various boards of 
guardians to raise the allowance of recipients during tlie winter 
to an average of two shillings per bead per week, and had thi;m- 
aelves made very liberal grants to the local relief committees. To 
those exertions and this liberality, together with the mental 
occupation afforded to adults and juveniles in the schools, was 
probably owing the almost total exemption from the famine fever 
and other epidemics, which had been very generally feared as 
likely to break out in the winter season. But the danger was now 
past, and the returning mildness of tlie spring invited, and the 
growing ennui of the adult schools showed the necessity fur, more 
active employment to preserve the morale of the operatives; whilst 
the prospect of the future dictated prudence in regard to expendi- 
ture, so that the funds might not be exhausted, prior to a renewal of 
the cotton supply, sufficient for the ordinary work of the operatives. 

The scale of relief at Stalybridge had been unusually high, and 
some of the recipients were quite as well off under the relief 
committee as when engaged at their ordinary employments ; and 
pay night with this class of the population still retained its old 
character, the publicans obtaiuing a large portion of the money 
which ought to have provided food for suffering wives and children. 

The committee, acting upon the hint of the central executive, 
endeavoured at once to reduce the amount of relief to the average, 
ajid to abolish drunkenness, by substituting payment by tickets 
upon shopkeepers instead of money. They proposed also, in order 
to facilitate their process of book-keeping, to retain one day's pay 
in hand. Probably, if one of these proposed changes had been 
inaugurated at a time, there would not have been much difficulty 
in their accompli :<hment, although it is difficult for an outsider to 
see the value of retaining a day's pay in hand ; but it is easy to 
understand that to the operatives, whose expenditure must have 
been arranged in accordance with the former allowance, it would 
look like robbery ; and the shopkeeper who was supplying goods on 
credit would also think that the sum would be quite a^ useful in 
his hands as in the bank, to the credit of the relief committee. 
The reduction in the wei^kly amount would, no doubt, have been 
submitted to as an unwelcome necessity, if proposed alone ; and it 
is probable that a proper explanation of the reason for the ticket 



S6t 



FACTS or THE COTTON FAMnre. 



system would have induced the sober majority to overrule tba 
drunkards, if tbat proposal Lad stood by itself ; but when the 
notice for the whole of the alteratious appeared at once, an oppo- 
BitioD was immediately set on foot, and an organised resistance 
prepared. The retention of a day'a pay was denounced as tyranny, 
and the ticket system as an insult, displaying a thorough want of 
confidence, and involving a general charge of misconduct. When 
men ore engaged at profitable work it may be desirable to retain 
a day's pay, in ordei- to enforce the fulfilment of a contract ; but 
the relief committee did not want to keep the people, and would 
have been very glad to see them shift for themselves. Some of 
the most active members of the committee were persoaally un- 
popular ; one in particular, who was a liberal contributor and a 
hard worker, had the misfortune to be very rude in manner, and 
much addicted to profane swearing, which made the operatives 
complain that they were treated like doga. Tliey must have been 
very much depressed in spirits, for a deputation appointed by them 
to see the committee and protest against the ticket system did not 
dare to show their faces ; but appear to have led their companiou> 
to suppose tbat their request had been submitted to the committee: 
and refused. 

And some of the clergy, who were superintendents of the 
schools, appear to have rather encouraged the resistance of the. 
people to the committee, under the plea that they were being 
ill-treated. It is said that a dissenting minister, having got 
hold of a ragged pair of trousers which had been given out bj 
the committee, held them up in the pulpit ; and generalising hi» 
remarks from the individual instance before him, ridiculed tbft 
gifts which had pourud in from all parts of the country, with th* 
benevolent intention of protecting from the wintry wind tbe bodie^ 
of men and women who, at their ordinary occupations, experieno^ 
a constant summer temperature ; and to fit their children for atteoi 
dance upon the gratuitous instruction which was provided fo( 
them. Here again the Stalybridge committee had been at fault il 
management There was no necessity to distribute ragged chsthea] 
they had sewing classes at work, and the trousers might eitbi 
have been repaired or cut up for children's clothing, as such tl 
are in prudent families, and as they were in other localities undt 
relief committees. But here were all the necessary elements fi 



THE STEIKE AGAINST TICKETS. 



26fi 



duturbaQce — three or four unwelcome and oppressive changes of 
system, a cowardly deputation deceiving its constituents, disloyal 
school superintendents, and an inflammatory dissenting preacher 
haranguing an already excited and discontented crowd, and ridi- 
culing their " tyrant rulers." The result of all thia ^itation was 
that on the evening of Thursday, 19th March, a large meeting was 
held on "the plantation," and a resolution adopted to turn out, 
if the committee persisted in their notice. Accordingly, when 
on Friday morning the officials went as usual to the schools to 
pay the operatives, and for this purpose tendered the tickets 
which had been prepared, the men at each school refused to 
receive them, and turned out in succession, and crowded the 
streets ; and as the cab containing the officials passed along, they 
assailed it with stones, breaking the windows, but fortunately 
not injuring the occupanta The excitement had been growing 
daily from' the time of the announcement of the change, but 
no breach of the peace seemed to be anticipated, and no provi- 
sion was made to prevent it. The people had hitherto been so 
submissive under their sufferings that they were treated as so many 
machines, who were to work out, automatically, the dictates of the 
authorities. But confidence was now to be rudely shaken. Mr. 
Bates, although one of the most valuable, was the most unpopu- 
lar member of the committee ; and about three o'clock a crowd 
assembled before the mill belonging to the firm in which he was 
a partner, and smashed every window in the place, besides injuring 
some of the machinery. The small constabulary force was called 
into requisition, and made a charge upon the crowd, securing 
several prisoners ; but were in their turn assailed by showers of 
brickends and stones, and driven from the field, and the prisoners 
rescued. The mob then passed on to the clothing stores of the 
relief committee, which were speedily broken open, and the stock 
thrown into the street, where a regular scramble ensued, each one 
helping himself or herself to the best which they could get hold of. 
Attention was next directed to the shop of another member of the 
committee named Asbton, which was also broken open, and the 
stock of tea, sugar, coffee, and spices carried off, whilst window- 
smashing soon became general. One of the police in his flight 
took refuge iu the shop of a drug^st, and the windows of the 
bouse were at once smashed ; then several bauds were held up in 



266 FACTS OF THE COTTON FlSnNE 

the crowd, and a cry was raised, " Now for Dyaon'8," and the stone* 
immediately flew to the other side of the street, and every window 
in l)y8on's eating house waa speedily broken. Mr. Bates then 
came in for a second benefit, the mob paiising ou to his house at 
Cockerhill, where the windows were smashed and the furniture 
broken by atones ; many of which were thrown by girls in blue 
jackets, which were the gift of a lieoevotent lady to the relief 
committee, Mrs. Bates lay ill in bed, and the assault upon hcc 
bouse hastened, if it did not cause, her death. 

Another mob assembled at the central ofiSces of the relief 
committee, in Melbourne-street, where, also, every window wu 
smashed The two adjoining bouses were used as stores for 
clothing, and these were broken open and the stock hurled as fart 
as twenty pairs of hands could throw it into the street, where 
women concealed it about their peraona, or men carried it off in 
bundles. Not satistied with these appropriations, some villain 
made an attempt (happily unsuccessful) to fire the premines. The 
demon of mischief had now got firm hold, and more damage waa 
done in a few hours tlian many weeks could repair. Towarda 
evening a company of hussars arrived from Manchester ; and tbfl 
crowd, with a loud shout of " The soldiers are coming !" dispersed 
in every direction. Under cover of tho sabres of the bussars, the 
police recovered their courage, and some of the men who sacked the 
relief stores were captured. Mr. Harrison, who, with Dr. Hopwoodi 
the mayor, accompanied the military, read the Riot Act amidHt the 
most discordant noises, when the soldiers veiy soon cleared th* 
streets, and the night closed in quietly. 

The number of prisoners on Friday, 20th March, was eighty, of 
whom twenty-nine were neat day committed to Chester for trial ; 
the bulk of them, as, indeed, of the rioters genenUly, being Irish 
or of Irish descent. On Saturday, 2lBt, most of the shops wer4 
kept closed, and the walls were plentifully placarded with the 
announcement that the riot act had been read, and that crowds in 
the streets were forbidden. Nevertheless the streets were crowded^ 
and in front of the police court, walls and windows were thnHigod 
by people, anxious to learn what was going on inside ; and evidently 
expecting a renewal of disturbance. Two omnibuses had beeit 
brought from Ashton for the removal of the prisoners, and the 
soldiers with drawn sworda guarded the front of the police c^ca 



^eti 



THE SOLDIERS AND THE POLICR 267 

Amongst the crowd were many women and girls, who continually 
insulted the soldiers and police, and chaifed the male byataaders 
for tlieir cowardice. When a discharged prisoner made his appear- 
ance he was hailed with vociferous cheers, whilst the insults of 
the women to the soldiers became every hour more coarse and 
brutal At the least movement among the military the crowd 
were panic-stricken, and ran in every direction ; but as soon as 
their fears were proved to be groundless, they gravitated again 
towards the police office. 

At half-past four there was a real movement ; the police were 
marched towards the railway station — the prisoners were brought 
out — the omnibuses loaded — the cavalry faced about and followed 
the vehicles at a rapid pace to the railway train. The police, on 
nearing the railway, received their usual salute — a shower of stones, 
one of which took such effect as to lay its victim senseless. Volley 
after volley was discharged, and many injuries were inOicted before 
the arrival of the military; but when they came, and charged by 
detfichments in various directious, the mob dispersed as if by magic, 
with the exception of a few who stumbled, or were knocked over, 
ID their hurry to escape, and who lay sprawling and shrieking in 
the mud. And whilst one crowd had thronged the neighbourhood 
of the police ofiicc, and another had lain in wait for the police near 
the railway, a third and most orderly one had organised a meeting 
in "the plantation," and sent a deputation to the mayor; which, 
returning after half an hour's conference, reported to the meetjng 
that, if they would wait till Monday, the mayor {Dr. Hopwood) 
would try to get them tickets. At this announcement, there was 
a shout for money and no tickets ; and a second deputation was 
sent, and returned with the same result. Another shout was raised 
for "money and bread," and a rush wa.s made past the market 
house to the shop of Mr. Ridgway, provision dealer, who, finding 
an attempt being made to force his shutters, threw out his stuck of 
loaves and cheeses from the window, and these were eagerly grab- 
bed and carried off. One fellow, who supposed he had got a prize, 
hastily opened an earthen jar, and finding it contained only mus- 
tard, dashed it, with an oath, furiously to the ground, declaring 
that " he'd ha' summut different to that." From twelve to twenty 
Itakers and provision dealers were visited and similarly treated 
iween seven and ten o'clock ; and in most ca^es the proprietors 



PACTS OP TEE COTTON FAMINE, 

followed the example of Mr. Ridgway, and threw out their stock, 
in order to prevent worse treatment. One man ran raving about, 
with a piece of bread in his hand, shouting — " This is all I have 
for a wife and seven children " and three lads fought over a loaf 
until a strung man tore them asunder, and gave the prize to the 
least. 

From the departure of the train, with prisoners for Chester, at 
five, till abowt eight o'clock, the town was in the hands of the mob; 
but at eight o'clock, military and police iinited began again to 
parade the streets. The police were regularly received with a volley 
of stones, but wherever the soldiers appeared, the crowd vanished 
At half-past eleven, a company of foot soldiers arrived, and marched 
. through the streets with bayonets fixed ; and about the same tim^ 
another troop of cavalry rode into the town, but their active serviccB 
were not needed ; the rioters kept good hours, and had retired for 
the night. 

During Sunday, the streets were more crowded than ever, but 
it was with visitors from a distance, who poured in, by road and 
rail, to spend a holiday in looking at the wrecks of the riot; or per- 
haps even with the hope of seeing what a real riot was like. But 
Sunday was a day of rest even to the angry mob and did not add 
to the mischief; although the reflections of the day do not seem M 
have wrought much repentance, but rather to have been used in 
prepariug a plan of future operations. The grievance was pecu- 
liarly local, affecting the single township of Stalybridge ; but on 
Monday morning, emissaries proceeded to Ashton, Dukinfield, and' 
Hyde, with the avowed intention of turning out the " acholartf' at 
those places. At three of the schools in Stalybridge, most of the 
usual attendants were present soon after nine o'clock, but from thd 
others there were numerous absentees, and only about eighty, out 
of one thousand seven hundred, had accepted pay in tickets, 

As soon as the schools were opened, a discussion commenced ii 
each of thorn on the subject of the grievance, and resolutions were 
passed, almost unanimously, to refuse tickets A message from tiio 
relief committee was delivered, to the effect that tickets were ready 
for those who choose to receive them, and that those who refused 
woidd be referred to the board of guardians. The superintendeni 
and visitors at some oi' the schools ad^-ised the receipt of ticket 
under protest, so as to give the committee a week for reconsideiatioi^ 



THE MOB AT A3HT0N, 269 

but thia advice was curtly and stoutly rejected. In the course 
of the forenoon, men from the out districts made their appearance 
in the' streets, and rumours began to spread that desperate mea- 
sures were in preparation. But all remained quiet till about one 
o'clock, when a mob presented itself, and began to force the shut- 
ters at the shop of a baker named Lowe, wlio thereupon threw out 
a large quantity of bread from the upper windows. The soldiers 
came up and galloped through the crowd, which, instead of dispers- 
ing as iisual, simply turned from the baker's shop to the landlord 
of " The Feathers," and there demanded beer, which was supplied 
to the estent of about fourteen gallons, causing a regular scramble 
to "sup." Another beershop was similarly treated, when a posse 
of police came up and were received in the usual manner. But 
on this occasion they made a stand, and captured two of their 
assailants, one of whom receiveda wound on the head with a cutlass. 
The sight of blood surprised, alarmed, and quieted the mob ; and 
the prisoners were led away without any attempt at rescue. At 
night, however, they made another venture, and sacked several 
beershops in the neighbourhood of "The Hydes," forcing the land- 
lords to supply beer to be quarrelled over and fought for by a 
drunken mob, with whom the least resistance was met by very 
severe treatment. The inns and beerhouses were ordered by the 
authorities to be closed at seven o'clock ; and soon after nine the 
military marched through the streets, and then to quarters ; and 
their example was soon followed by the bulk of the crowd, so 
that at ten o'clock the streets were almost as quiet as on ordinary 
occasions. 

The crowd which went to Ashton consisted of some three 
hundred men and boys ; and, at about eleven o'clock, they made 
their tirst stand at the shop of a baker in Old-street, and per- 
emptorily demanded bread, which was at once thrown out to them. 
At a second shop a similar demand produced the same result. 
Reinforced by Ashton roughs they helped themselves to some £iO 
worth of bread find cheese in Market Avenue ; then growing luxu- 
rious, they visited a grocer in Stamford-street, and got a supply 
of biscuits, and then to Henry Square, where bread was again 
thrown to them through the windows. All this was the work of 
but half-an-hour, and by this time nearly all the shops in town 
were closed, and the streets filled with people. The authorities of 



:7o 



PACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 



A.ihtoD were prompt, and two troops of hussars shortly arrived 
upon the scene, acconipauied by the police, with drawn cutUsset, 
Mr. H. Mason, ex-mayor, and other magistratee came with ihem, 
and the ex-mayor, mounting upon the shoulders of two policemen, 
waa received with a hearty cheer. Motioning for silence, he 
addressed the crowd upon the gross illegality of their condoct, 
and besought them not to commit any further act of fiot. " Il'i 
not a riot," a stentorian voice exclaimed ; but Mr. Mason repeated ' 
that a legal riot had already taken plaee, and that tlit^ only way to 
avoid the consequences waa to disperse peacefully; and he assured 
them that means would he taken to preserve the peace at »U 
hazards. Shouts here arose of "We'll have bread," and a rudi 
was made to a shop in Cavendish-street, where they helpetl them- 
selves to provisions. Meanwhile Mr. Mason read the Riot Act 
The police followed the crowd and were pelted with stones, when 
Mr. Mason again rushed to the front, and the stoning slackened fijr 
a space ; and on a charge being made hy the military the immeme 
crowd, including nearly all the roughs of the town and neigh- 
bourhood, took to their heels, their iron-ahod clogs producing > 
deafening clatter upon the pavement, A detachment, howevw, 
mustered courage to sack the shop of a fishmonger on their viny. 
and amongst these were some girls, who ran off with aprons loaded 
with oysters. The magistrates lost no time ; they immediai«lT 
swore in a great number of special constables, placarded the town 
notifying the reading of the Riot Act, and telegraphed to Lirer 
pool for extra police, who arrived the same night 

The mob which went to Dukinfield separated into two bonib, 
and spread over the township. The authorities, however, weru no 
the alert, and here also the Riot Act was promptly read ; the polire 
were assembled, and special constables sworn in. Nevertheless, 
some half-dozen shops were sacked, including the co-operatin 
store, where a large quantity of goods were seized, and an unsuo 
cessful attempt was made to fire the place. At a milkshop all tfai 
stock was consumed on the premises ; and a beerseller waa frtnei 
to give them the run of his tap, whilst they helped themseWes to 
the stock of nuts and oranges which filled his window. The polin 
evidently felt themselves no match for the mob, and so madew 
violent interference, and towards night the crowd dispersed of itt 
own. accord. 



THE MOB AT NEWTOS, 



The mob which went to Hyde called at Newton on the way, 
and helped themselves to cigara and groceries. When, at two 
o'clock, they reached Hyde, they numbered about two thousand, 
and they broke into the shop of a baker, and helped theiOfieives to 
about a hundred and fii'ly loavoa and some hams and cheeses. 
The few police who had not been sent to other places rushed 
manfully forward anil locked five of the rioters in the shop, and 
kept their stand outside for hoiira; when, with reinforcementa, they 
removed their prisoners amidst the usual salute of a shower of 
Btones. These men, all strangers to the neighbourhood, were 
taken at once before the magistrates and committed to Chester 
for trial 

At Stalybridge on Tuesday morning all was quiet, and the 
sh(^ were opened as usual ; the general feeling being that the 
passions of the people were exhausted, and that all fear of violence 
was over. How the feeling arose it would be difficult to eay. but 
the appearance of the operatives certainly justified it Sad-looking 
groups were collected here and there upon the p.ivement, talking 
in undertones of their misfortunes ; but the boisterous excitement 
of the last few days was gone : it had died out in the night most 
completely ; and the men looked like ruined gamesters, who had 
neither money nor hope left. Three prisoners were under exami- 
nation at tlie police court, hut the proceedings excited no interest 
except amongst those immediately concerned, and there were 
scarcely half a dozen persons besides officials present in court. 
Towards eleven o'clock, men began to assemble on "the plantation;" 
and, after some desultory conversation, a chairman was appointed, 
and a deputation despatched to the mayor, and to the relief commit- 
tee, to renew the request for money instead of tickets. The mayor 
recommended them to send a delegate from each of the thirteen 
schools to the committee, and this course was adopted, and the 
meeting adjourned till one o'clock for a reply. At the relief 
committee the deputation were reminded by the mayor of the 
dangerous poaition to which they had committed themselves. 
They were assured that the supremacy of the law would be main- 
tained, and recommended to accept the tickets for the last and 
present week, and to communicate their complaints formally to 
the committee. At one o'clock nearly three thousand persons 
assembled for the reply, and a sadder -looking crowd liiw seldom 



272 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMTBE. 

been seen. The chairman took his place, and one of the deputation 
stated the result of the application, and then appealed to bis 
"fellow Bcbolars" to assist in restoring the peace of the town. 
Another stated- that notwithstanding their visit to the town hall 
they were just in the same position as before, and that he 
convinced that " nowt could be done." The chairman said they 
had been deceived by some of their own number, who, being 
appointed a fortnight ago to wait upon the rehef committee, had 
not performed the duty. Several other speeches followed, to the 
effect that an offer to receive half money and half tickets 
rejected by the relief committee ; who said they could not forego a 
resolution which was carried by a majority, and that, is fact, it 
was no longer a question of tickets or money but of mastership' 
that the matter was now in the hands of the magistrates, and DO 
step could be taken until peace was restored. The mayor had,. 
however, promised that if they returned to their schools the pay 
for the present week should not be forfeited. The general opini<Ht 
was that the mayor and Mr. J. Cheetham, M.P., would take up 
their cause, and that the ticket system would nut last long ; and ft' 
resolution to return to the schools and accept tickets for the 
and present weeks was unanimously adopted. The passing of thi( 
resolution removed the gloom from three thousand faces, and tin 
was shaking of hands in the cart which served for a platform and 
in the crowd below; whilst the chaimian congratulated the meeting 
saying " Now, my lads, in th' houses o' parliament it's olus a Ui 
that th' majority rules ; so let it be wi' us. All of you go to yoa 
schools, and let no man be missing when th' names are called 
tb' morning." And then the crowd broke up, amidst shouts 
"Hurrah!" "Bravo!" "Th' riot's done," itc. A group of girls t» 
had been at the meeting met some soldiers loitering in the streetj 
and one of them, clapping one of the hnssara on the shoulder, said 
" Aye, owd chap, thee rait go whoam ; th' riot's done." 

Although there was au end to the violence at Stalybridge, a mo] 
of from three hundred to four hundred had proceeded to Ashtoq 
intent upon renewing the feats of the previous day ; but in 
they were sadly disappointed, for the authorities were well prepared 
Their approach was telegraphed to the town hall, and a body 
police, with a troop of cavalry, headed by the mayor and ex-maya 
marched to meet them. The police were received with a volley 



THE POLICE AND THE ROUGHS. 2V3 

' stones, AH usual, some of whicL dul mischief; but tbis did not stay 
the advance, and, at the discharge of a second volley of stone 
ammunition, the police drew their staves and rushed into the mob, 
dealing some very heavy blows; and the rioters took to their heels, 
fwrly tumbling over each other, and over hedges and ditches made 
the best of their way, panting, and fairly scared back to Stalybridge. 
At about half-past two a mob of about two hundred strong 
attempted to enter Dukinfield, but they were driven back by the 
police without any further mishap than a little stone-throwing; 
and the known determination of the magistrates to keep the peace 
at all hazards probably helped to prevent further mischief. 

In Hyde, in Stockport, and in Oldham, there was considerable 
excitement amongst the people, and fears were eutertained of 
breaches of the peace, not by the inhabitants themselves, but by 
mobs, which were announced as coming from Stalybridge ; and 
which would, of course, have been augmented by the offacouriugs 
of each place to which they approaclied. Efficient preparations 
were made in the several towns by the swearing-in of special con- 
stables, whose active services, however, were happily not required. 
Even in Stalybridge itself the mobs must have included only a 
minority of the adult scholars, who were the principal sufferers from 
the ticket grievance, if grievance it was, tor the whole of these 
amounted only to one thousand seven hundred ; and whilst a 
meeting of some three thousand persona was holding on "the 
plantation," one mob of from two hundred to three hundred was 
gone to Asliton, and another, of about the same number, to Dukin- 
fieid. At the sessious house at Dukinfield seven persons were 
committed for riot, and at Ashton two were committed on a similar 
charge. The general opinion expressed by intelligent people was 
that the exhibition of a little more promptness and firmness by 
the Stalybridge magistrates would have wholly suppressed the dis- 
turbance on the first day, and have prevented it spreading to other 
towns, and would thus have saved a large amount of property. 
Certainly the reaiJer of the newspaper reports would conclude that, 
the soldiers and the police were rather present to superintend the 
riots, as they would a horse-race or any other /^, than to suppress 
or to prevent them — a matter which says more for the benevolence 
than the discretion of the magistrates. 

And now that the danger was nearly over, and the people 






L 



276 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMLVE 

the great moaied cominitteos had entered the lists on tbeir siJe; 
and had practically given them the victory. If the StaijMdge 
committee had sUeotly submitted to this indignity, they mint 
hereafter also have submitted humbly to any condiUons which tbe 
recipients of relief might pleaae to dictate. They were reduceJ U> 
a terrible strait. The measure which they had adopted was noi 
carried unanimously amongst themselves ; they had now learned 
the indiscretion of enforcing so great a change imperatively and at 
ODCO — the magistrates had hardly been e^ual to the occasion, and 
for the greater part of a week the town had been at the mercy <rf 
a mob composed of excitable youths, and of the rowdies who infeat 
every lai^e population. Thu giant establishmeDbt, which in ordi- 
nary times found employment for the people, and created weaiti 
for their proprietors, had not been safe from hour to hour; and nov 
that the proprietors had begun to breathe freely again, and were 
congratulating themselves vipon tbeir restoration of authority, these 
London magnates, at the request and upon the sole evidence of as 
excited clergyman, dictated entire submission to the commitl^ 
under the threat of setting up an opposition. And if the com- 
raittee ventured to resist, what a cry would be given to tlie 
populace ! " You withhold from us £500, sent especially for our 
immediate use; you may keep the Manchester fund, for thai is 
subject to the ticket nuisance; but this belongs to us in money, 
and it ia robbery to keep it back." It was a common complaial 
throughout the cotton districts that anybody who wrote " Rev." lo 
his name could get money out of the Mansion House fund. lUiJ 
here was a fair exemplification of the fact, The Mansion House 
committee knew that Stalybridge had been efficiently supplied wiih 
funds by the central executive at Manchester ; and if any appeal wiu 
to be made against the committee at Stalybridge, surely the central 
executive was the first court Mr. Floydandhiscoadjutorshad 
the proceedings of Friday and Saturday, and might have carried' 
any complaint to Manchester on Monday ; but, instead of su doing; 
they got up a memorial amongst the rioters, and carried it up to 
London. The Mansion House committee evidently ignored tlic 
central executive, and dictated to the local committee at Staly 
bridge. The local committee were indeed in a strait, and sought 
their way out by passing a resolution to resign. Had this resolu- 
tion been carried out, the victory of the malcontents would hara 



THE POLICE AND THE HUUGUS. 2V3 

stones, as usual, Bome of which did miscliief ; but this did not stay 
the advance, and, at the diycharge of a second volley of stone 
am munition, the police drew their staves and rushed into the mob, 
dealing some very heavy blows; and the rioters took to their heels, 
fairly tumbling over each other, and over hedges and ditches made 
the best of their way, panting, and fairly scared back to Stalybridge. 

At about half-past two a mob of about two hundred strong 
attempted to enter Dukinfield, but thay were driven back by the 
police without any further mishap than a little stone-throwing; 
and the known determination of the magistrates to keep the peace 
at all tkazards probably helped to prevent further mischief 

In Hyde, in Stockpirt, and in Oldham, there was considerable 
excitement amongst the people, and fears were entertained of 
breaches of the peace, not by the inhabitants themselves, but by 
mobs, which were announced as coming from Stalybridge ; and 
which would, of course, have been augmented by the offscourings 
of eacli place to which they approached. Efficient preparations 
were ma^le in the several towns by the sweariog-in of special con- 
stables, whose active services, however, were happily not required. 
Even in Stalybridge itself the mobs must have included only a 
minority of the adult scholars, who were the principal sufferers from 
the ticket grievance, if grievance it was, tor the whole of these 
amounted only to one thousand seven hundred; and whilst a 
meeting of some three thousand persons was holding on "the 
plantation," one mob of from two hundred to three hundred was 
gone to Asliton, and another, of about the same number, to Dukin- 
field. At the sessions house at Dukinfield seven persons were 
committed for riot, and at Ashtou two were committed on a similar 
charge. The general opinion expressed by intelligent people was 
that the exhntition of a little more promptness and firmness by 
the Stalybridge magistrates would have wholly siippre.saed the dis- 
turbance on the first day, and have prevented it spreading to other 
towns, and would thus have saved a lat^e amotmt of property. 
Certainly the reaiier of the newspaper rep>rts would conclude that 
the soldiers and the police were rather present to superintend the 
riots, as they woidd a horse-race or any other file, than to suppress 
or to prevent thera — a matter which says more for the benevolence 
than the discretion of the magistrates. 

And now that the danger was nearly over, and the people 




r^as OF THK oarrroB fuusk. 

a Rnrnan CatbuJic priest, then addiiuiMui the asuReveg. lieaitBr 
uuiituu; dum ru katp du pegee, ami dM nweting Mfpuatal rptict^ 
Ic WHS nbo cnirraitis- reported that ordeis had been roowrf 
from Ltimjno t» 3«np the lii&aiboQun ut die fiSUO from, the Hu- 
ifkiD Hutuw tt HnmitWiB : and dus npoit <ioabti«ai bad ita dfast ■ 
prmjuidii^ .1 -[uitt aeqai^ceace in tlie itmiiwiif af the enBBittM 
Here IB did addieoa of the ctmttal axeaHiTe : — 

"THE OKSTRAL IXBCUTrvK BXLIBF COUOTTSB AT lASCHBIU 
" To die apemtma a£ Stalyhrnlge and dieir &milies. 

~ We iama beat entmated wiA bwr^ fonds fur dus relu£ of 
tfia t ntJi^ and we are diainbiitinf chsm. widi everj sjmpadtr for 
joar WHOM, and wiib vnrj we 6a mm wetfiiR : thflse foadt 
tiir""** be cbimed l^^ any partaeohr ^Btnet, bat are to be gma 
ifbam ve ddok it best; takiiig iota aataadeataaa distress good 
behanoot; aad Jacal aHnaantaaeva geaeraSj. 

" We deplore die diBtaxbaiKes which, bare receady o eta m i- 
Wis hope ibef we ant ^and in br a Teiy Ui^ anmbee. It tl 
are conciniied, «« know Uuu there are maay daewbartt iHw V 
gnuefiillj receive all ire can aSjrd diem ; and the boaiA 
purdiaii^ tbe ludinair •*-'""-^° oi relie£ are alwava ope a 




** We, theiefiice. appeal to all amoog jtm wbo *slae oar itfri 
to anl DB in oar wiib to coBtmoe it to pxL We beg jan, 
qneotfy, to arad and £naasage neetinga whLcb mar le^ to jb^ 
tn r haneea, and to aanM, to Ae ntoMSt of jrmc powei^ ibe loed 
aotKorities aad otkEs, vfaoaedalfM tbe pKaevratkoa of octkr 
the good of alL 

" We deeptf sympathise in mat dkilmn : none of as knowt 
loog it iB^ last We most, tbere&m, be pndent in distribntiR 
that relief wUd the geneniiatT of the pahfie h« gtwn, bnl 
dirturb a n ee wiD eanae to cease. Unless OTder Is dolf 
natten maac pan from oar bamk into tbcne of the 
asAoritiM of the eoontrr. — Signed for the axnmittee, 
'Jima P. Kat-Shcttlewobth, vice 
" JoBX WnxiAJt Haclcse, honomy 

After the above meedog tbe yarioos schools again 
the proprie^ of accepting tbe decision of the relief a 




SIR J. P. KAT-SHUTTLEWORTII AT STALTBRIDGE. 277 

been almost as complete as if they liad secured a return to money 
payments, and riot woufd have won and worn the laurel, and have 
become a precedent for future imitation. Of course the leaders in 
the riota were io high glee at the news from London; they accepted 
it ua they only could accept it, as a declaration of the public opinion 
of London that " they had been waging a holy war in smashing 
windows, breaking machinery, and robbing shopkeepers, thousands 
of whom were not making enough to pay their rents; and who had 
their books full of bad debts, families to keep, and poor-rates to 
pay for others, who were not much worse off than themselves. 

But a wiser head was at the service of the relief committee. 
Sir James Kay-Sliiittleworth, accompanied by the honorary 
secretary of the central executive, and the special commissioner, 
sat with them during an interview with a deputation of the 
discontented on Wednesday. Sir James had already effectually 
remonstrated with the committee about their proposed resignation, 
jind had induced them to rescind the resolution, declaring that if 
they declined he would himself sit and administer relief by ticket 
The deputation asked for payment in money, and relief from school 
for one day per week, on account of the reduction of fourpence per 
head in the weekly allowance. The committee could not concede 
this, but offered to pay one-half in money ; but, as the deputation 
bad no authority to make concessions, the interview ended without 
result. Sir James and Mr. Maclure strenuously advised the com- 
mittee not U> give way, but it is said that the special commissioner 
stayed behind, and gave contrary advice, thus again perplexing the 
committee. After the committee, Sir James Kay-Shuttle worth 
and the honorary secretary made their way through the excited 
crowd Ui the railway station, and, being suspected of strengthening 
the local committee in its decision, they were met with sundry 
unpleasant epithets and an occasional stone ; but they pressed on 
tlieir way. and, except a blow on the shoulder of Mr, Maclure by 
au old coffee pot, accompanied by an exclamation of " There goes 
that damned Maclure, wi' his two-shilling kale !" they reached 
their destination in safety. 

On Friday, 27th, Sir James Kay-Shuttle worth was again at 
Sr.ily bridge, and addressed the scholars in the town hall. Sir 
rl.imea in the course of his remarks reminded his audience that 
nui operatives of Lancashire had passed through the rigours of 



J 



MCT9 or THE COTTOK 




28ft 



a Bonua CathoCur pnist, then aiJdr<;ffie(I the i 
exorting them to keep the peace, and the meeting jepuiated qnktK- 
It waa ftbo cmrentl; reporteii that orders bail tKco recetnd 
fiom haodon to ati^p the diatribution of the £S1>0 from the Ibn- 
sion Hoaie cocamitUK ; aad thu repuct doabtkss had itst eAect ii 
prixiticin^ a quiet ociioie^ceoce in the decuitux of the e 
Here la the addreas of the central executire :^ 



"THE rXNTSU. EXECmvx KEUEF COMMTTTEK AT XASCHE3IIS. 

" To the operatirea of Staljfaridge and their fatniTi«>a 

" We ba^e been ectroated with large funds for the lelief of 
dIacreaH, and we are distributing them with every srmpathj for 
your wants, and with every care for n>ar welhre : those fundi 
eaoDot be claimed by any particolar district, bat are to be giroi 
where we think it be»t, taking into coruideratioo distieas, goeA 
behaviour, and local circamstancea generally. 

" We deplore the disturbances which have recently oceiuretL 
We hope they are not shared in by a very large number. If they 
are eontinaed, we kuow that there are many elsewhere who will 
gratefully receive all we caa afford them ; and the boards of 
guardians, the ordinary chaunela of relief, are always open to 
Others. 

" We, therefore, appeal to all amoi^ you who value our nBe( 
to aid ua in our wish to continue it to you. We beg you, < 
quently, to avoid and discourage meetings which may lead to di*- 
tarbancea, and to assist, to the utmost of your power, the locd 
authorities and others, whose duty is the preservation of order f( 
the good of alL 

" We deeply sympathise in your distress : none of us know htf 
long it may last We must, therefore, be prudent in distributiiif 
that relief which the generosity of the public has given, but wlu<i 
disturbance wiU cause to cease. Unless order is duly preserved 
matters must pass from our hands into those of tbe constitutet 
authorities of the country. — Signed for the committee, 

"James P. Kat-Shuttleworth, vice-president 
"John William Macldke, honorary secretary." 

After the above meeting the various schools again discussed' 
the propriety of accepting the decision of the relief committee; 



TQE APOLOCr FOR RIOT. 281 



and in accordance with the advice of their varimis superinton- 
dents, they all agreed : one of tliem coupling with the resolution, 
that they did it out of regard to their reverend superintendent, 
Mr. Bell, and not out of any respect to the relief committee. 

At a meeting of the genera) committee, in Manchester, on Mon- 
day, the 30th, the rioters found an apologist in the person of the 
Rev. Mr. Eagar, of Audenshuw, who hoped the committee would 
eudeavour to remove a feeling of dissatiBfactiou which was gaining 
ground, that they were too much disposed to reserve their funds. 
and were losing faith in the generosity of the public. He also 
took the liberty of suggesting to all local relief committees the 
necessity of removing, as far as poRsible, any ground of complaint 
from the patiently-onduring clnsa of poor. 

To this apology for riot, Sir J. P. Kay- Shuttleworth sharply 
retorted that "the funds were administered first with a view to 
supporting the life and health of the distressed population, and the 
experience of the winter had proved that it could be done at a rate 
considerably below that which had heen given in the Stalybridge 
district, which district he could not but characterise as notable for 
the agitation of reverend gentlemen. The remarks of the reverend 
gentleman were exactly those upon which the late disturbances 
had been founded, and upon which they were now attempted to be 
justified." Colonel Wilson Patten reminded the reverend gentleman 
that whilst some time ago the receipts of the committee were ^35,000 
per week, they were now reduced to from ;W.000 to ^5,000 ; and the 
honorary secretary stated that, instead of the grants of the central 
executive having decreased, as stated hy Mr. Eagar, the grants of the 
committee, for seven months, had averaged £40,000 per month, 
whilst the grants for the la.st month (February) were .£50,000. Mr. 
John Clieetham (now M.P. for Salford) — referring to the late riots — 
sai<l that in Stalybridge there was a person (understood to he the 
Rev. J. R. Stephens) who had, for the last few months been seeking 
publicly to undermine the inHuence and discredit the exertions of 
the relief committee. That individual was beneath his contempt ; 
hut when ho found gentlemen holding the same position as Mr. 
Eagar laying upon the relief committee the blame of these disturb- 
ances — one of them going up to London and sending down a 
t«legram to his colleague, saying, " The lord mayor has given us 
i'500 ; tickets must not be accepted on any grounds ; placard the 




281 _ FACTS or THE C<TrTOS FAMISE. 

opentiTee mtir^ oat of work ia lADcastiire, and tliat a loucb 
larger namber were working only short-time. Ttie last rettini 
gftve fifteeo ibonaukd oae kawbecl and thirty-three on short -timi^, 
uiil sevtm thoosMid five boiidred and sixtj -seven nut of woi^ m 
Uaiich««ter oluot; ; sviva tboosiod seven hundred od sbort'time, 
and tirelre thoosand one hundred and five out of work in Prestua ; 
and fiiur Uiousaod six hundred entirely out uf work in Wigan. Tbe 
stock of Afoerican cotton in Liverpool was one hundred and twen^ 
thousand ei^^t hundred and thirty bales, a^^ainst six hundred and 
8Cv«nty-niQe thousand seven hundr^ and thirty bales at the samt 
period last year. The total stock in Liverpool was three handnd 
and seventy thousand bales. Of Indian cotton there was at itt 
two hundred thousaml bales, against two hundred and seventy 
thousand last year. The usual consumption of Great Britain wu 
about forty- five thousand bales per week : and the total stock at 
the whole of Europe did not exceed seven hundred and tweo^- 
five thousand six hundred bales, or about seventeen weeks' supply 
on half-time. It had been represented that tbe real object of tlit 
deputation, who a short time ago had waited on the president 
the poor-law board, was to get aid or relief from the cousoUdated 
fund, but nothing could be further from their intention. Whai 
they really wished was to know whether the poor-law was w^ 
administered in the di'itressed districts — whether all was being 
done which could be done by legal means. There was a get 
feeling amongst the operatives that tbe poor-law was rather harRhlj 
administered — tliat labour tests were imposed where they oughl 
not to be, and that the rigid ndes laid down by the board ought 
to be relaxed. The question had been mooted in the public papers 
whether it was necessary that a large scheme of national chari^ 
should be started. In his opinion the time had not arrived 
that, but he should be glad to bear tbe pre^dent of the po(VJ 
law board upon the point. He should, in conclusion, expreaa 
hope that the government would turn its attention to the develop 
ment of the resources of India, which those chiefly interested in thi 
subject held — perhaps selfishly — ought, while they produced for 
population manufactured goods, to produce cotton in return. 

Mr. E Potter, SLP. for Carlisle, reminded the house that on« 
seventh of the population of the country was in some way depen< 
dent on the cotton manufacture. The annual returns from 



THE APOLOGY FOB RIOT. 



281 



I in accordance with the advice of their varioua superintend 
pits, they all agre«d : one of them coupling with the resolution, 

( they did it out of regard to their reverend Buperintendent, 
:. Bell, and not out of any respect to the relief committee. 

At a meeting of the general committee, io Manchester, on Mon- 
py, the 3Uth, the rioters found an apologist in the person of the 

'. Mr. flagar, of Audenshaw, who hoped the committee would 
bdeavour to remove a feeling of dissatisfaction which was gaining 
ind, that they were too much disposed to reserve their funds, 
and were losing faith in the generosity of the public. He also 
took the liberty of suggesting to all local relief conaniittees the 
necessity of removing, as far as possible, any ground of complaint 
from the patiently-enduring class of pnor. 

To this apology for riot, Sir J. P. Kay-Shuttleworth sharply 
retorted that "the funds were administered first with a view to 
supporting the life and health of the distressed population, and the 
t-xperience of the winter had proved that it could be done at a rate 
considerably below that which had been given in the Stalybridge 
district, which district he could not but characterise as notable for 
the agitation of reverend gentlemen. The remarks of the reverend 
gentleman were exactly those upon which the late disturbances 
had been founded, and upon which they were now attempted to be 
justified." Colonel Wilson Patten reminded the reverend gentleman 
that whilst some time ago the receipts of the committee werei35,000 
per week, they were now reduced to from .£4,000 to £5,000 ; and the 
honorary secretary stated that, instead of the grants of the central 
executive having decreased, as stated by Mr. Eagar, the grants of the 
committep. for seven months, had averaged .£40,000 per month, 
whilst the grants for the laiit month (February) were £50,000. Mr. 
John Cbeetham (now M.P for Salford) — referring to the late riots — 
said that in Stalybridge there was a person (understood to be the 
Rev. J. R. Stephens) who had, for the last few months been seeking 
publicly to undermine the influence and discredit the exertions of 
the relief committee. That individual was beneath his contempt ; 
but when he found gentlemen holding ttie same position as Mr. 
Eagar laying upon the relief committee the blame of these disturb- 
ances — one of them going np to London and sending down a 
telegram to his colleague, saying, "The lord mayor has given us 
■JioOO ; tickets must not be accepted on any grounds ; placard the 



230 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 



a Roman Catholic priest, then addressed the audience, heartilj 
exorting them to keep the peace, and the meeting separated quietly. 
It was also currently reported that orders had been received] 
from London to atop the distribution of the £500 from the Man- 
Bion House committee ; and this report doubtless had its effect in 
producing a quiet acquiescence in the decision of the commtttca 
Here is the address of the central executive : — 

"THE CENTRAL ESECDTTVE BELIEF COMMITTEE AT MASCHESTEB. 
" To the operatives of Stalybridge and their families, 

" We have been entrusted with large funds for the relief of 
distress, and we are distributing tlicm with every sympathy for 
your wants, and with every care for your welfare : those funds 
cannot be claimed by any particular district, but are to be given 
where we think it best, taking into consideration distress, good 
behaviour, and local circumHtances generally. 

" We deplore the disturbances which have recently occuml 
We hope they are not shared in by a very large number. If they 
are continued, we know that there are many elsewhere who wi 
gratefully receive all we can afford them ; and the boar^ ot 
guardiaoB, the ordinary channels of relief, are always open fa^ 
others. 

" We, therefore, appeal to all among you who value our reVs( 
to aid us in our wish to continue it to you. We beg you, coiw 
qiiently, to avoid and discourage meetings which may lead to &• 
turbances, and to assist, to the utmost of your power, the loea 
authorities and others, whose duty is the preservation of order fc 
the good of all. 

" We deeply sympathise in your distress : none of us knowlun 
long it may last We must, therefore, be prudent in distribul 
that relief which the generosity of the public has given, but vbid 
disturbance will cause to cease. Unless order is duly preserved 
matters must pass from our hands into those of the constitatel 
authorities of the country.^ — Signed for the committee, 

"James P. Kay-Shuttleworth, vice-president 
" John William Maclure, honorary secretary." 

After the above meeting the various schools again discusBa 
16 propriety of accepting the decision of the relief committer 



SIB J. P. KAT-SHUTTLEWOETH AT STALTBHIDQE. 277 

been aJmust as complete as if they hnd secured a return to money 
payments, and riot woulil bave won and worn the laurel, and have 
become a precedent for future imitation. Of courae the leaders in 
the riots were in high glee at the news from London; they accepted 
it as they only could accept it, as a declaration of the public opinion 
of London that " they had been waging a holy war in smashing 
windows, breaking machinery, and robbing shopkeepers, thousands 
of whom were not making enough to pay their rents; and who had 
their books full of bad debts, families to keep, and poor-rates to 
pay for others, who were not much worse off than themselves. 

But a wiser head was at the service of the relief committee. 
Sir James Kay - Shut tie worth, accompanied by the honorary 
secretary of the central executive, and the special commissioner, 
sat with them during an interview with a deputation of the 
discontented on Wednesday. Sir James had already effectually 
remonstrated with the committee about their proposed resignation, 
.and had induced them to rescind the resolution, declaring that if 
they declined he would himself sit and administer relief by ticket 
The deputation asked for payment in money, and relief from school 
for one day per week, o» account of the reduction of fourpence per 
head in the weekly allowance. The committee could not concede 
thb, but offered to pay one-half in money ; but, as the deputation 
bad no authority to make concessions, the interview ended without 
result Sir James and Mr. Maclure strenuously advised the com- 
mittee ncjt to give way, but it is sdd that the special commissioner 
stayed behind, and gave contrary advice, thus again perplexing the 
committee. After the committee, Sir James Kay-Shuttleworth 
and the honorary secretary made their way through the excited 
crowd to the railway station, and, being suspected of strengthening 
the local committee in its decision, they were met with sundry 
unpleasant epithets and an occasional stone ; but tht-y pressed on 
their way, and, except a blow on the shoulder of Mr. Maclure by 
aa old coffee pot, accompanied by an exclamation of " There goes 
that damned Uaclure, wi' his two-shilling kale!" they reached 
tb^ destination in safety. 

On Friday, 27th, Sir James Kay-Shuttleworth was again at 
Stalybridge, aud addressed the scholars in the town halL Sir 
James in the course of his remarks reminded his audience that 
tJie operatives of Lancashire had passed through the rigours of 



280 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

a Roman Catholic priest, then addressed the audience, heartilf 
exorting them to keep the peace, and the meeting separated quiellT^ 
It was also currently reported that orders had been received' 
from London to stop the distribution of the £500 from the Man- 
sion House committee ; and this report doubtless had its effect in 
producing a quiet acquiescence in the decision of the committee. 
Here is the address of the central executive ; — 

"THE CENTRAL EXECUTIVE RELIEF COMMITTEE AT MANCHESTEE. 
" To the operatives of Stalybridge and their families. 

" We have been entrusted with large funds for the relief of 
distress, and we are distributing them with every sympathy for 
your wants, and with every care for your welfare : those fundi 
cannot be claimed by any particular district, but are to be given 
where we think it best, taking into consideration distress, good 
behaviour, and local circumstances generally. 

*' We deplore the disturbances which have recently oocoired. 
We hope they are not shared in by a very large number. If they 
are continued, we know that there are many elsewhere ■who wiU- 
gratefully receive all we can afiford them ; and the boards of 
guardians, the ordinary channels of relief, are always open to 
others. 

" We. therefore, appeal to all among you who value our relief, 
to aid us in our wish to continue it to you. We beg you, co 
quently, to avoid and discourage meetings which may lead to dift- 
turbances, and to assist, to the utmost of your power, the local 
authorities and others, whose duty is the preservation of order fix 
the good of all. 

" We deeply sympathise in your distress : none of us know hoi 
long it may last. We must, therefore, be prudent in distributinf 
that relief which the generosity of the public has given, but whid 
disturbance will cause to cease. Unless order is duly preserve^ 
matters must pass from our hands into those of the constituted 
authorities of the country. — .Signed for the committee, 

"James P. Kay-Shuttleworth, vice-president 
'■ John William Maclcre, honorary secretary." 

After the above meeting the various schools again discussei 
the propriety of accepting the decisiou of the relief comnuttM 



TnE APOLOGY FOR RIOT. 281 

and in accordance with the advice of their various supenDteii- 
dents, they all agreed : one of them coupling with the resolution, 
that they did it out of regard to their reverend superintendent, 
Mr. Bell, and not out of any respect to the relief committee. 

At a meeting of the general committee, in Manchester, on Mon- 
day, the 30th, the rioters found an apologist in the person of the 
Rev. Mr. Eagar, of Audenshaw, who hoped the committee would 
endeavour to remove a feeling of dissatisfaction which was gaining 
ground, that they were too much disposed to reserve their funds, 
and were losing faith in the generosity of the public. He also 
took the liberty of suggesting to all local relief committees the 
necessity of removing, as far as possible, any ground of complaint 
from the patiently-enduring class of poor. 

To this apology for riot, Sir J. P. Kay-Shuttleworth sharply 
retorted that " the funds were administered first with a view to 
supporting the life and health of the distressed population, and the 
experience of the winter had proved that it could be done at a rate 
considerably below that which had been given in the Stalybridge 
district, which district he could not but characterise as notable for 
the agitation of reverend gentlemen. The remarks of the reverend 
gentleman were exactly those upon which the late disturbances 
had been founded, and upon which they were now attempted to be 
justified." Colonel Wilsou Patten reminded the reverend gentleman 
that whilst some time ago the receipts of the committee were £35,000 
per week, they were now reduced to from .£4,000 to £5,000 ; and the 
honorary secretary stated that, instead of the grants of the central 
executive havingdecreased, asstatedby Mr. Eagar, the grants of the 
committee, for seven months, ha/i averaged ;C40,000 per month, 
whilst the grants for the last month (February) were XoO.OOO. Mr. 
JohnCheetham (now M.P. forSalford) — referring to the late riots — 
sairl that in Stalybridge there was a person (understood to be the 
Rev. J. R. Stephens) who had, for the last few months been seeking 
publicly to undermine the influence and discredit the exertions of 
the relief committee. That individual was beneath his contempt ; 
hut when he found gentlemen holding the same position as Mr. 
Eagar laying upon the relief committee the blame of these disturb- 
ances — one of them going up to London and sending down a 
telegram to hia colleague, saying, "The lord mayor has given us 
- £500 ; tickets must not be accepted on any grounds ; placard the 



S84 



FACTS OF THE COTTOS FAMISE. 



operatives entirely out of work in Lancashire, and that a much 
larger number were working only ahort^time. T\ie last return 
gave fifteen thousand one hundred and tJiirty-three on short-time, 
and seven thousand five hundred and sixty -seven out of worti in 
Maucbester alone ; seven thousand seven hundred on short-time, 
and twelve thousand one hundred and five out of work in Preston ; 
and four thousand six hundred entirely out of work in Wigan. The 
etock of American cotton in Liverpool was one hundred and twenty 
thousand eight hundred and thirty bales, against six hundred and 
seventy-nine thousand seven hundred and thirty bales at the same 
period last year. The total stock in Liverpool was three hundred 
and seventy thousand bales. Of Indian cotton there was at sea 
two hundred thousand bales, against two hundred and seventy 
thousand last year. The usual conaumption of Great Britain was 
about forty- five thousand bales per week ; and tlie total stock in 
the whole of Europe did not exceed seven hundred and twenty- 
five thousand six hundred bales, or about seventeen weeks' supply 
on half-time. It had l>een represented that the real object of the 
deputation, who a short time ago had waited on the president of 
tbe poor-law board, was to get aid or relief from the consolidated 
fund, but nothing could be further from their intention. What 
they really wisheil was to know whether the poor-law was well 
administered in the distressed districts — whether all was being 
done which could be done by legal means. There was a geDeraL 
feeling amongst the operatives that the poor-law was rather harBlU|! 
administered — -that labour testa were imposed where they ought 
not to be, and that the rigid rules laid down by the board oogbl 
to be relaxed. The (luestion bad been mooted in the public papwi 
whether it was necessary that a large scheme of national cliariM 
should be started. In his opinion the time had not arrived 
that, but he should be glad to hear the president of the 
law board upon the point He should, in conclnsion, express 
hope that the government would turn its attention to the develop 
ment of the resources of India, which those chiefly interested in thi 
subject held — perhaps selfishly— ought, while they produced for it 
population manufactured goods, to produce cotton in return. 

Mr. E. Potter, liP, for Carlisle, reminded the house that one 
seventh of the population of the country was in some way depen- 
dent on the cotton manufacture, The annual returns from 



THE APOLOGY rOB MOT. 281 

ancl in accordauce with the advice of their various guperinten- 
dents, they all agreed : one of them coupling with the resolution, 
that they did it out of regard to their reverend su peri □ tend ent, 
Mr. Bell, and not out of any respect to the relief committee. 

At a meeting of the general committee, in Manchester, on Mon- 
day, the 30th, the rioters found an apologist in tlie person of the 
Rev. Mr. Eagar, of Audenshaw, who hoped the committee would 
endeavour to remove a feeling of diKsatisfaotJon which was gaining 
ground, that they were too much disposed to reserve their funds, 
and were losing faith in the generosity of the public. He also 
took the liberty of suggesting to all local relief committees the 
necessity of removing, as far as posBibte. any ground of complaint 
from the patiently-enduring class of poor. 

To this apology for riot. Sir J. P. Kay-Sbuttleworth sharply 
retorte<i that "the funds were administered first with a view to 
supporting the life and health of the distressed population, and the 
experience of the winter had proved that it could be done at a rate 
considerably below that which bad been given in the Stalybridge 
district, which district he could not but characterise as notable for 
the agitation of reverend gentlemen. The remarks of the reverend 
gentleman were exactly those upon which the late disturbances 
had bet-n founded, and upon which they were now attempted to be 
j ustified." Colonel Wilson Patten reminded the reverend gentleman 
that whilst some time ago the receipts of the committee were£35,000 
per week, they were now reduced to from £4,000 to f 5,000 ; and the 
honorary secretary stated that, instead of the grants of the central 
executive having decreased, as stated by Mr. Eagar. the grants of the 
committer, for seven months, had averaged £40,000 per month, 
whilst the grants for the last month (February) were £50,000. Mr. 
John Cheetham (now M.P. for Saiford) — referring to the late riots — 
said that in Stalybridge there was a person (understood to be the 
Rev. J. R Stepliena) who had, for the last few months been seeking 
publicly to undermine the inHuence and discredit the exertions of 
the rehef committee. That individual was beneath his contempt ; 
hut when he found gentlemen holding (he same position as Mr. 
Eagar laying upon the relief committee the blame of these disturb- 
ances — one of them going up to London and sending down a 
telegram to his colleague, saying, "The lord mayor has given us 
JioOO ; tickets must not be accepted on any grounds ; placard the 



Il 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FASHKE. 

Operatives entirely out of work in Lancashire, and that a much 
larger number were working only short-time. The last return 
gave fifteen thousand one hundred and thirty-three on short-time, 
and seven thousand five hundred and sixty-seven out of work in 
Manchester alone ; seven thousand seven hundred on sbort-time^ 
and twelve thousand one hundred and fiveout of work in Preston; 
and four thousand six hundred entirely out of work in Wigau. The 
stock of American cotton in Liverpool was one hundred and twenty 
thousand eight hundred and thirty bales, against six hundred and 
seventy-nine thousand seven hundred and thirty bales at the same 
period last year. The total stock in Liverpool was three hundred 
and seventy thousand bales. Of Indian cotton there was at sea 
two hundred thousand bales, against two hundred and seventy 
thousand last year. The usual consumption of Great Britain waa 
about forty- five thousand bales per week ; and the total stock in 
the whole of Europe did not exceed seven hundred and tweaty- 
five thousand six huudred boles, or about seventeen weeks' su[^] 
on half-time. Il bad been represented that the real object of thf 
deputation, who a short time i^ had waited on the pre«ideiil ot 
the poor-law board, was to get aid or relief from the coosoUdatecE 
fund, but nothing could be further from their intention. Wfai 
they really wished was to know whether the poor-law was well 
administered in the distressed districts — whether all was b^ti^ 
done which could be done by l^al means. There was a general 
feeling amongst the operatives that the poor-law was rather harshly 
administered — that labour tests were imposed where they ougfal 
not to be. and that the rigid rules laid down by the board ought 
to be relaxed. The question bad been mooted in the public papen 
whether it was necessary that a large scheme of national chaii^ 
should be started. In his opinion the time had not arrived fiff 
that, but he should be glad to hear the president of the 
law board upon the point He should, in conclusion, express 
hope that the government would turn its attention to the developa 
meat of the resoiurces of India, which those chiefly interested in til 
subject held — perhaps selfishly— ought, while they produced for il 
populatioD maaufactared goods, to produce cotton in retam. 

Hr- E. Potter, M.P. for Carlisle, reminded the bouse tJuit oDfri 
seveoth of the poptdatioa of the conntiy was in gome way 
deat oa the cotton manufacture. The annual returns &qdi 



i 



Ma VILLIERSS REPLY. 

trails were about £80,0{)(),000 ; but tbere was uo prospect, for tbe 
presont, of more tbau half the usual araouDt. The crisis affected 
not only the working classes, but the ehopkeepers, and could not 
be ade<pi&tely met by any system of public charity. The inte- 
KsU of some six hundred thousand workpeople, receiving some 
£15,000,000 annually in wages, were at stake. 

Mr. Villier3 said nobody could be more painfully abve than he 
was to the extent of the distress, nor wa.s he witliout daily evidence 
of its magnitude, or of the generous and noble manner ui which it 
was borne. He had anticipated the distress, and in November, 
lH(Jl,had issued a circular to all unions dependent on the American 
trade, exhorting the proper officers to make provision for an un- 
usual amount of distress. The present state was clearly temporaiy, 
and even if the distress continued, the resources of the great and 
wealthy county of Lancaster were more than sufficient to meet all 
the difEculties arising out of the depression of the trade ; and he 
felt con Hd en t that the extremity of want and destitution which had 
been alluded to did not exist. The ratable value of Lancashire in 
1856 was £7,298,000, and the cost of the poor was £455,000. In 
1861. *he cost of the poor was £429,670. If the expenditure went 
on at the rate of the last few months it would he £678,000 for the 
year, or one shilling and tenpence in the pound. In Suffolk, and 
also in Sheffield, two shillings and sixpence was paid ; and that 
rate would raise in Lancashire £91 2,318. St George's in the East 
and Shoreditch paid three shillings and threepence in the pound ; 
and that rate in Lancashire would raise £1,180,013. In Notting- 
ham, and in the East and West London unions, the rates were three 
shillings and sixpence ; and as much as five shillings was paid in 
many parishes in the midland, eastern, and southern parts of Eng- 
land ; and that rate in Lancashire would produce £1,824,630. He 
did not mean to deny tiiat in some particular towns the distress 
was most intense ; and in those locaHties the most vigilant atten- 
tion was required in the administration of relief. But he bad not 
heard of any place in Lancashire paying more than three shillings 
in the pound. In Preston the distress was most severe ; but upon 
the whole it might be inferred that where the rates were so low, 
tbe contributions of private persons were liberal, and that great 
exertions were made to provide for tbe wants of the people. There 

no apprehension whatever that the poor-law guardians were 



I 



890 Ficrs OF THE COTTOS FAMDiE. 

the present state of things was exceptional, to tide OTtjr that perinl 
by borrowiDg od the security of future rates ! He was opposed toi 
borrowifig money on the Becurity of rates in ordiiuuy drctm- 
stances ; but no person who realised the condition of afikin in tlw 
cotton districts, could oliject to the inhabitants taking the Doune' 
which they thought moat advantageous to themselves. We buoit 
of our powers of self and local government, and if there be ana 
subject apon which more tbau another the people may bo eafefy 
trusted, it is the subject of tasation : and it is quite certwn 
any great extravagance in the manufacturing district*, either by 
corporations or boards of guardians would be very speedily checked 
and controlled. Tlie poor-law docs not allow ovei»eei« to get 
f)arish into debt, and, in order to act effectively, makes any 
debt the personal debt of the overseers The Bate in Aid Act 
professedly a provision against great inequality of rates in 
parishes, and it also professed to give relief by spreading 
expenditure over a series of years. But the borrowing power; 
was confined to the excess of expenditure between three 
and five shillings in the pound ; and obliged either the 

rate which it professed to remedy to have been already li 

expended, or forced the overseers to break the law by getting ii 
debt, before they could avail themselves of its provisdons. That 
nuioua whose dependants were increasing by tLousands weekly, 
and whose expenditure was rising in a ratio eufficien; to make tbo 
strongest nenes tremble, were obliged either to levy additional 
rates upon unproductive property, and upon ruined shopkecpun, 
or to spend the money which the law authorised them to bonuir, 
loDg before they oould get bold of it Such was the Taatahu cof 
prevented by the government to the unions of Lancashire. 

The act, ns tir«t passed in 1^62, enabled the guardians of any 
union, where any |jarish in the uuioD had ^>ent in the qiianeis 
ending at 31icbaeluuta or Christmas, 1862, niuru tluui ntni 
in the pound upon the assessment, to charge the exciuwt npoo th* 
other parivlie* in the satne onion according to llteir raUbU- vmhw 
If the expenditunj of the whole union bad eiceisl'^i Mir,..iw.t 
the pound for tlie '^uarlcr, then the guardians ^it 
empowered lu Uktuw the amount uf the vxaaa nj 
of future rale*, to he repaid within seren yuan. Ai,.^ ,. .^m.. 
bad exooedcd one dulling and threepence in the pound, the 



THE HATE IN AID ACT. 291 

law board might, on application, call upon the several unions in the 
same county, whose expenditure had not esceoded ninepence in the 
pound, to coDtrihute according to their ratable value towards such 
excess. The operation of the act was limited to Christmas, 1S62. 

lu March, 1803, the act was renewed till Midsummer, with the 
following alterations : — The time for repayment of loans was 
extended from seven to fourteen years; any union requiring the 
rate in aid, if situate in two counties, to be aided from both 
counties, according to the ratable value of the part of the union 
situate within each of the counties called upon ; the power to 
borrow was extended to overseers under separate hoards of guar- 
dians ; and the time for issuing orders was limited to 1st Septem- 
ber, 1863. In July of the same year, the act was again extended to 
Christmas, 1863 ; but the necessary expenditure of unions applying 
to other unions for aid, was raised from one shilling and threepence 
to one shilling and sevenpence half-penny for the quarter; and 
power was given to the Public Works Loan Commissioners to 
advance any sum not exceeding two hundred thousand pounds 
on the security of the borrowing unions, 

Upon the propriety of this act the central executive declined to 
express an opinion ; their object being to keep as many persons as 
possible away from the boards of guardians, whilst the Rate in Aid 
Act provided only for those who were already paupers, and was in feet 
a sort of tentative effort towards union rating — a question which was 
often and keenly debated, but the propriety of which had never been 
satisfactorily settled. And in the central committee, as elsewhere, 
there were considerable differences of opinion upon the subject, 
About the propriety of the borrowing powers there was unanimous 
agreement ; and if fuller liberty had been given to the guardians 
in that respect, the act would have been much more welcome. 
The borrowing clause, however, did not originate with the govern- 
ment, and was keenly contested when proposed, and with diffi- 
culty carried against the administration ; but the local opinion 
may be very well understood from the fact that twenty-one Lanca- 
shire members voted in its favour, and only six agabst it At the 
meeting held 16th December, 1862, Mr. Famall spoke of the. 
" valuable provisions of the act," as having enabled the Blackburn 
union to borrow ,£3,517, being the amount spent in excess of nine- 
neuce in the poimd up to Michaelmas. 



F 



!82 FACTS OF THE COTTOK FAMINE. 

Mr. Hugh Mason took exception to this word " valuable," tnti 
said that although at Aflhton-unddr-Lyne they were then suLmittiug 
to a crushing expenditure, they would have to continue without 
relief tUl the middle of January, because they had to average the 
high expenditure at the end with the low expenditure at the 
beginning of the quarter. He also pointed out auotber defect. The 
act providiid for the union needing aid, to go to the county in which 
the larger portion of tlie union was situate. Now the larger tei- 
ritorial portion of Ashton was in Cheshire ; hut the lai^er poitioii 
of the population and property were in Lancashire. To which 
county must they apply ? Mr. R. H. Hutchinson, ex-mayor of 
Blackburn, also compltiined that whilst it was true that they had 
borrowed money under the act on the 29th September, they had 
not rectiived authority to borrow until early in December. 

tTbe borrowing powers of the act were made use of as follows, 
p to Mareh, 1864 :~ 






ABhton-DDdecLrna 31,328 

Blackbara C,000 

Gluesup 6,650 

HiBlingdeQ S,600 

FrcBloD 2S.921 

Bocbdale G,659 

Mure reoent ordcra to variona plocee, to Morcli, 1865 6,663 

Total i.'86,8!0 

And orders for aid were made upon various unions in favour of the 
following places, viz. : — 



A Bh ton-nil der-LjDB 7,000 18 

GloEBop 4,&M D 

Preston 10,844 

ToUl £32,398 18 



L 



.And it is a singular commentary upon the infelicity of the act tlwt 
Wigan, where the distress and the local Bubacription were not veiy 
much less in proportion to the population than at Preston, had, ai 
a punishment for its efforts to keep people off the rates, to pay a 
rate in aid to Preston. 

The speech of the president of the poor-law board on 9th Hay, 
whilst exhibiting very good feeling and a desire to be of use to 
Lancashire, was yet inconsistent and unsatisfactory. He spoke of 



mSTRTJCTIONS TO SPECIAL COMMISSIONER 293 

the distress as evidently temporary, and of the wealth of Lanca- 
Bhire as quite capable of bearing it, even if of long continuance ; 
which would have been a very good argument, provided county 
rating could have been resorted to to suatain the poor. He pointed 
to the comparatively low union expenditure even of the moat 
distressed towns; that expenditure referring necessarily to the 
very comniencement of severe distreea, whilst the increase of 
paupers was at that time reckoned by many thousands per month, 
and the union expenditure was rapidly rising; tens of thou- 
sands of people also were kept away from the guardians by the 
consumption of their own small savings, and the funds of their trades 
societies ; by sales of furniture and trinkets; and by the aid afforded 
from public subscriptions through relief committees. He stated 
that there was no apprehension whatever that the poor-law 
guardians wore not equal to their position, or that their means 
were inadequate ; yet the government had sent down a special 
ooraraissioner to ascertain if there was any want of information on 
the part of the guardians, and whether the system on which they 
acted was .strictly l^al. 

Mr. Famall, the special commissioner, was instructed (May 1 2th) 
to make inqtiiry into the operation of the poor-law and the orders 
of the poor-law board at the present time, and on the condition and 
habits of the workpeople. He wa-s to communicate personally with 
all authorities and special organisations for administering relief and 
succour to the poor ; to interpret and define the tnie spirit and 
breadth of the poor-law ; to create and sustain harmony between 
the guardians and the relief committees, and to promote judicious 
action ; to examine the manner of relief; to find out what labour 
waa required of the operativea, and to suggest the most suitable 
forms of eroployment. A wide task, certainly, and more than 
usually difficult for Mr, Famall, unless he could manage to forget 
the experience which Mr. Villiers quoted as hia special qualification, 
namely, that he had formerly spent some years in the district. 
Mr. A. Egerton complained, on tlie part of the operatives, that 
test labour was uuneeesaarily imposed, and asked that the rigid 
rules of the poor-law board should be relaxed ; and the task of Mr. 
ramall was now to show the flexibility of rules, the rigidity of 
whose application was in a great degree due to his own former 
Birork. It is quite true that the prohibitory order, which precludes 



294 



TACTS OF THE COTTON FAMHIE. 



boards of guardians from giving relief to able-bodied penoBS 
except in the workhouse, has never been applied to the m&ini- 
facturing districts, but the general advice of the pour-law board 
has always been to make free use of the workhouse test, Mr, 
Faruall, as special commissioner, told the Preston guardians that, 
in an experience of twenty-seven years as an ex-offido guardian, 
he had never known a boanl require a poor person to sell his w 
her furniture. No one will doubt the truth of the assertioQ, nor 
will such a credence at all affect the thousands of instances where 
the deserving poor relinquish relief rather than break np their 
homes to go into " the house ;" for how is a poor man or woman to 
accept a workhouse order and not break np home t We do not 
question the wisdom of the workhouse test in ordinary times and 
with ordinary paupere; and if Mr. Fs mall, instead of implying 
that boards of guardians were ignorant of their duties, had simply 
said, " these are exceptional circumstances, and must be met wiA 
exceptional measures," he would have made friends amongat the 
guardians as well as amongst the poor. But instead of this coune, 
he gave instructions the very contrary of the spirit of the cui- 
solidated orders ; by urging increased allowances, denying that the 
poor-law required test labour, and recommending the work which 
was best adapted to the people ; and all this, as be affirmed, under 
the authority of the poor-law ; whilst every reader of the reports of 
the poor-law commissioners knows that, in the manufactuiing 
districts, where the prohibitory order does not apply, uapleasaotj 
test work has been always strongly recommended. 

In a circular letter, issued in 1836, upon this subject, the poor^ 
law board said "that the best form of out-door labour at taaU 
work for the parish, however well devised and enforced, is bun 
secondary to the application of the workhouse system, and aw 
only be sanctioned as a palliative for a time. • • • i^ 
work to be provided for paupers should be of a lalx)rioU8 and 
undesirable nature in itself, and the remuneration should b& 
less than would be paid for work of equal quantity if perfonnei 
by independent labourers. • • • The most usual mode (■ 
setting able-bodied paupers to work is in the repair of the roadJ 
or in the preparation of materials for that purpose, • •■ I 
Much of the labour on the roads is defective as a test of paupeH 
ism, in consctiuence of the difficulty of ascertaining the quaatin 



THE PDon-LAw doahd. 295 

performed, and of ascert^ning its performance ; and it liiia been 
found better in most cases to confine the paupers solely to the pre- 
paration of road materials in a yard or other enclosure set apart 
for the purpose." Here is the odious stone-yard test, to which the 
operatives so strongly object. And there is also a proposal to pay 
according to the quantity of work done, which, if carried out in 
practice, would give to many heads of pauper families from two- 
pence to sixpence per week. 

In 1840 the poor-law hoard reprinted from a blue-book the 
evidence of Mr John Ashworth, junior, on the distress in 1826 at 
Darwen, for the purpose of showing the great importance of a 
labour teat, and of relief in kind, Mr. Ashworth states that the 
weavers were so generally out of employ, that a large subscription 
was got up; and relief was at first given in money, which, being 
found ineffectual, they resorted to provisions, and then ultimately 
found work for the people at road-mending, stone-quarrying, 
reservoir-making, &c. Of thirty or forty men sent on a given day 
to the stone quarry, only six or seven remained till w^es time 
(five o'clock in the afternoon). 

In 18+9 the poor-law board indicated a dislike to remunerative 
labour. The manufacturing districts were greatly distressed in 
1847-8, and the board issued the order requiring task work in 
return for relief to the unions where the prohibitory order waa not 
in force ; and in reference to it they say : " The existence of the 
order has induced many boards of guardians to endeavour to pro- 
vide the means of supplying employment to labourers who require 
relief on account of their being out of work, by purchasing or 
hiring some portions of laud contiguous to the workhouse for cul- 
tivation. To a certain extent this has, in a few instances, been 
sanctioned ; but the board have not been prepared to assent, as a 
general proposition, to the guardians engaging in any considerable 
undertakings of a farming character, which appear to the board to 
be open to serious objection." 

And in 1852 the board issued a general order, not only requir- 
ing work in every able-bodied case, but retaining ako a veto power 
over the kind of work to be supplied. They say (Article 6): "Eveiy 
able-bodied male person, if relieved out of the workhouse, shall be 
set to work by the guardians, and be kept employed under their 
—direction and superintendence so long as he receives relief," 



100 rxtm or tsk o/nos i 

ArtlrtuHf "Thn guardiam ahall, ■iitiB Hi 

l<itvr< jihii<«uili5il to act id execolioaef 

Inw IhhiixI tlm )>liu;c or places at 

■Iiiill Iiu Nol to wurk, and U>e ihuimw i 

llixiii wlillii wiirking; iiud iiluJl fort^witfc 

nitnii', ir tliii piHir-law board ithouU 

ll»> it<lli<r i>f ulilit-lKxiied peraoiu vfaibt cafknd for v^eL 

iIiIh imltri' wiiH found no unworkable tbat m « fgw mtmihmkhi 

li> Ijk iiii»lilli>il NO OS tn allow goardiaai, wbere > 

t>liii «ir iiiKtii (tiv>H p<jr wuuk, and still needed n&£, to eewd« fte 

i'(>llt>l' tu fiir till' ditys wlicn the recipient wooid be oat of 

t l<iHiiliiiii> WKi'u hIhii allowed to break ttitoi^ all dke wtidM tf 

tlila ohlcr (i>xi'4)|)t Articlu 3) oo condition of reportaagwillnBfiaHi 

dit^a IIhi iiwo, hiuI tlio j^unds of action; ukl if noi 

liiwml bjr llio lioftnl. thuy might coDtinae so to act. 

It U uliiiiidiuitly clenr that, whilat the prorijiam of the poif- 
Uw ftii> ■iiniuiont ft^r all ordinary cases of pauperism, and far 
nil oi'dlimry Uhiph, yot when, according to the language d* tk 
I'liiiilulNKlinioni, Uitt wmkliouae would be "swampwi"' by a cbt* 
wlmin nidy Uio dinwt niWHaity would drive to the board, »«J 
illfVioviit HrrMi^^lucutA oru rvquirfd ; for it is equally beneficial to 
Hit) ivol|t(outji of n^liuf and •to tlio countiy that tliey should bt 
MHVi'd ll'tiUt di'iiriulHlitw in their own eyes. The special commih 
■(ouwi fivi lhi> kMtlon faniiuo would need rather to forget than to 
voiiuiiulif r tUf ox|H'riouc« of Mr. Fivrnall, the poor-law iDspector, 
ill iirtli>i- III hi> tif n«I m'rvico ; and in reconi mending boards of 
((iilinliaUN whilat dinti-ihuliiig nik'l to take no account of the 
HUppli'Utviitiii)! by cniplnyvra or relief conimittees, and in pt- 
tV'rriug till- iK>wiiig niul adull school test to the stone yard, to oalraia 
pickiitg, and logwixid grinding, he lUd manage so to forget btmidL 
Othur i>cople, liowover, vrui\' not so oblivions ; but when they found 
out what vury dillrrviit •crmona could be preached by the 
man front the oauio tost, they held up tJteir hands in astonisbment 
Neverthelesa, in this re^pt-ct Mr. Famall did good work, by givini; 
the autliority of the poor-Uw board to the wishes of the ceotnl 
executive ; by nu.sing tho weekly allowance, and aiding ao organic 
satioD which would otherwist^ have been more difficult, if 
impossible The rt-ports of Mr. Comuiisaioner Famall are u 
the whole very valuable documents, and will serre as refei«aces Ik 



^F ISEQUALnr OF EATIKG. 297 

^Btaiy years to come ; for, although they contain much leaa matter 
^^Bn the reports of the honorary secretary, aud go sadly astray 
^^B)ii they deal with politico-ecoaoniic problems, or attempt to 
^^H|teU future eveuts, yet their facts are iDcoutrovertible ; and 
^^Hjlg communicated by an official specially deputed by the govem- 
^^^Bt, they doubtless commanded more attention than any merely 
^^Bfficial documents could have done ; and they have already 
^^■ue £i*ult in the Union Cliargeability Act. 

^^LTfae pressure of distress, and consequently of the rates, was 
^^Est unequal, and the general effect of the relief funds was to 
^^Kalise in some degree the burden of the ratepayers, by granting 
^^Rt according to the needs of the different locaUties. 
^^KIFhe average rate levied throughout the cotton districts in the 
^^BE-law year ending Lady-day, Ifiiljl, was la OJd. in the pound 
^^ni the assessment, and the variation was from T^d. at Frest- 
HRcli, a semi-rural union adjoining Manchester, to Is. 3^. at 
Skipton, on the borders of Yorkshire. The effect of the short 
supply of cotton began to be felt in the last quarter of 1861, and 
liy liady-day, 1802, it had shown itself in the poor-rates by raising 
.the average from Is. OJd. to Is. 21d., the variation being from S^d. 
_iii Preatwich to Is. 4Jd. in Manchester. In the course of the year 
1862 the means of the workmen were exhausted, their little hoards 
."were gone, and the savings banks had been drawn upon to the full 
extent of the operatives' deposits ; the trades and friendly societies 
liad contributed to the necessities of their unemployed members 
Xo the exhaustion of their contingent funds, and a large amount of 
capital bad been drawn out of co-operative stores; so that the 
trouble had become wide-sproad and deep, and could no lunger 
te silently borne. The great heart of the British public had been 
appealed to, and had nobly responded ; the voice of mourning hod 
reached across the great waters, and help had come from Australia, 
and from India; and even the people of the Northern States of 
America, in the midst of their own death struggle, had found 
opportunity to send several ship-loads of food to the starving 
^operatives of the " old country." In the year ending Lady-day, 
1863, the average poor-rate had risen to 2a 9}d., the variation 
being from Is. SJd. at Barton-upon-Irwell, a rural union near 
Manchester, to 4s. lO^d. at Glossop, and to these amounts the 
relief committees had added an average of 2a. S^d., varying from 



4 



298 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINil 

Is. 0|d. at Garstang to 8a. SJd. at Asbton-under-Lyne, Glossop 
receiriog at the rate of 6a. 6|d. ; so that the total relief at Ashton 
■was at the rate of 12a. 10^., and at Gloasop 10a. 9|d. for the wbolp 
year. What a practical commentary was here upon the speecJi 
of the president of the poor-law hoard, and the sufficiency of th^ 
county of Lancaster to bear permanently the burden of the cotton 
famine! 

But this statement does not fully display the inequality of rating', 
for there are generally many townships in an union, and the extremes 
of rating would often be found in the different townships of the same 
union. The averi^ rate throughout the cotton districts, in ordi- 
nary times, is about one shilling in tho pound on the assessment; 
the average in the heaviest year of the distress, and including the 
contributions of relief committees, was 5a. 5|d., or an increase of 
about 410 per cent Large as was the increase of indigence, it 
could have been borne for a year if the burden had been equally 
spread ; but whilst the expenditure in the Ashton union was ■( 
the rate of ISs, lO^d. ; Glossop, lis. 5d. ; Preston, 9s. 2d. ; Blact 
bum, 93. lid. ; Stockport, 8a. 8Jd. ; Haslingdcn, 7b. 73d. ; Oldhan 
7b. 3d. ; and Rochdale, 6s. 6^d.; at Leigh the whole cost wi 
2s. 2d. ; at Lancaster, Is. 9|d. ; and at Garatang, Is. 73d. ; and 
is quite possible that the contrast was not much less in some place* 
between the different townships of the same union. These facta 
evidently point to something broader than even union rating for 
an efficient provision, under the poor law, against any fviture w: 
spread calamity, such as the cotton famine. It ia common for 
wealthy men of a locality to reside beyond the boundaries of 
poor-law union in which their manufactories or warehouses 
situate, and where the workpeople must needs liva Thu3 muq 
of the rich men of Manchester either reside in the rural township 
of the Chorlton union, or in the unions of Prestwich or Barton-OD 
Irwell ; many of them go to Bowdon, to AJderley, or to Lymm ; an^ 
eome few reside principally in Wales ; — none of which places couU| 
under the old law, be much affected by any trading calanul 
The whole of the calculations of the president of the poor-li 
board, when he replied to Mr. A. Egerton, in May, 1862, we 
based upon the assessment of Lancashire, where 5a. in the pom . 
would raise Xl,824',636 ; so that if county rating could have be« 
resorted to, an extra rate of about 28, 2d. in the pound, per annuifl 



THE UNION CHAROEABILITT BILL. 



Would have covered the whole e:ctra outlay which was made by 
guardians and relief committees, up to the end of 1801, This 
statement illustrates at once the power of an extended area to meet 
great and unforeseen difficulties, and the fallacy of trying to reason 
down the exiateuce of distress by showing how an extend«i area 
of rating would provide for it, when that area is not available 
for the purpose. And if county rating be so valuable, why not go 
atill further, and make the rating national, so that the same col- 
lectors could officiate for the central government and for boards 
of guardians, and at the same time get rid of all the trouble and 
expense incurred in the administration of the law of settlements i 
If we had a national rate, the poor might be left, like the rich, to 
settle wherever it pleased them to go ; for they would no longer 
■burden a particular locality upon which they had no legal claim ; 
and there would be no reason for union after union trying to got 
rid of them. 

The Union Cliargeability Bill, passed in the session of 18G5, is 
a step in the right direction, and shows that the president of the 
poor-law board, although a timid, has not been a dull scholar ; but 
has apprehended the real teaching of the cotton famina If the 
Union Chargeability Bill had been in force in 1S61, it would have 
sufficed to meet the distress in many of the cotton manufacturing 
unions. The pressure would still have been very severe at the 
following places, where the extra expenditure of guardians and 
relief committees for three years during the famine, exclusive of 
the cost of in-door maintenance for 1 86i-5, was — 



I 



Athtou-nnder-LyDe 30h. 9d. i 
I. la. 



n tlie aueHDioat. 



Gloiiap 
Hastingden 

Btookport 



8Sb. 6d. 
l&». Id. 
sue, Djd. 



The inequality of pressure, under the old law. may be judged 
of by the following returns from the unions of Chorlton-upou- 
Medlock and Prestwich, the first of which includes a considerable, 
td the second a small portion of the borough of Manchester ; — 



TACTS OF THE COTTON' TAXnft. 





CHOBLTON 


UWON. 










R»TM Livim M THB TB*m 1861-4. 








Haa»ufTaim>hip 


ISUL 


ISOi 


1803. 


1§>M. 


TuUL 


A«n(. 




■- d. 


■. d. 




«. d. 


■. 


d. 


■. d. 


*Ard«ick . 


9 B 


8 




5 


16 





4 


Bnrn*ge . 


I 9 


9 3 




2 6 


11 





9 9 




2 G 


S 4 




4 10 


14 


e 


a B 


Chorlton-cu n- ll«rdj 


I G 


2 




none 


8 





2 4 


Didibmy 


t 6 


I 8 




2 6 


9 


6 


2 4i 


Oofton . . 


1 i 


1 8 






8 





2 


'BnlnM. . 


8 


S 




4 U 


15 


2 


3 9} 




1 


a 3 




2 


7 


9 


1 Hi 


HouBide 


8 


S 




1 


S 


2 


1 6i 


OpenahHW 


] 4 


1 4 




1 S 


5 


8 


I s 


Kiuholme 


1 


1 6 


4 6 


a 6 


9 


6 


2 4} 


■WiUiiiig:ton . 


1 


1 4 


4 


3 


8 


4 


2 1 




PI^TniCII 


UKION. 










BlMkley . . 


S G 


4 8 


2 4 


1 


10 


6 


2 71 


Bradford . 


I 


1 


1 


1 6 


4 


6 


1 11 


•BeBwick . . . 


3 


4 4 


6 2 


4 2 


16 


6 


3 11 


Cheetbam 


1 9 


2 4 


2 8 


2 e 


9 


5 


2 41 




1! 


I 9 


2 


1 


6 


8 


I 5 






4 4 


2 8 




8 


8 


3 I 


H-rpurbBj- . . 


U 9 


2 


1 6 


1 


6 


3 


1 3i 


Helton Great . 


1 


2 10 


1 8 


I 


6 


6 


I 7* 


Henton Uttle . . 


2 6 


2 a 


3 


cone 


7 


6 


1 101 


UcMton . . . 


3 


2 


3 


1 8 


7 


8 


1 11 


Nowton . . . 


1 


1 6 


3 


2 


6 


6 


1 7i 


Pre.twich . . 


1 e 


4 6 


none 


none 


8 





1 6 



' 'HicH toimiiUiia n> 



fA Uma \mi^ miiDB thrimgh the ro 



The operation of the Union Chargeability Act will be to chfu^ 
the poor-rate upon the latest assessment, and to levy equal 
throughout an union, so far as the cost of the poor arc coucemei^ 
leaving to each township its own ertraordinary expenditure, an 
leaving the inequalities between union and union as before. 

One fault, and one only, could be found against leaving a heai 
calamity to be provided for out of a properly apportioned poor-tat 
namely, that it would promote permanent pauperism. For peraoi 
who are unable to provide for themselves by working, and who ai 
without friends — for those who &r<i able, but unwilling to work, oi 
who prefer a vagabond to an industrious life — and for the slan 
to vicious habits, the poor-law, with its varying provisicins fi 
different cases, is sufficient ; but for prudent, well-conducted, U 
industrious people, who would prefer to work their fingers to U 



THE IWTON CHlEaEABILITT BILL. 



301 



bone, rather than eat the bread of idleness ; and who are simply 
overwhelmed by misfortunes which are as far beyond their own 
power as the fall of an avalanche or the crash of an earthquake ; it 
is open to grave doubt whether it is wise to oblige them to hang 
about the workhouse doors, in company ivith habitual paupers ; to 
be first shocked hy the hated companionship, then jeered at for 
tht-'ir pride, then encouraged to demand relief as a right. Under 
such treatment men soon lose the feeling of shame at having to 
pass the board, and leara gradually to feel themselves insulted by 
being set to unproductive labour, and to proportion their exertions 
to the rehef given in exchange ; until eventually idleness becomes 
habitual, and cheating the overlooker a matt«r of pride But if, 
in addition to the adoption of county or national rating, the Public 
Works Act could be rendered a permanent institution, and the 
public works loan commissioners have a permanent fund at their 
disposal for loans to distressed locaUties, to be expended on 
approved public works, so that honest and industrious operatives 
could at once be set to work for wages ; then the independence of 
the people would be maintained, the poor-rates economised, and the 
health of the workmen improved. Under this act, if a trade fell 
into permanent decay, the way of the operatives would be smoothed 
to a new and permanent occupation, and they would be at the same 
time rendered fit for emigration ; so that such of them as preferred 
to try colonial life, might leave the old country with a certainty of 
finding the means for a comfortable livelihood abroad. In the 
cotton crisis the depth of the distress was passed before the act 
could bo got into operation ; ao that in some places ordinary 
labourers were obhged to be employed, where, if the means had 
been supplied a year earlier, cotton operatives would have done 
the work ; whilst in others the work was let to contractors, whose 
interest it waa to get the job done as quickly as possible, and who 
did not therefore care to be troubled with unskilled laboiu^rs. 
Of course the application of such a fund would need to be 
restricted to localities which were suffering from extruardinarj- 
causes, and the security of the rates ought in every case to be 
taken for repayment of the principal and interest Under such 
conditions, government money lent for a term of years at three and 
a half per cent ought, with proper management, to leave a margin 
of profit for the investment, and to promote at once the health 



302 FACTS OF THE COTTON TiXIKE. 

the wealth, and the morality of the people. To prevent the misoM 
of the money, or its being even lent in unneceBsary ca^es, the 
application might first be sent to the lords of the treasury, who 
would decide whether the necessity was sufficiently pressing; thco 
the government engineer might be required to report upon the 
utility of the works proposed, and to what extent they would 
employ unskilled labour ; and, in case of a favourable report, an 
order in council might issue to the loan commissioners, who would 
take charge of the financial operation, and who ought to report 
annually to parhament. Such an arrangement would enable ai^ 
future crisis to be met and grappled with at once, without resort 
to any extraordinary organisation or agitation ; and at a cost to 
the distressed places which, being spread over a series of prosperoiu 
years, would scarcely be felt. In the House of Commons, unioB 
rating was opposed, on the ground that it would lead to increase of 
expense, and that it was sought in order to sacrifice the country ts 
the town parishes 

In reference to the first charge, it may be stated that at Dockii^ 
in Norfolk, union rating has existed since 1849. In the three yean 
preceding 1849 the averse expenditure on relief was 9,828. In 
the three years 1856-7-8 it was ^8.773, being a decrease of 1073 
per cent ; whilst, in the seven unions nearest to Docking, the 
decrease during the same period was only 1'82 per cent. On the 
subject of sacrificing the country to the town parishes, eveiy intelli- 
gent man who is acquainted with rural districts can point ont 
parishes in which, for half a century past, the process of demo- 
lishiug labourers' cottages has gone on, without any re-buUdii^ 
and has become a nuisance which calls loudly for remedy; and' 
the Union Chargeability Bill, by rendering such transactions un- 
profitable, will eO'ectually stop the practice ; for a little rent will be 
better than none, when the sacrifice of rent ceases to save the rate& 
In this measure Mr. Villiers was wise, for he at once abolished a 
cruel nuisance, and provided to a small extent against local calamity. 
It is a small step, but government estabbahmenta are difficult to 
move. Let us hope that, now the inertia in to some extent ovei^ 
come, the matter will not be allowed to rest until something more 
has been accomplished. 

At the meeting of the central executive, held 20th June, 186S. 
Mr. Famall stated that, in accordance with instructions from the 



POLICT or HTBLIC WORKS. 



303 



poor-law board, Mb coonection, as special commisaioner in connec- 
tion with this district, would cease, and that this would be the last 
meeting of the committee at which he would have the opportunity 
of being present He expressed the satisfaction be had experienced 
in co-operating with a body that had so ably discharged the impor- 
tant public trust committed to its care. The central executive 
then recorded the following resolutions : — 

"That this committee desires to record its sense of the very 
cordial manner in which the Right Honourable 0. P. Villiers, the 
president of the poor-law board, has, from the commencement of its 
labours, promoted the co-operation of the boards of guardians of the 
cotton districts with the local committees. It would in particular 
acknowledge Mr. Vitlicrs's appointment of Mr, Famall as special 
commissioner, and his success in promoting harmony between the 
various rehef committees and public works boards. This committee 
further desires to exprt'ss its conviction of the important influence of 
the Public Works (Manufacturing Districts) Act, carried through 
parliament by Mr. Vdliers, in providing employment, and of the skill 
with which that act has been carried into execution by Mr. Raw- 
linson and the officers who have acted under him. This committee 
wishes to give public expression to its conviction that the advan- 
tages derived from the Public Works Act cannot be measured by 
the amount of employment provided, but that its indirect influence 
on the discipline of labour and as a stimulus to the profitable 
application of capital have exceeded the more direct, and therefore 
more apparent, benefits derived from it It desires, likewise, to 
convey its acknowledgments to Mr. Villiers for the readiness with 
which he assented to its request, that he would place at its disposal 
the services of the two inspectors, who have materially promoted, 
by their reports, the economical administration of the relief fund. 

" The committee desires to record the expression of its thanks 
to Mr. Famall, for the persevering attention which he has given to 
its deliberations, for the amenity with which he has mingled in 
them, and for the promptitude and skill with which he has on all 
occasions aided the comjnittce, 

"To Mr. Kawlinson the committee wishes to convey its convic- 
tion that the general adoption and successful operation of the Public 
Works Act have been greatly promoted by the confidence which 
the local boards have felt in his sincerity, experience, and skill" 



SOI FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

Mr. FaniaU and Mr. Kawlioson briefly returned thanks, the 
latter gentleman observing that, if hb life should be spared ao long 
be hoped to see the public works in this district completed as suc- 
cessfully as such operations could po«?ibly be, that Lancashire mi^t 
not only have received relief from them in her great distress, baf' 
that she might receive permanent sanitary benefit. The conduct 
of these works might afford an administrative precedent in th< 
relief of similar future distress, as well aa a lasting stimnbis to 
municipal improve raenta. 

On the motion of Mr, Rosa, it was then resolved — " That thig" 
committee at its rising adjourn Bine die, subject to the summoDS' 
of the chairman, vice-chairman, and honorary secretary." 

Thus, quietly and unobtrusively, ended the official connection' 
between the poor-law board and the central executive. In ths 
vote of thanks to Mr. Villiers there is not a word too much rf 
praise ; for when once convinced of the gravity of the crisis, h(^ 
lent a willing ear to the committee and gave a ready compliance 
to all their suggestions, and aided them by every means in hil 
power. To the skill of Mr. Rawlinson the whole country testifies: 
his assiduity and kindness have been experienced by all who havtf 
come in contact with him. Even the error of certifying for s6 
large a proportion of the loan for Manchester, where only a smalf 
proportion of skilled labour could be employed, no doubt aross* 
from his desire to get the act speeilily into operation. 

We have already expressed the conviction that the appoint-' 
ment of Mr. Farnall was a mistake. He was not popular when 
regularly employed in the district, and has not much improved his' 
position by his special services. We believe that it is a departure'' 
from the rule generally observed at the poor-law board to super*' 
sede an official except for incompetence ; and those who hatrf 
come in contact with Mr. Farnall and his successor as poor-l»«" 
inspectors will certainly not vote the late Mr. Mainwaring incom- 
petent. But the appointment of Mr. Farnall as special commiasionet' 
implied incompetence and ignorance on the part of Mr. Mainwaring j' 
for it is the regular duty of a poor-law inspector to do all which Mr. 
Farnall was charged with, except the promotion of harmony betvreen 
guardians and relief committees, and the preparation of special 
reports. 

The minute book of the central executive shows that on thi 




Ist Septeml>er, 18fi2, Mr. Farnall was "requested to write to the 
relief committees, or other sources of tnformatiou in the distressed 
districts, requesting them to give liim a report for the use of the 
centml relief coramittfie, as to the amount of subscriptions nused 
in their n-apective localities, and the supposed amount of aid pri- 
vately given by manufacturers in such localitiea Also the numl>er 
■ if haiiii* fully employed, partially employed, or un'^mployod, and 
the weekly loss of wages Bustaiuet) ; and further as to the forms 
of work employed by the said committees." We suppose the 
honorary secretary thought this resolution trenched a little on 
his domaiu ; for the result was that two reports were presented, 
and the committee, having to decide between them, adopted the 
one by Mr, Maclure on its merits ; and thug originated the sys- 
tematic and detailed statistics which were afterwards regularly 
furnished. 

On tbe 8th September, 1862, Mr. Farnall was "requested to 
visit Aslitun and Hurst, and by personal communication to induce 
the committee.'? at these places to eo-<>perate ; which request Mr. 
Farnall accepted, as he considered it part of hta duty to gowem- 
ment." The tone of this " minute" looks as if some request had 
beeD rnotle to Mr. Farnall which he had not accepted, and indicates 
a woLt of thorough harmony between bim and the committee ; and 

tllthough the minutes of the next week show that comnmntcations 

irith Ashtou and Hurst were left in Mr. Famall's hands, yet there 

odsted up to the end of the crisis a separate committee at Hurst. 

which was receiving aid from the Mansion House fund; nor was 

' lit- matter out of Mr. Famali's hands on the 8th September, 18G3, 

lur be tlien " read a report upon HurNt." 

^^ January' 5, 18G3 : A correspondence was read between Messrs, 

^^Hiiey And Co., spinners and manufacturers, and the guardians of 

^^^e Ohorltou tuiion', showing that Messrs. Birley were desirous to 

^BOOatinue to supplement the union relief to persons who bad fur- 

^nwrly worked for them, if the guardians would consent not to Ie«sen 

B ^e union allowance in consequence thereof; and "Mr. Farnall 

wan deputed to bring about an accommodation of the ilispute." 

Thij WHJ* a case peculiarly his own ; for he lind already, in various 

pablistbed speeches, recommended guardians not to take account* 

^L^ ftny supplementing, by relief committees or other perHons, to the 

^^^lowance of tliose who were suSeriug from tlie cotton famine. I'hls 



308 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

misHion faileJ, and Messrs. Birley ceased to relieve their own work- 
people, and left them entirely to the guardians and relief com no itlees. 

Uarch 16, 1863 r A letter waa read from the Dukiutield com- 
mittee, anoouucing tlieir intention to diacontioue, and Mr. Fam&ll 
was requested to make inquiry as to the proceedings and expen- 
diture of the committee ; and aa the grants to Dukinfield were coD- 
tinued, this uAlertakiug waa no doubt a success. 

In the chapter on the Stalybridge riots, it is shown that r 
dangerous difference of opinion existed between Mr. Famall aud 
the vice-chairman of the central executive, on the question of 
conceding the demands of the rioters ; and on March 23rd, 1803, 
Mr, Faruall reported on the dislurhance at Stalybridge. and inti- 
mated to the committee that he would make another visit in hia 
official capacity as government commissioner. 

Here again it looks as if alt was not quite as it should be. But, 
disagreeing as Mr. Farnall evidently did with the central executive, 
whose deputy he had been on the former occasion, it would be diffi- 
cult to define how he was to promote harmony as govemmeDt 
commissioner. If he reconciled the Stalybridge committee to the 
rioters, by inducing them to concede the point in dispute, he woulili 
set them at variance with the central executive, of which be WU' 
also a member ; and we know that harmony was ultimately restored 
by the firmness of the committee, who afterwards, as an act of 
grace, cemented the peace by conceding one-half of the demand, 
and paying half the weekly allowances in money, and half in tickets. 

There was one particular district where the trade was entirely 
in the hands of a few very rich men, all of whom early in the crisia 
stopped their works ; and, contributing to the relief fund in the 
proportion of about ten shillings, or one week's Wiiges'per hauii, 
throw all their workpeople upon the relief committee. One of 
these men is familiarly reported to have realised about ;£120,000 
by the rise iu the value of his stock. On the 15th June, 1863, 
Mr. Farnall was " requested to convey the views of the committee 
most strongly to the local millowners." Mr. Farnall no douhi 
undertook the task, and brought all the weight of Ids official 
influence to bear ; but the subscription list beai-s no evidence of 
success : the millowners resisted even the " suasive eloquence" of 
the special commissioner, for tho total extra sum subscribed up to 
the close of the fund was £'21. 



MB. fabnall's failubes. 307 

On September 21st, 1863, Mr. Farnall was "requested to visit 
Oldbam immediately, and to recommend to the relief committee 
there the discontinuance of any future relief to .persons who were 
also relieved by the guardians." At the end of August the number 
so relieved in Oldham was one thousand and eleven ; at the end 
of December it was seven hundred and forty-four ; at the end of 
April, 1864, it was seven hundred and fifty-four; at the end of 
June it was one hundred and seventy ; and it finally faded out . 
in August, 1864, just eleven months from the date of the mission. 

With regard to the Chorlton board of guardians, where Mr. 
Famall had declined to go a second time, it was afterwards found 
advisable, in the interests of the poor-law board, to put Mr. J. W. 
Maclure upon the commission of the peace, in order that he might 
attend the board ex officio. It may not have been due to any fault 
in Mr. Famall that he could not reconcile the various committees 
at Ashton, for the task failed in other hands as totally as in his ; 
but the minutes of the central executive prove that there was at 
least room for a difference of opinion as to the value of his appoint- 
ment He no doubt did his best, and it would have looked 
invidious to part with him without a vote of thanks ; . but, as 
disinterested judges and faithful recorders, whilst we give greater 
praise to the president of the poor-law board for his personal efforts, 
and to Mr. Kawlinson for his great skill and active co-operation, we 
by no means wish to undervalue the services of Mr. FamalL We 
have said that his task was not an easy one, and he could doubtless 
tell of more diflBculties encountered and overcome than were visible 
to an outside observer. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



g TdoaaUmy of Ksdpliiw;' Lfthmr — ConditioitB nf Gnuto 
dcDta— Kiil«fnT the Eiecution <d Public Worka— Sugtr«tioiiitiut'>llM Adoplia 
of tbi: Local GoTenunent Act, 18>'U) — latrnjuctiun of (he Public Worb (Mb&I 
fnctiirini; Diitricbil Bill— Conditloiu of the Bill —The Prindiile of Public L(M 
Vindicated — Mr. RiwlinsoB'a Report ~ Debate on Sifoood Routiiig of tlui Bill' 
The Policy of Emi^ntioa — Mr. Femmd'B Error— Mr Funftll's EardjiiMe U it 
Numbmi who wnulil be Employed under the Act — DisapiiouitiDeiit nf theBuci 
tive CoDUDittee — Miaapproprijktioii of the Lo&n at Manchoaber, Stocltport, wu 
Blackburn —The Mancherter Board of Guirdiaiu —The Hulme Park UotbomiI- 
ProttHt of WarkiDij! Men agaiiut the Pauper Pasaage to Lsbour — Clane* of He 
Engaged OD the Stockport Worka — Mr, HawlioBon'a Erroneous Estimale o( Nnfl 
ben— fllow Progras- Official Reflection and Delay— Aeoount of (he Wiali 
Undertake— AppUationa Refoaed and the Qroiuidi thereof. 

The disciplinary work, mental or physical, found by relief com- 
mitteea for their dependants, answered very well until the Doveltf 
had worn off, and then it gradually became almost as unsatisfactoij 
as pauper or prison labour. Being necessarily spread over the' 
whole week, so as to afford a positive check against impositioii, it 
left the operatives no hberty of action to shift for themselves, with- 
out renouncing all claim upon the funds ; and a certain raid of 
relief being given to all alike, it gave no reward for, and therefoR 
afforded no atimulufi to, industry. The natural and almost inevit* 
able consequence was, that men worked not as at a task, for tilt 
accomplishment of which they would be rewarded according to their 
exertions, but listlessly, waiting, like tired children at school, for the 
hour of dismissal ; knowing that the connection between the work 
done, and the relief-wi^es to be procured, was not a natural but t 
forced relationship — a make-believe, which produced no sym^alhj, 
and therefore no fruitful result. 

The central executive committee felt this, and attached to it* 
report of 30th March, 1863, as an appendix, the following extracts 
from the minutes of the meeting held on the 5th March, 1863 ;— 



I 



GRAMTS TO 80PEBINTENDENT9. 



Kesolved ; " That grants be made from the eniploj-nient aiid 

"liool fund towards tljo payment of the wages of superin- 

I iidfluls, lit order to promote the employment of men and 

, 'Uths above eighteen, on the following conditions and scale : — 

I ^t. The workis to be of public advantage, such as the improve- 

< 'Ut of public roads and footpaths ; of the sanitary condition of any 

MiiTi or vilhige; or for the provision of places of public recreation. 

i'hese works are to be distinguished as far as possible from such 

Ltbour on private property as will be an advantage to the owner.^ 

iud. The grants will be made by payments towards the wages of 

impetCDt supcrint«Ddents of work. Such aid will be at the rate 

sixpence weekly for every labourer at work under a foreman, 

(Tided that no labour company, under one such overlooker, 

'Xceed forty men. — 3rd. The period during which the men are to 

' ■ required to work weekly, should be proportioned to the amount 

■r ruUcf. at a rate of payment per hour ; and the time not thus 

oi-cupied should be spent in echooL Tlie foreman should he 

employed the whole day. — tth, A return of the number of men so 

I'cnploycJ must be made in the form now approved, with the usual 

'iionthly schedule of application for an ordinary grant" 

And in the next report., dated 27th April, 1803, the executive 

1 ill owed up their resolution by remarks, which showed that the 

subject of labour occupied much ol their attention; and that their 

\ iewB were lurcoming more definite as to the absolute necessity of 

promoting, so far as possible, the pro\ision of work for wages 

j&Htead of for relief, In this report they said : — - 

^ " If any private work be done by men paid by the relief 

oommittoc, the proprietor should pay to the committee the ciis- 

■^tnary mst of the execution of such work by the piece. If 

iirly valued on this principle, farms might be drained or fenced. 

' prepared for crops; aud private roads might be made, or 

■ inamontal works carried out on estates, by relief committt'ee. 

\iid a lauded proprietor may do all these works, on one of two 

.-.lemn. He may either withdraw the workman wholly from the 

I (:ipl of relief, giving him fiill employment at ordinary wages; or 

>; may pay bim the ordinary rate of wi^s per hour, employing him 

<ir [ir five hours per day as a part of Ids means of subaistence. 

I liis would moke such work co-ordinate with the action of a relief 

[iitoittco, which might employ the remaining members of the 



310 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE 



family, and give them relief at a certain rate per hour, so as to make 
up the relief of the family to the scale. * * ' If coDtracte for 
useful public works are undertaken, such engagements should be 
made by some public body, such as a municipal corporation. But 
public works would cause an outlay which would iucrease the 
burdens of ratepayers. Unless, therefore, parliament, in consi- 
deration of the gra\'ity of the crisis, give greatly increased powen 
to raise money on loan for public works, at low rates of interest 
and for long periods of years, it is scarcely to be expected that 
when so large a part of the capital of the cotton districts i» 
unproductive, town councils will consider themselves justified ii 
charging their boroughs with any such large outlay as would be 
required to set all the able-bodied men now relieved on work, Biiti 
if municipalities were enabled — for all purposes for which they la 
now authorised by law to contract loans — to contract new loans— 
to spread the repayment of all loans over a much longer period 
of time, and even to postpone the payment of the first instalmest 
for five or more years, many works would certainly be undertaken 
by town councils which would otherwise be neglected. Suppoeiog 
this to be done, it would be open to the town councils to set 
the able-bodied either on piectvwork, or on work by the hour, 
at the ordinary rate of wages per hour. As in the supposed 
case of the landed proprietor, town councils miglit allow the 
workman to earn wages, in which case a limited number would be 
wholly removed from the relief lists. Or they might allow a larger 
number of men to labour four or five hours daily, or to work by 
the piece until they had earned a given sura per week, as put 
of their relief from the board of guardians or relief committee. 
What has been said of town councils applies, in their resp«ctira 
spheres, to improvement commissioners, to boards acting under 
the Local Improvements Act, and to other local authorities now 
more or less empowered to borrow money for public improvemeota 
Suggestions have been made by drainage engineers and others 
that the cotton districts offer a field for the profitable inveatmenl 
of a laige capital in the improvement of land. That is a mart 
obvious truth. A large extent of the land below the level of thn* 
hundred feet above the sea, and a still larger tract (rota t]ues 
hundred to six hundred feet high, would pay the proprietor fcri 
draining and liming. But no government would impose these 



THE LOCAL aOVEBNMENT ACT. 311 

improvements as an obligation on proprietoVs. anil enforce a charge 
of the coat on landed estates, even with a renewal of the oppor- 
tunity for repayment in twenty-two years, at six and a half per 
cent per annum (the then rate of discount). All such improve- 
ments are necessarily dependent on the progress, among landed 
proprietors, of an intelligent foresight as to their own interests ; 
and nothing is more certain than that great tracts of laud below 
the level of three hundred feet from the sea remain undrained, 
notwithstanding such powers as exist to borrow, through the 
agency of land improvement companies. It is equally apparent 
that a crisis which reduces the rents, and increases the burthens 
of landed proprietors, is not one which they would select for dialing 
their estates with new burthens; unless the motives to do so 
at this time were made to preponderate, in the same way as is 
proposed in the case of town councils. • • • That which 
remains as an obvious resource is to increase, with a view to this 
object, all the existing facilities for loans for public and privale 
works within these counties— by lengthening the term of years for 
repayment — by reducing the interest on the loans — and by post- 
poning the repayment of the first instalment for five or more years." 
Returning again to the subject in the report dated 25th May, 
and looking forward to the succeeding winter, the executive 
committee said that, in the absence of public works, there would 
remain little or no means of suKsi-stence for the operatives, except 
the parochial rates. " Private charity will have been nearly 
exhausted by unwonted exertions continued through two years. 
By far the greater part of the capital of the cotton districts will, 
during that time, have remained unproductive and heavily taxed." 
The rninute of April was intended to attrapt public consideration 
to works of municipal and parochial improvement, which might be 
rendered practicable by reasonable legislative and other facilities, 
in order to provide employment at ordinary wages for the able- 
bodied men who were in receipt of relief. After eniimeratjng the 
various works su^ested, the executive said : " Your committee 
has not entertained any doubt that many of the principal muni- 
cipal corporations, and also townships, acting under the clauses of 
the Local Government Act (1858), would be disposed to undertake 
extensive public works, provided they were enabled to obtain loans 
^ iit money sufficient to defray the cost of such works, for long terms 



312 FACTS OF THE COTTON FjyUNE. 

ol'years, at low rates of interest. In order, however, that the pron- 
Bions of the Local Govemment Act may be brought into operation 
early enough to eETectually alleviate the distress, your committee ia 
of opiniou that the following changes in that act are necessary 

"1st. All the provisions as to the time which is to elajihc between 
notices for the adoption of the act should be greatly shortened.— 
2nd. The adoption of tlie act would be promoted if power wert 
given to limit its operation to a few years, and to objects connected 
with employment for the relief of distress. If that were done, the 
power of appeal against the adoption of the act might be cancelled.' 

The same report pointed out the fact that a large portkni 
of the cotton operatives, ninety-one thousand three hundred and 
seventeen of whom were in receipt of relief, resided in townsbipt 
where there was only the ordinary parochial government; and 
to which, therefore, the provisions of tlie Local QoTenimeDt 
Act (1858) did not apply. One-third of the distressed oper*-- 
lives were beyond the reach of the' act ; and the executive 
concluded their report with the remark that, " without separata 
arrangements, Buch as are contemplated for outlying towDabip)) 
and facilities to encourage landowners to meet the chaises of 
extensive works of private improvement, your committee is certaiu 
that such works would rarely if ever be undertaken in those parU 
- of the cotton districts which are not comprised in municipal 
boroughs, and which arc not under any local govemment board." 

Al l these reports, in addition to those of the special commis- 
sioner, were supplied to the poor-law board ; and on 8th June, Mr 
Villiers asked leave, in the House of Commons, to introduce Tlie 
Public Works (Manufacturing Districts) Bill It was called " 
Act to facilitate the execution of public works in certain monuiao- 
turing districts ; to authorise for that purpose advances of public 
money to a limited amount, upon the security of local rates ; and (o 
shorten the period of notice for the adoption of the Local Govern* 
ment Act (1858) in certain cases." The act authorised the appropria- 
tion of .£1,200,000 (afterwards increased to i;i,500,000, and further 
increased ultimately to £1,850,000) by the public works loan i 
missioners, for works of public utility and sanitary improvement 
within the cotton districts. The total amount to Iw lent to anj 
local board, or other authority, was limited to one year's ratabli 
value of the property assessable within the district, for which bu(" 



PCBLIC LOANS VISDICATED. 



313 



loan was required. The use of the money was limited to auch 
works as were authorised under the Local GoverQineut Act (1858), 
or under Bome local act applying to the district in question. The 
interest chargeable was three and a half per cent per annum, and 
the repayment was to be spread over any number of years, not 
exceeding thirty, and to be secured by mortgage of the local rates. 

The loans were to be subject to the approval of the poor-law 
board; which approval was to be conditional upon the board being 
satished that all the conditions of the act were complied with, on 
the part of the local authorities desiring the loan. The money 
was also to be advanced in such instalments as the poor-hiw board 
should direct; and the payment of any instalment was to be with- 
held on the poor-law board certifying that the works in respect of 
which the loan was authorised, were not being proceeded with in 
conformity with the plan proposed, or to the satisfaction of the 
poor-law board. 

The principle of piibHc loans for local purposes has often been 
objected to ; and since every loan out of the consolidated fund 
necessitates either an addition to the national debt, or an extra tax 
upon the nation, there is no doubt room for fear lest a precedent 
be establiaheil, which would be productive of future mischief But 
if the ease be exceptional, and the purposes of the loan promotive 
of permanent utility, whilst the security for repayment is ample, it 
is difficult to see how auy person, who is really anxious for the 
public good, can complain. In this case the sufi'ering was endured 
by the operatives, in obedience to a national policy (for a breach of 
the blockade of the South Americau porta would have brought in 
cotton and provided employment) ; and the loss of wagt^s alone was at 
the rate of from ten to eleven millions sterhug per annum ; fixed 
capital was unprofitable and yet heavily taxed ; the shopkeepers 
were being rapidly reduced to the condition of the operatives, whilst 
the operatives themselves were fast falling into the condition of 
normal paupers. The immense rise in the price of cotton had 
rendered the expenditure for the small supply so large as to have 
crippled the money market ; so that if corporations and landowEiers 
had been disposed to go into improvements without the aid of 
government, they could not have borrowed capital to invest, except 
at such rates of interest as would have entailed severe losses. 

^^partj from employmeut or an efficient continuance of relief. 



314 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMTSE. 



what could be expected of the operatives ? Hitherto they bad 
borne their Bufferings with exemplary patience ; they knew snd 
appreciated the cause of the evil: the penny newspapers had 
taught them that neither the executive govemmeut, nor the local 
authorities, nor their own employers, were to blame in the rostt«r;i 
the news of the Cyclopean struggle across the Atlantic waa broughfe 
daily to their doors, and they were enabled to discuss its merited 
and to take sides according to their sympathies. But they and their 
families had hitherto been kept supplied with suflScient food and 
clothing to maintain them in life and health ; what would be the ■ 
jf another winter found them without such supplies? Stalybridge 
had given warning in the spring that a reduction of relief, or ft 
change of i^-Btem, was very unpalatable. What if the necessity of » 
further reduction in the amount of relief, or any interference with 
liberty of action, should be felt in the next winter, and the Staly- 
bridge feeling should become general ? It will be univeiaallT' 
allowed that government ought not to lose money by loans fi« 
local purposes. The law makes provision for the necessitous poo^ 
out of the assessable property in each parish ; and it is quite right 
that any facilities afforded, either with a view to preserve tb» 
morale of the people, or to temporarily relieve the necessities rf 
the ratepayers, should be fully secured by the property of the 
district bo assisted. But government allows only three per cent 
for money, and the bill proposed to charge three and a half; whicb. 
upon £1,500,000, would leave a margin of £7,500 per annum for 
managemeut, decreasing gradually as the repayments were made, 
but amounting to about Xll 2,000 in the whole; so that the neces- 
sary government expenditure would be veiy well covered. 

Mr. Villiera was not directly urged to the introduction of this 
bill by the central executive committee. He had found that it 
was really desirable, so far as possible, to preserve the independence 
of the people ; for he had probably learned from the statistics of his 
own department, that every increase of pauperism, from whatever 
cause, always leaves a sediment behind it which becomes perma- 
nently chargeable ; and that such a flood as now overnhelmei 
Lancashire would, if left to be dealt with by the guardians olon^ 
strand many thousands of families who would never get ailoat Agtift.) 
He had, therefore, sent down Mr. R Kawlinson, the emtucnlj 
engineer, to int^uire and report upon the desirability of Btt' 



MR. hah'linson's report. 315 

public worka, which would be likely to be undertaken, if facilities 
were afforded for the purpose ; and that gentlemaii had reported 
as follows : — 

" 1st. There is plenty of useful work to be done at the several 
distressed towns and places. — 2nd. The local governing bodies, so 
far as I have consulted with ihem, will commence such works if 
they can obtain legal power, and the necessary money at a low rate 
of interest. — 3rd. A large portion of fhe able-bodied distressed 
operatives, can and will do this work, if paid fair but reasonable 
wages. — 4th. There is sutEcient local knowledge to design and 
superintend any works commenced, — 5th. Any advance of money 
by government should be as a loan, on security of the entire 
ratable property of each district, at a remunerative rate of interest, 
and repayable at stated intervals. — 6lh. For each loan a petition, 
with plans and estimates, to be forwarded to some government 
oflSce or officer, on the spot if preferred; and a report and recom- 
mendation, or otherwise, to be sent in before such loan is granted. — 
7th. Advances to be made not in a lump sum for the whole amount 
of the loan contracted for, tut upon certificates monthly, as the 
workia done. — 8th, The local authorities to be enabled to stop short 
at any point in tbe progress of the works, should trade revive so as 
to call the bands to regular work. — 9th. The money borrowed 
should not be appropriated for other works than those scheduled iu 
the report leading to the sanction. — One or two inspectors, as at 
the Local Government Act office, ought to do all the government 
work required. The action of the local authorities must lie unfet- 
tered, or there will be mischief. There may be advice when asked 
for, as under the Local Government Act The several town clerks 
may with advantage be consulted, as to the legal clauses in a short 
bill, if one is to bo prepared. There are mostly some legal pecu- 
liarities in each place, which block local improvements. I feel 
the delicacy, and in some respects danger, in exceptional legislation; 
but do not know how it is to bo avoided in this case." 

Mr. Rav/linaon's estimate of the amount which out of the whole 
sum would be appropriated to the employment of unskilled labour 
was i431,7o6 ; and the estimate of the weekly loss of wages was, 
at this time, nearly £150,000 ; so that this sum would barely sub- 
stitute three weeks' wages. In the view of the central executive, 
the measure was in every way wise, but they doubted if it would 



316 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE, 

prove sufficient for much effoctual help. Yet, small as waB the 
measure of relief promised, considerable difficulty waa expected 
in the House of Commons in the passage of the bill ; and a dep^ 
tation of the central executive went to London, and called meetings 
of the membere of parliament who were connected with the oottos 
districts. With these gentlemen they waited upon the president 
of the poor-law board, who expressed himself as glad to reoeiTt 
their co-operation; and listened patiently to their gugg««i 
One of these suggestions led to a provision for places where Ht 
only constituted authority consisted of the pdor-law guaidiaa^ 
and without which provision the act would have been insi^tli- 
cable to about one-third of the districts meant to be inclndedj 
and another suggestion, which was unfortunately not embodied 
the bill, was to make it imperative to employ a given proportion rf 
unskilled labourera In London, and even amongst memb^« «f 
parliament who were not connected with Lancashire, it was sup- 
posed that the chief difficulties of the cotton districts were over, 
after Christmas, 18G2. A great effort bad been made, and a veij 
large fund raised, for the relief of the operatives, and people con- 
soled themselves that their duty was done, and that there could In 
no further need for exertion ; and they had the evidence of Mt 
Baker (the factory inspector) to the effect that new mills 
building in every direction — a fact which, to the ordinary inilkd,< 
was only consistent with a time of prosperity. They forgot that 
men who deal heavily in the money market, always try to i 
their largest investments when the funds are low, in the conBdeno* 
that a time will come, when they will be able to realise, at a laigft 
profit This was precisely what Lancashire employers were doing; 
they were investing capital in fised stock, whilst material was lowui 
priced, and labour more abundant, than it would be on the finl 
blush of prosperity; and they were stocking with new uachioery^ 
which, reckoning lowered prices, and improved quahty, in oooi 
quence of its more leisurely production, would be worth thir^ 
forty per cent more than average ; and they were doing this ia ttd 
confidence that a not distant future would supply them with a 
dance of cotton, which would be met from the occupiera of empQ 
warehouses by an enormous demand for manufactured goods, 

Mr, Vilbers, on moving the second reading of the bill (17) 
June), cited, as a precedent for his proceeding, the fact that 8 



DEBATE OS THE BILL. 



Robert Peel, when he abolislied the com laws, appropriated a 
sum of £2,000.000 in loans, for agricultural improvement. He 
pointed out the important fact, that this was not a proposal to set 
up goverament works, but simply a measure to enable local 
authorities to employ their own population. He expressed his 
aatisfactiou that, by means of the active sympathy of the whole 
empire, the people of Lancashire had hitherto got through so well; 
but statetl that it was now desirable to inaugurate healthier 
relations. Full inijuiry had been made, and every care had been 
taken, and Mr. Rawlinson had arrived at the conclusion that the 
public works recommended, would be of great sanitary importance; 
increasing the value of life, and ultimately lowering the local rates. 
He believed that the works would find employment for the dis- 
tressed operatives, without injuring existing labour; that the opera- 
tives were well calculated for this kind of work, and eager to embark 
in it. The simple object of the bill was to remove the legal and 
financial difficulties which prevented this employment 

Mr. Ferrand complained that the bill did not go far enough, 
that government under-rated the extent and probable duration of 
the calamity. Before the end of the session they would have to 
ask for £3,000,000, and at least :£10,000,000 would be required to 
keep tiie operatives through the winter. The only effectual remedy 
for the distress was a large measure of emigration. 

Mr. Newdegate was afraid the expectations of the promoters of 
the bill would be disappointed. They had raised a superstructure 
in Lancashire on an unsound basis, and there was no doubt that 
the means of production were excessive in this country. He also 
advocated emigration. What a pity the hon. gentleman does not 
introduce a bill to limit the ingenuity of man, and to prevent 
improvements in machinery, and the cheapening of goods I 

Mr. Cobden pointed out the fact that Lancashire operatives 
had been used to wages which produced a degree of atfluence, and 
that it would be impossible to reduce them to the agricultunil 
level, without danger to the peace of the country. He did not 
deprecate emigration ; he said, " Emigrate if you can better your- 
self' The agricultural labourers benefited by removal to Austra- 
lia or America, but the mill hand could iiot plough, or reap, or tend 
cattle, and if he emigrated would be destitute. The general scope 
of the bill was good, hut there was no universal specific, The 



318 



FACTS OF THK COTTON FAMINE. 



object was a wise one, and his right honourable friend (Mr. VillierB) 
had done his duty ; and he lioped that every parish in Lancashire 
would feel it a duty to carry out the proviaions of the hill. Tha 
savings of the people were gone, and the manufacturing district* 
must now rely on their own resources ; but it was, above all, 
sary to relieve small shopkeepers, who would otherwise dnk undcf 
the burden of the rates. 

The discussion on the bill was renewed on its committal (26th 
June), when Mr. Beutiiick and Mr. Fenund reiterated the emigtS'- 
tion arjjuraent, the latter gentleman asking for the appropria^on 
of j21, 500,000 for the purpose. He also charged the mauufocturen 
with opposing emigration for selfish purposes, and complained thai 
somo of the richest men had not given a sixpence to (he relief 
fund. 

Mr. Villiere replied that the government was really anxious 
relieve the operatives, and he believed that the bill would atta 
that object. He deeply regretted Mr. Ferrand'a unfounded state- 
ments, which were calculated to create discontent amongst lh« 
operatives, who had hitherto been most kindly treated, and wen 
grateful for it. All they wanted was work, and the bill woul^ 
provide it 

The bill had been so carefully drawn, and the securities 
loss were so ample, that all eerious opposition gave way, 
before parliament rose, it became law. The only point wortlgr ci 
notice raised against the bill, was the proposal of a large measure 
of emigration ; which is a very valuable remedy for a chronic disease 
iu the body politic, but very unwise when applied as a relief la 
temporary distress. If cotton operatives emigrated, they could 
only go out as labourers, and the colonies could only absorb them 
very gradually. Many of the emigrants selected and sent out by 
the colonial agents have had to suffer long and keenly before 
finding much comfort in their new homes ; what, then, would have 
been the case if any such number had been despatched without 
careful selection, as to make a sensible diminution of preseore 
Lancashire ? The United States afforded the only opening 
large numbers, aud the British legislature does not send emigrant^ 
beyond the boundaries of the empire. The British people would 
not be likely to assist, however indirectly, in recruiting the armiea 
of the United States. A great number of operatives doporteai 



have 
hout I 



MR. fehband's EBHOR. 319 

tliemselves, and, arriving empty handed in the United States, were 
to a great extent absorbed into the torrible struggle which agitated 
that country. And if cotton operatives were to emigrate as la- 
bourers, why not save the cost of the voyage, and let them labour at 
home, and eo be ready for the return of prosperity in their own trade t 
This waa what the bill proposed to aecoinplish, and the good sense of 
the House of Commons approved the plan ; and the day is probably 
not distant when Mr. Ferrand, the farmer's friend, will also be glad 
that his suggestion was not adopted. Cotton at sixpence or eight- 
pence per pound, will find Lancashire short of from fifty to a 
hundred thousand hands, and the agricultural districts will again 
be resorted to, for weavers and spinners to fill Lancashire factories ; 
and if Mr. Ferrand's proposal of ^£1, 500,000 had been adopted, and 
one hundred and fifty thousand people sent away, the fanners 
would on the return of prosperity have had cause to complain, that 
the factories had taken away their laluurers, and that the harvest 
would spoil for want of hands to gather it Whilst we write (in 
October, 1865), with cotton at two shiUinga per pound, weavers are 
di£Bcult to find and not easy to please : what would be the state of 
the case with the raw material at nominal prices ? 

At the meeting of the general committee, loth June, 18C3, Mr. 
Famall, in order to remove the idea that the principal difficulties 
of the executive were over, said " he and others had gone through 
a vast number of figures, to ascertain, as nearly as possible, the 
number who would be employed in these districts, of skilled and 
unskilled labourers, whose work would be provided by £1,500,000, 
to be lent at three and a half per cent. The result arrived 
at was, that the total number who could be employed, both as 
skilled and unskilled labourers (including the bricklayei's, carpen- 
ters, masons, &&, that had been spoken of as having become 
dependent on assistance) would be thirty thousand at the very 
outside." 

Mr. Famall seemed to anticipate that the number of persons 
named by him would be set to work during the autumn and winter 
of 1803, but the difficulty of dealing with red tape, however loosely 
tied, was now to be experienced ; and it is earnestly to be hoped, 
that should Lord Derby ever again be premier, the knowledge 
gained by him at the* relief committee will be made available in 
the practical busiaess of government By the end of August, 



TACTS OF THE COTTON FAMWE. 

£I7S,73n had been applied for on loan for approved works, but 
in the December repurt, the central executive express^! their 
regret at the small progress made, in bringing the act into opera- 
tion ; mainly attributable to the late period at whJch it wm 
passed, and to the various formalities required by it ; and to thft 
omission of any simple forms of security, to be given by load 
authorities. A representation made by the committee, as to 
the unnecessary multiplication of deeds, and consequent increaw 
of expense, had met with prompt attention; but the charges for 
small loans were spoken of as still disproportionately high, tip ta 
lOth January, 1864, only two thousand two hundred and eigh^- 
oue cotton operatives were employed upon public works, and in 
addition to the government hinderancea, Mr. Rawlinson explained 
that there were difficulties in the selection of proper works for un- 
skilled hands ; that there was often an inadequate staff in the 
distressed localities, for the preparation of plans and estimates ; and 
that in places where the Local Government Act had been adopted 
for the purpose, the whole machinery of administration had to he 
improvised. It was the intention of the central executive to 
chronicle the progress of employment under the Public Works Act 
monthly, in their report, but the result was so unsatiafactoiy 
that, in the report dated 7th March, 1864, whilst acknowledging, 
the advantages of the act, and hoping that the numbere at work 
under it would steadily increase, they add : " But having regard 
to the obstacles to the realisation of all the benetita exped«d' 
from this act which have been encountered, your committer 
is not so sanguino as to expect that, in the most distroaed' 
diatricte, the public works will supersede the necessity of aid from 
relief committees." This was a very qualified expression of disap- 
pointment ; and after this time the committee seem to have left the 
act to its fate; for It is not again mentioned in the reports until < 
October, 1864, when, in a meeting of the general committed' 
Dr. Watts asked the mayor of Manchester, how much money lud 
been received by the city for public works, and how many cotton 
operatives were employed under the act; and elicited the astonish- 
ing reply that £86,000 had been received, and that thirty-Bvc 
cotton operatives were then being employed, The town clerk 
explained that the corporation had employed all the men who hadi 
been sent by the guardians of Manchester ; that he had understood 



DISAPPOINTMENT OP THE EXECUTIVE. 321 

the Chorlton guardians had not tilt that time any alde-bodicd 
paupers ; that the corporation did not go about looking for cotton 
operatives on purpose to employ Uiem ; and that with those already 
sent, diEBculties bad arisen with the contractors. Dr. Watta asked 
if it was necessary, under an act passed expressly to maintain the 
independence of the workmen, for tbem to become paupers before 
they bad a claim to employment; but he received no reply. Lord 
E^rton remarked, that he had always understood tliat the great 
object of tbe act was to provide employment for distressed opera- 
tives ; and Lord Derby said he was afraid that a very painful 
impression would be produced when it was known that nearly one- 
sisth of the whole sum had been granted to Manchester, and that 
the proportion of unskilled operatives employed was so meagre. 
In the quarterly meeting of tbe Manchester town council, October 
26, Mr. Alderman Neill stated that the corporation had embraced 
every opportunity to ^ve work to unemployed operatives, and that 
from the beginning of September, the numbers had increased from 
fifty-three to ninety-three ; that in default of more operatives, 
skilled workmen had been engaged, and if the operatives who had 
since become chargeable to the guardians were to be employed, 
tbe skilled workmen would have to be discharged, which would 
throw them upon the parish. The council woidd bear him out, 
that before they had a farthing of this money, he stated that the 
work they were projecting would swallow up seventy-five per cent 
for materials alone. Even the small sum left would have to he 
largely employed in that kind of work which could not be done by 
unskilled operatives. If the corporation had been sometimes 
Tinable to employ nuskilled operatives, it had not been from any 
fault of their own. As chairman of the cemetery commiltee, he 
had pressed these men upon the contractor against his will 

There are two matters in this defence which are unsatisfactory: 
First, that only the operatives sent by the guardians were recog- 
nised ; and second, that a contractor, whose only interest v/aa 
profit, and whose employment was never contemplated by the act, 
is introduced to hear the blame. If the work must needs be let to 
a contractor, surely the spirit of the act required that he should be 
bound to employ the people for whose especial benefit it was 
passed ; instead of which skilled workmen were imported, and tlien 
their existence pleaded as an excuse, for not employing cotton 



1 



S22 FAcra or the cotton fimwr 

operatives. But there is also implied in thia explanation, a very 
serious clmrge against Messrs. Rawlinson and Faraall, in the asscr< 
tion that they were made quite aware, by the plans and specificft- 
tions, of the very small amount which would be at liberty for the 
employment of unskilled labour; and as this charge was repeated 
at the meeting of the central executive (November 7), in thft 
presence of Mr. Famall, and not denied by him, the only possible 
explanation is, that he and Mr. Rawlinson in their over anxiety 1 
to keep up the credit of the government, encouraged the cMrpon- I 
tioQ of Manchester to apply for so large a sum, in order to aecare ' 
the speedy appropriation of the amount set apart by parliameoL 
The first application for a loan was dated llth August, and 
up to the end of the year the total applications, exclusive of Mwi- 
cbester. covered only £676,711 out of the .£1,500,000; and the 
total sum advanced up to the same date was £143,585, which, ai 
JtlOO per man, would be equal to the employment of one thousand 
four hundred and thirty-six, instead of the thirty thouBaod men 
contemplated by Mr FarnalL 

The total number of factory operatives employed by the cor- 
poration of Manchester up to 8th November was two hundred and 
four, and the amount received on loan by them was £135,000; bo 
that whilst the average capital per hand in the cotton trade does 
not exceed £65, it took about £1,100 to find employment for one 
man on public works in Manchester; and half the wages of t)ie 
whole number, at fifteen shillings each per week, would be p^ 
by the difference in the interest at which the money was borrowed, 
and the six per ceot, which at the same date the bank would allow 
for it, 

Nor was Manchester the only place where there was reason for 
dissatisfaction, on thes* grounds. Mr. Alderman Walmsley, of 
Stockport, resigned his office, because a majority of the town 
council approved of what, in his opinion, was a misappropriation 
of the loan ; and it was shrewdly suspected that at Blackburn 
men were kept on public works at relief allowance, instead of at 
wages. But if in any similar future calamity a public works act 
should be propa-'ed, and some government oDicial should rise in { 
his place and point to the act of 1S63 as having been Jobbed, iU 
will be a sufficient reply to say. that if the servants of tlie goretM 
ment had been determined to see the spirit of the act comidicra 



MIBAPPROPHIATION OF THE LOAN. 32S 

with in every case, the local authoritiea could not have misappro- 
priated ; and if the suggestion of the central executive to oblige 
the employment of a certain per centage of unskilled labour had 
been adopted by the government, a further security would have 
been held against any misuse of funds. 

There is no doubt that Mr. Rawlineon had Banctioned all the 
plans ; and if the loan had been three millioiiH instead of one and 
a half, it might have been worth while to grant a quarter of a 
million to Manchester, for works requiring but a small amount of 
unakilled labour; for there is no doubt about the utility of the 
works undertaken, or about their sanitary value. It was also very 
liberal of the government to leave local authorities quite unfettered 
in their application of the money ; but it would have secured the 
objects of the bill much more effectually, to have required a certain 
proportion of cotton operatives to be employed, so long as they 
were available. If places like MancfacHter had declined the loan 
on such terms, the money would have been left for localities 
which have either applied and been flisappointed, or which have 
simply not applied because they understood the fund to be ex- 
hausted ; and where a large proportion of operatives would have 
been employed. The bill, as it is, has effected, and will yet effect, 
a very good purpose throughout the district, and future generations 
will reap its advantages ; but it has not done, and will not do, 
what its promoters intended and anticipated. It has not found 
employment for any considerable number of cotton operatives, and 
is in that respect a disapjwintment The money will not be 
wasted, as was much of that which was lent to Irish proprietors 
during the potato famine; it will be well spent, and no doubt punc- 
tually repaid; but it has not kept tlie cotton operatives from boards 
of guardians and relief committees, and has therefore not main- 
tained the independence of any considerable proportion of them. 

At a meeting of the Manchester board of guardians, 11th 
November, 1864, the clerk stated that there were eighty-eight 
able-bodied men dependent, who were fit for employment on th^J 
public works. And Mr. Leppoc, who had seconded the appoint* 
ment of a committee to confer with the corporation as to the ~ 
employment of this class, withdrew from the committee, on learn- 
ing that out of .££^7,000 borrowed, only ^£12,000 would be avail- 

I for the employment of factory operatives. The chairmaa 



3S4 



FACTS OF THE COTTOS FAMINE. 



of the board stated that a deputation of the ahle-boiiied men 
waited on hiui, expressing anxiety to he placed upon the public 
works, and complaining of the injustice which had been done 
them by the eniployment of skilled labourers, out of a fund which 
was specially intended for unskilled labour. 

The feeling of the men who were employed in Manchester, 
ChristmaB, 18(!4, is displayed in the following address, presvntoJ 
to Mr. Maclure, 2Gth December: — 

"To John W, Madure, Esq., honorary secretary of the centnl 
executive relief committee. 
" Respected Sir, — We, the operatives employed upon thesw 
works, respectfully beg leave to convey, through you, our Bincere 
expressions of gratitude to the lords and gentlemen belonging ti> 
the above-named committee — of which we are proud to say yoa 
hold the oBice of a distinguished member — for the past and present 
sympathy accorded, in generously providing us with suitable 
clothing, so essentially necessaiy in enabling us to endure the win- 
ter's inclemency and the privations of out-door employment; which 
we can amply testify, had it not been for the welcome boon afforded 
us, and the timely distribution of such clothing, some, perhaps, iif 
the least robust among us might have literally succumbed, througli 
cold and exhaustion, to the present severity of the season. But we 
are proud to say that such is now likely to be hajtpily avoided, 
through the assistance and liberality of which wc are now partaking 
Trusting that this acknowledgment of our gratitude may be taken 
as an earnest appreciation of the kindness we have already expo- 
rienced and are presently receiving, come from whatever suuroe it 
may — whether it be from the members of the &[auchester corpon- 
tion, the board of guardians, or the central executive committee, it 
is not for us to make any distinction — we heartily and gratefuUv 
return our best thanks collectively to all whom we have nam^l. 
believing that they are justly entitled to our gratitude and esteem 
for the kind manner in which they have severally attended to oar 
wants and solicitations ; and particularly in coming forwartl dton- 
terestedly and supplying us daily with a warm and comfortaUe 
dinner, which, we must admit, reflects the highest honour snd 
credit to those who are the generous donors. In conclusion, m 
also return a share of our thanks to the gentleman who acta aa oat 



THE HULHE PARtL MOVEStENT. 325 

worthy boat, who, we must confess, endeavours, iff tlie best of bis 
ability, to discharge the duty entrusted to hiw care in an orderly 
and efficient mabncr.—We, are, sir, respectfully yours, 

»" (Signed on behalf of the committee of operatives), 
"John MALajuw. 
" Matthew Morris," 

Mr. Famall reported to the central executive, October 31, that 
there were nearly four thousand recipients of relief from boards of 
guardians, within the cotton districts, who were fit for employment 
on public works ; and the committee adopted a circular to the dif- 
ferent relief committees, requesting that they would put tliemsolves 
into immediate communication with the local authorities having 
charge of public works, in order to secure employment, at wages, for 
as many factoiy operatives as possible. The executive also recom- 
mended district committees, in order to encourage the operatives 
in the work, to provide a suit of warm clothing each, for such as 
were likely to be long engaged ; and to lend waterproof lioots to 
those who were required to work in water. 

With a view to the improvement of Maucbester, aud the pro- 
vifiiob of employment, an agitation was commenced for the estab- 
lishment of a public park for the townships of Chorlton and Hulme; 
and, in 1803, resolutions were carried in township meetings in 
favour of the plan, including a provision for repayment, out of the 
rates of the two townships. An opposition was organised upon the 
plea that the borough, and not the townships, ought to pay for the 
park ; and when this proposal had been negatived, a quarrel arose 
between the two townships on the question of the site to be chosen ; 
and, after twelve months' intermittent discussion, the whole project 
fell through, and the hopes of the unskilled labourers were again 
disappointed. 

On 22nd October, 1864, a meeting of workmen waa held in 
Manchester, iu which very strong expressions of indignation were 
used, that men should be obliged to undergo the degradation of 
pauperism in order to be sent to the public works. They were all 
desirous of work, but, as matters were managed, regular navvies 
were principally employed on the public works, which were intended 
for the factory operatives. Special attention was directed to the 
i that the corporation of Blackburn employed the cotton opera- 



326 



FACTS or THE COTTON TJOmiZ. 



lives in laying draioage pipes, and supplied them witli good clotliei 
and water-tight hoots for the work, whilst their eamingB were not 
leas ihao three shillings per day. W}iy, it was asked, could not U» 
same thing be done in Manchester ? A man, who towanis tba 
close of the meeting said, if food was not given them, tbej wooU 
take it, wa^ severely reproved by the chairman, who said that the 
only object of the meeting was to draw up a respectful statemeol 
of their grievances, in order to get them remedied 

The engineer of the Blackburn and Stockport public iraHn^ 
slated in the Manchester Guardian, November 15, 1863. that 
up to that date there lia*! been paid about £11,000 for uoekilled 
labour in Blackburn, and that the portion of the work dona by 
unskilled day-labourers had cust 6ve per cent less than the contnct 
work. At Stockport. X5,319 out of £6.047 wages paid, waa foci 
unskilled labour; and to prove that cotton operatives could da 
excavations for sewers and drains, ballasting for new roads and 
streets, improvements of water courses, the formation of parks ami 
cemeteries, and the drainc^e of land, he gave the following list of 
two hundred and eighty-three workmen who were thus empkiyMl ' 
at Stockport : — 

OmOFATlOn OF WOHEUES EHFI.UTED CKDIR TcBLlO WdESS Aot, AT STOCUOOk 

ros WaiE Ekuino Sei^euiier 2B, 1S64, 

OTerlooken 1! 

WaaTera bO 

Belf acting minden and gpiiiDer* .... 64 

Siien, warpers, beamcra, iwiMem .... IS 

BtripporB, grindera, fcndere, mixen .... 40 

Candlcwick ilubbsrs, &c 13 

CalioD bleaciiBre. printers, dveni . . , , 14 

Uill jobbers, cap vanien, &c .... SS 

Thread workers S 

Uoald dreiaon 1 

EnginBen, mechanlcii, ilokcrK, bubblii tnmers, I ,_ 
sbaltis, and spindle makers . . . ) 

Carters and Uboar«ni 12 

Warehousemen S 

Umbrella maker I 

Total . . . sas 

In Boltoa, at the same date, there had been paid about £7,0 
■ in wages to factory operatives, out of a total expenditure of £10,S7il 
and in Oloasop, £f),874 had been paid in wages to factory c 
lives, out of a total expenditure of £12,507. 



MR. RAWUNSOS'b ERROJTEOUS ESTIMATE. 827 

i At the end of October, 1864r, the total number of men employed 
upon the public works throughout the district was six thousand 
four hundred and twenty-four, of whom four thousand and two 
were returned aa fftctory operatives ; and the amotint of money 
advanced on loan was, at the same date, £742,260, or about 
.£115. 10s. per man, which is about the average capital per 
man employed in coal mines. The weekly expenditure at this 
time was, according to Mr, Rawlinson, about £10.000. The num- 
bers employed under the act had not reached one tjuarter of the 
estimate given by Mr. Farnall, in June, 18{j3; but Mr. Rawhn- 
son, by adding two thousand persons as indirectly employed in 
getting stone and other matferiala, and reckoning each person as 
the head of a family, drew the extravagant conclusion that from 
thirty thousand to forty thousand persons were deriving subsistence 
from these works. The central executive found, practically, that 
each operative would on an average represent from two and one- 
third to two and a half persons, but Mr. Rawlinson made each one 
represent four and a half persons. He also expressed the opinion 
that, if a more rapid employment of factory workmen had been 
made compulsory on local authorities, a very large portion of the 
works would not have been undertaken. Such compulsory inter- 
ference would, he thought, have been deemed an insufferable in- 
fringement of the rights of private property, and of public conve- 
nience. Upon this matter the reader will form his own opinion, 
and many persons will certainly conclude that, if the works upon 
which the smallest proportion of factory operatives were employed, 
had not been undertaken under the act, the pubhc convenience 
would not have suffered much; for the rich community of Man- 
chester would doubtless have found means for all needful works, 
and many poorer districts would then have shared the advantages 
of the loan at a low rate of interest. 

And that the blame for the slight progress under the Public 
Works Act was not wholly due to the local authorities, will be 
evident from a comparison of the dates of some of the applications 
for loans with the dates of the approval orders. Let it be remem- 
bered that the districts had already been inspected before the bill 
was passed. Mr. Rawlinson had seen many of the local authorities, 
and discussed their various schemes before the act was even drawn. 
Yet, aa wilt be seen, the official mind required a considerable time 



! COTTOS FAMINE. 



for reflection, before saDctioning plans to preserve the indepenUenoe I 
of tlie operatives, which was the special object proposed by 1 
Villiera to be accomplished by the bilL 

Dates or Applications fob Ijjanb, ikd or ArpBuv/L Ordehs, vmza Tvaix 



1663— Bur; 

Ciiorley , 

QloBHUp . 

Great Flarwooi] 

Hyda 

Uldhaoi . 
Kocbduls ■ 
1864— NentOD . 
Newton . 
Feudloloii. 
RimBbottain 
Hoy ton 
Boy ton . 
Bdford . 



Octulwr 27 
&e litem Iwr 8 
DtiCemlier 30 
August 10 
October 6 
August 31 



Nov 



ir23 



DBceuib(;r 3 
January "iS 
January ^8 



Febru»ry 3 
Jane 28 . 
January 26 
October 13 
M!iy25 , 
April 14 . 



Haroh 11, 1861- 
DeutiDitior &, 1863. 
Febroar? 12, 1664. 
December 29, 18<'>3. 
DeoenberSl, 1863. 
October 12, 1863. 
January 13, 1864. 
February 2<l, 1861. 
Maruli fi. 1861. 
May 7, 1864. 
August 16. 1864. 
August 26, 1864, 
April 3U, Iglil. 
AuguKt, 31. 1864. 
March 3, 1864. 
December 31, 1864. 
September 19, 1661. 
August 24, 1864. 



The above are extracted from an oflicial documeat, issued aixle 
the authority of the poor-law board. 

At a meeting of the ceiitral executive, February 13, 1861 
"Mr. RawlinsoQ said he had facts to state which might be of interal 
to the committee. The total amount devoted .to the purposes U 
the Public Works (Mauufactunug Districts) Acts was, as the geft* 
tlemen would be aware, .£1,850,000. The whole of that, with 
exceptiou of ±'3,918. had been appropriated in about ninety 
The £),816,082 had been taken up iu one hundred and fifiy-fiv« 
separate loans. The larger portion of the expenditure vnts 
sewerage and street improvement works, including the formatiofl^ 
paving and flagging, channelling, and kerb stones of streets, and aitt 
the widening, re-forming, and improvement of highways 
rural districts. The luugth of sewerage works thus uudertAkeq 
exclusive of bouae drainage, would be Ave hundred and thirty-fosi 
thousand four hundred and forty-five yania, or about three hiin- 



dred and four miles. The a 



a of p 



and 



area 
highway improvement, undertaken 



and other works of street | 
1 respect of the abo^ 



OPFiaAL REFLECTION AND DELAY. 329 

mentioned sum, was three millions seven hundred and eight thou- 
sand three hundred and ninety-three square yards, or about Heven 
hundred and aisty-six acres. The total length of the streets and 
highways waw four hundred and eighty-five thousand five hundred 
and sixty yards, or nearly two hundrefl and seventy-six miles. The 
cubical contents of the reservoirs, forming the storage of the water- 
works undertaken in respect of the sum of i^ili,li29, were about 
one thousand four hundred and eighty million six hundred and 
seventy-five thoumind gallons; et^ual to about three-days' flow of 
the river Thames at Richmond in dry weather. Reports received 
from local surveyors, showed that the cotton operatives had worked 
most admirably at these public works; that the improvements were 
highly appreciated in the several localities; and that they were 
still progressing satisfactorily. In the week ending December 31, 
the number of unskilled factory operatives employed was three 
thousand nine hundred and seventy-eight, and of skilled labourers 
two thousand seven hundred and forty-one ; but he begged leave 
to remark that many of those here described as 'skilled' were 
originally factory oi>eratives, who had passed from the unskilled to 
the skilled list. The total number directly employed was six 
thousanii seven hundred and nineteen ; but this was exclusive of 
at least two thousand men employed in getting stone in the quar- 
ries, and on other works contingent upon the Public Works Act 
The increase in the price of material over the district, through the 
great dimaiid, had certainly been from fifteen to twenty-live per 
cent, hut the increased value to property, in consequence of sewer- 
age, paving, &c„ had been more than equivalent. In addition to 
the £1,850,000 granted by the government under the acts, he had 
reason to know that, in many of the towns, private improvements 
had been carried on to complete the public works, which would 
represent a very large amount over the district. One important 
result would be that the cottages of working men throughout 
Lancashire would be very materially improved, in regard to the 
comfort and health of the occupants. 

" Major Leigh inquired if Mr. Rawlinson thought many of the 
men engaged on these public works would ever go back to their 
former occupations in the factories. 

" Mr. Rawhnson : Never. Taking Wigan aa an instance, it was 
seen that men, formerly cotton operatives, after having twelve 



L 



330 PACTS OP THE COTTMT PAMETP. 

montlis' experience on out-door works, had gone away to aUMT> 
Bimilar works elsewhere, tempted hy higher wages or other coi 
derationa The same thing bad been going on in other pUcea.' 

There cannot be a doubt that tlie facts set forth in thia. 
are most valuable, and that Lancashire will reap much 
benefit from the investment made ; hut it is very remorl 
at the distance of two and a half years from the passage of 
and after the appropriation of the whole of the money, empkiyment 
should only have been found for one-fiftb of the predicted numbo; 
including both skilled and unskilled operatives. 

The following is Mr. Rawlinson's report to the ct^otral executive 
at its last meeting, 2Uth June, I860 : — 

"OflSce of Public Works, St Peter's Squawy 
"Manchester, 19tli June, 1865. 
" Public works have been in operation is the dLstreaaed cotton 
diBtricI« for nearly two yearn, and about £] ,000,000 has been 
expended upon useful employment, at an average rat« of some 
XIO.OOO weekly, since the commencement of the works to the 
present time. During the deepest portion of the distress, some 
thirty-five thousand people, directly and iudirectly, have received 
relief from the money so expended. A considerable amount of 
money ha.s also been expended in connection with public works, 
hut derived from private sources; so that relief is not entirelj 
measured in the amount of money advanced by govemmeDt 
Upwards of two hundred miles of streeUt have been sewere*^ 
formed, paved, channelled, and the footwalks flagged. The average 
wages earned by cotton operatives, have ranged from foaitbes 
shillings to sixteen shillings per week. There have been maaf 
forms of labour, other than sewering and street-forming, such 
land-draining, which some noblemen and gentlemen have under- 
taken. Highways and roads have been improved by boards «f 
guardians ; owners of estates adjoining having, as a rule, given the 
land required. Tlie resident inspector {Mr. E, A. Arnold) has 
made three hundred visits to the local aulhoritiea, and inspections 
of the works. Three buudred and U'tecn special reports have been 
made, and Mr. Villiers, the president of the poor-law board, hai 
issued two hundred and seventy-five orders for loans and instal* 
ments. The greatest number of distressed operatives employed 



APPLICATIONS BEFTTSED. 



S31 



directly at any one time waa four thousand and two, besides 
upwards of two thousand employed indirectly in getting stone and 
other materiala. But this is not the full teat of the usefulness of 
these works, as many, after learning to use their implements, have 
found employment in other places. Cotton operatives are now 
being rapidly withdrawn to the m'tUs. Contracts have, however, 
been entered into in some districts for the completion of sewering, 
paving, waterworks, and the other various forms of work under- 
taken. "Robert Rawlinson." 

The following are some of the applications which were refused 
by the poor-law board, together with the grounds of refusal : — 



Autt,^'i«Appl,ing. 


Aikadbt. 


PMwhM 


Qwund of RuIummL 










Boud of U«>hb 


£8,000 


For providing 








a cemetery. 


That tlie l.tcal boar^ was cnrigti- 
mted nnder20and2l Viot.c. 
81. and not under Local Go- 
Temmcnt Act, 18.%h. iindtbure- 
fora not within the meaniDg of 
the Public Works Act. 


NawtonHestbLo- 








m1 Board . . 








Application, 


TJiat the amount at diaposftl 








would be exhsuBtod by pre- 








vious applicatloni. 


Nelion Locul 








Board . . . 


From £8.000 








to £fi,000 


Water anpply 


The like. 


Ashton-nnd.-Lyne 








Town CamiDJl . 


£18.000 


Cfroolery. 


Tbe like. 



Various other applications were refused, for the very proper 
reason that the works proposed " would not afford a reasonable 
amount of employment for unskilled labour ;" and if the poor-law 
board had taken up this position at an earlier date, Ashton, where 
about four thousand persons had to be relieved in the week ending 
27th May, 1865, and where the pressure of distress was then seven 
per cent of the population, might have had its cemetery ; Nelson- 
in-Marsden its water supply ; the Newton Heath application might 
have been considered ; and a way might have been found out of 

difficulty which barred the road to improvement at Accrington. 



Jb& 



332 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

But, with all its defects of construction and of administratioii, 
Lancashire ought to be grateful for the Public Works Act ; and 
may safely thank Mr. Yilliers for his willing and compliant aid, 
and Mr. Rawlinson for his sound advice, and valuable and willing 
help ; and if this act should, as it deserves, become a precedent, to 
be more promptly resorted to in the future, the whole country will 
have reason to bless its promoters, for a most important and valu- 
able provision against any future severe local distress. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



Condition ot Friendly SociuliM — Ingeninus Suggestiona to Avoid QlegnJitj' — Value of 
Bogistrmr'a Buporta— State of the UddfcUows (Moncheiter Unity) — 'llie AnuU- 
gsdiMcd Eogineen, &&— The WareboUHemiiD and Cisria' Society — Conilitiun of 
the Skvinga BmiId — Dcpoidta and Witlulnwidii, 1861 to 1864~CUflM» who Invent 
in Bavings Banla— Effects of the C'riaiii on Co-o|iuntive Stoma —Condition of 
Fourteen Sampls Stores — Withdrawals •'! Caiiitiil — Jnint.Stotk Spinning au'l 
Manufacturing ComiAnies- Slmrc LIdt, IHIil and 18>>1 — Fabulotui iirollte nf 
1860-1 — Dear Experience- InitonL-ex of Failures ~ Influence of the Criii* im 
Eailway Traffic and Dividends. 

Towards the end of 1861 theregiatrar of friendly societies received 
various letters from Heywood, Otdhara, Preston, Hyde, Ashtoii, 
and Manclieflter, of which tho following is a fair specimen : — 

" Ashton-under-Lyne. 

" Dear Sir, — Aa a member of a friendly society enrolled under 
act of parliament, I venture to address you on the unparalleled 
amount of distress at present existing amongst our members, 
through the failure in the supply of the raw material — cotton. At 
a meeting held last night, various propositions were laid before the 
society for consideration, but the officers find themselves in such a 
position that they refuse to tict, for fear of rendering themselves 
amenable to the law. We have for the last six months relieved a 
many cases from the management fund, until the fund has become 
so low as to cause no little imeasiuens to the officers. We are nt 
present about eighty-four in number, and we have about ^6(1 in 
the man^ement fund, and i:800 in the sick and funeral fund. I 
vras instructed by the members present last night to ask your 
advice about the following propositions : — 

" 1st. Can we take money from the sick and funeral fund and 
place it in the management fund? — 2nd. Can a society relieve 
distressed cases from the sick and funeral fund t — 3rd. Can a 
society divide equally a portion of the sick and funeral fund tu 






33i PACTS OP THE COTTON PAMISE. 

relieve its clistreBsed members, by consent of five-sixths of the 
members ? — 4th. Can a society, by consent of its members at « 
summoned meeting, agree to suspend its monthly subscriptions fur 
a certain time ? 

" I, along with the officers, am convinced that all the propoa- 
tiona are illegal; but we find great difficulty in convincing oar- 
Btarving merabem. Youi earliest attention will much obli^ 
yours most respectfully," &c. 

The reader will see that a great amount of ingenuity was exer^ 
ciaed to try to find a legal mode by which money subscribed fat 
one de&uite purpose might be appropriated to another ; but the 
men, although starving and dealing only with their own proper^, 
were not disposed to infringe the law. The registrar wrote them 
as follows : — 

" I am sorry to find that such distressing effects are caused by 
the American war, as those which your questions indicate! Kach 
question is answered in the negative ; but, as the emergency vaaj- 
continue for a very long period, the enclosed rule may be pai 
and would probably give some relief to the members. In 
case, the relief allowed by the rules should be p^d to the memben 
80 long as any funds remain. 

•■SUGGESTED EULE 

"That if the members be rendered incapable of paying the^ 
contributions, through any emergency of trade, or any other 
over which the members have no control, the president shall 
power to call a summoned meeting, to take into consideration 
emergency or other causes ; such meeting to have power to snapeni 
payment of contributions for any period not exceeding tw«ln 
months, if the majority of the members deem it necessaiyf 
Should the cause of the distress continue longer than twelve tnontlM,' 
another meeting shall be held to consider the necessity of 
mencing another period not exceeding twelve months under ihEl' 
rule." 

The registrar tells us that this rule has been generally adO| 
BO that the friendly societies would generally suspend subscripUt 
and simply pay out sickness and funeral money during thw c 
and unless some plan be adopted for greatly increasing the 
acriplions of the members on the revival of trade, in onier 



TALTJE OF registrar's REPORTS. 335 

replaci^ the funds so paid out, a general bankruptcy of these societies 
wilt ensue ; and the registrar does not appear to suggest any such 
measure of repayment. 

The reports of the registrar of friendly societies contain veiy 
valuable information, not only to the statistician, but even more 
so to the members of tbe societies themselves ; and their utility 
would be greatly enhanced if they were regularly supplied to every 
enrolled society, and kept to be consulted by the officers and mem- 
bers thereof. At present the information leaks out to the general 
public, through the newspapers, and that only once a year ; when 
a sort of general notice appears, containing the prominent features 
of the report, but seldom if ever in such form as to be of use to the 
persons most interested. 

The officers of friendly societies, whose funds had become 
exhausted, sought occasionally to constitute themselves into relief 
committees, in alliance with the central executive. But, it being 
evident that to multiply sources of relief in the same district, would 
give facilities for fraud, it was necessary to deal with such ca.ies 
systematically; and on 8tli December, 1862, two applications to the 
central executive were read from trades societies (providing for 
relief of members during sickness, as well as by superannuation 
and burial fund,s), whose funds were approaching exhaustion. It 
was resolved to inform the memorialists that, "as the central 
executive committee are precluded from making grants except to 
efficiently organised relief committees, they desire to surest that 
persons belonging to legally constituted benefit societies whose funds 
threaten to become exhausted, by the burthens thrown on them 
during tbe cotton famine, have enhanced their claim for relief by 
all persons of fragality and providence ; and that, when the allow- 
ance derived from such societies becomes inefficient, it should be 
raised to the settled scale of relief" 

The publication of this resolution doubtless satisfied the officials 
throughout the district of the course to be pursued, and no further 
applications appear to have been made. There are more than one 
thousand two hundred friendly societies in Lancashire, and in 1861 
they owned more than ;£500,n00. 

A fair idea of the position of the friendly societies may be 
formed from the following facts, supplied by the Uanchoster Unity 
of Oddfellows. Their number of mombers in Lancaahire exceeda 



PACTS OF THE COITOK FAVnfK 



forty-eight thousand, and a subscription throughout the order, 
in 18lj2, raised more than i:3,0UU for distribution in the dis- 
tressed districts. The travelling cards lAsued to members seek- 
ing employmcDt in ISCO were four hundred and six; in 18C1 
they were seven hundred and fifty-five ; in 1862 they rose to one 
thousand three hundred and seventy-eight ; and in 1864 they 
were nine hundred and sixty-three, and of this number four 
hundred and ninety-seven were issued in I^ncashire and Cheshire. 
In the quarterly report for October, 1864, a second appeal to the 
order was inserted, signed by officials at Oldham, Ashton, Hyde, 
Rochdale, Heywood, and Stalybridge. It ran as follows : — 

" We feel a deep and lasting obligation, and tender our moit 
sincere and unaffected gratitude for the munificent kindnus 
displayed throughout the order on your recent appeal to the bene- 
volence of the members of the unity, and confess that the ainoaut 
collected exceeded our most sanguine anticipations ; and we vei« 
then of opinion that the sum realised might tide us over the cnat. 
Alas ! we are but short-sighted mortals, for wa seem Utile nearer 
BOW than we were this time last year; and the appeals made to 
us night after night in our lodges, the narrowing of our means, the 
pitiable and humiliating position to which many good memhen 
are now reduced — thousands of whom are still in receipt of relief, 
and hundreds who are but a small remove therefrom — these com- 
bined circumstances have tempted us (though very reluctantly) to 
again memorialise you to allow another petition to go round the 
unity. At the same time we wish you to understand that nothing 
short of the sternest necessity would ever have prompted or induced 
us to hazard a second appeal to a body of members who have M 
nobly and generously responded to your former call, and for which 
we lack words to express our thankfulness." 

Notwithstanding the report of Mr. Baker (the factory inspector), 
regarding the erection of new mills during the crisis, there seenu 
to have been severe pressure amongst the operative machine inaken 
As in the cotton trade, their greatest prosperity was reached in 1860, 
and they appear to have been the first to sutler. It is evident tb»t 
the earliest news of the American war stopped the orders for ma- 
chinery, although work in cotton manufacturing went itn at almost 
the ordinary rate for a year longer. The following table will ahgw 
the total amount paid by the society of Amalgamated Etigiucen. 
&c., to members out of work, from 1860 to 1864 inclusive : — 



THE SOCIETY OP AMALOAMATED ENOINESRS, ETC. 



Numbar uf Vtmtwn^ Amaqnt p«ld In DoiutUan. Aninnul per Hi 



isen 


80,9S3 


7.MI 


7 6} 


1881 


22,86^ 


!ti,474 


17 11 


186S 


24,334 


39,119 


1 13 3i 


1863 


2S,0o6 


33.653 


. 1 5 li 


186* 


28,815 


lli.iir, 


II 4i 



And the cause of the pressure will be evident enough, if we confine 
oiir attention to the branches of the society in the cotton districts. 
The following tahle will then exhibit the result : — 



Ah'iust 


or DONATIOW TO 


MuHDinB 


a TBK CoiToJt DwTRicra 


1861-4, 




Nu. uf Hmubc 




..„.,,t„fD,.,.|i.. 


iml|«rM„,u 


1861 


. 7,011 




U.35e 8 !) . . 


1 6 8 


186S 


6,969 




19,919 5 3.. 


2 17 a 


1863 


. 6,S44 




6,019 2 IJ . 


2 6 10 


1864 


7,237 




8,44! 11 8i . 


1 3 8i 



Thus, whilst the society showed cootiniial progress, the Lancashire 
branches fell off in members, and the proportion out of work was 
nearly double the general average ; it is clear also, that the orders 
for new machinery commenced towards the end of 1863, when spin- 
ners and manufacturers had recovered from the first shock of panic, 
and began to look again with confidence to the fiiture. 

The Warehousemen and Clerks' Society of Manchester seeks to 
do for a higher class what the trades societies do for the operatives ; 
and a view of its experience will show the effect of the crisis upon 
the warebonaes in Manchester, where most of the members are 
engaged. The follovping table will show at a glance the number 
of members and the cost of relief for five years : — 



i 



1864 1,400 96 — TUl 

Here also there was considerable migration, or else many 
striving and tolerably educated young men have been reduced 
permanently to the ranks. Many of the officials employed by the 
relief committees were of this class, but room could not be found 



338 



FACTS OP THE COTTON FAMTNE. 



for all ; and men of slender build, in seedy black clothes and 
famine-pi nched faces, were obliged to mingle with the crowd, and 
to ask for help from reUef committees ; or even to bear the hated 
name of pauper, for the sake of wives and little ones. 

Persons who are familiar with savings hanks' reports do not need 
to he told that only a small portion of the deposits iu those instita- 
tions belongs to the operatives, properly so called ; the bulk reprfr- 
Bents in a much laiger degree the aavings of domestic servants, of th( 
children of small tradesmen, and of the lower stratum of tho middle 
class generally. The greates* use made of the hanka by the operatin 
class, is to deposit the fimds of their sick and burial societies; ud 
these are liable to depletion only from extra mortality, extra Mck- 
ness arising from epidemic diseases, or from radical defects in IIk' 
societies themselves; as when they charge insufficient rates fortheir 
risks, leading thereby to exhaustion of funds as the members grow 
old, and when they are consequently in greater need of help. 

In referring therefore to the effects of the cotton famine upoB 
the savings banks, we get a measure of the pressure of the crisil 
upon the small shopkeepers and the lower middle class geneTaUj-; 
for if domestic servants withdraw their funds in an extraordinaiy 
degree, it is because they are out of place, and need them to liva 
upon ; and if an extraordinary proportion of servants are out 
place at any time, it can only result from a forced measure 
economy upon their employers. If tho deposits of mlnoiB be 
withdrawn from the bank, it will be because their pajrcnts andH 
guardians feel an urgent need to use the hoards which their fond 
affection hod made, with the intention of accumulation, till the | 
children should he ready to begin the world for themselves. 
Society is like the human body, its different members and classes 
are knit closely together; and aa the too or the finger cannot be 
hurt without all the members of the body suffering with it, so one 
class of society cannot be injured without the injury spreading to, 
and through all classes. Trade in some one branch and in some 
one locality fails, and the operatives are out of employ ; at the end 
of the next week, the returns of the shopkeepers in that locsli^ 
make known the fact, for their goods remain unsold, and coiue- 
quently. their orders through the wholesale dealers to the farmed 
and the manufacturers are decreased ; the profits and savingB of nil 
these classes being thus decreased, thedemimd for the work of Uw 



CONDITION OF SA\TNOS BANKS. 3S!) 

architect, the builder, the decorator is also decreased; and last of 
all, if the failure of trade be of long con tiii nance, the landowner 
fails to get bis rents, and Le feels thejjressure also. 

We hiive spoken of 18fjl as an average year, and in order to 
avoid all charges of exaggeration, have taken it as a standard by 
which to judge of the losses of the three succeeding years ; but the 
savings banks' returns make it evident that prudent people had 
begun to feel the pinch of poverty, and to draw upon their stores 
l>efore the financial end of the savings bank year, in November. 
1861, for the withdrawals in the cotton districts then exceeded the 
deposits of the year by £C3,506, The returns of the four years 
1861-4 are as follow : — 



>e Sayinos Bxna t 


H TM CoTMir D 


1S6I-4. 




DepoidU. 


WlChdniwali. 


£730,388 


£793,889 


693,937 


877,606 


677,355 


6TB,e4a 


656,574 


761,263 



istia 

1863 
1801 

ToUl £ifii7,2i9 Total £3,111,S99 

Thus the excess of withdrawals in these four years amounted to 
554,150. 
Throughout Great Britain the sums due to depositors had 
increased from 1854 to ISGOat the rateof 3'6 percent per annum; 
and in Lancashire, where many other opportunities for investments 
had been presented, the increase in savings banks" deposits had 
averted 27 per cent per annum during the same period. As- 
suming this rate of increase for the cotton districts from 1860 
to 1864, there ought to have been added ^^361,451, so that the 
real pressure of tlie crisis upon the savings banks is measured by 
the excess of withdrawals and the decrease of deposits thus : — 
Ekcuhb ufwilbdrawAls over depnaitB £654,160 

Deorease of deposiu compared witli 1864-60 . . 361 ,461 

£916,801 
And the only modi6cation of this result is to be found in the 
balance remaining to the credit of depositors in the post office 
savings banks, wliich in March, 1864, amounted to £78,314 ; so 
that, allowing the transactions of the succeeding eight months to 
have raised these deposits to £100,000, the savings banks would 
then have suffered in four years to the extent of ^800,000. 




FACTS or THE COTTOS FJUCENE. 



In a few cases the reports show th&t, in the opinion of tlit 
actuaries, withdrawals have taken place in order to s 
profitable inveHtmeots, but the l>tilk of this great reserve af< 
small naviii^ baa tloubtlesa been consumed; and the result t 
that the lianks are suddenly thnist buck to the poi^ition uf sera 
or eight years ago. Koowing, as wc do, that the practice oTsaTinf 
when once estaiilifihed becomes a Jirmlj settled habit, we afai 
know that the pressure, which not only prevented accumulattoo, 
but actually drew more than -£500,000 out of the hoard of j 
must have been very severe; and indicates a difficulty in providing 
the necessaries and ordinary comforts of life, in a class above thg 
genuine operative. And that this was the case, the evidence of sbt^ 
keepers in the various cotton manufacturing towne furnishes a 
proof, for instances were very numerous where, for months together, 
the receipt* were bari^ly sufficient to pay rent and taxes ; and t 
frequent changes of occupants in small shops were distreaang le 
behold Family after family invested their small savings In sto^ 
of proviaiona or drapery goods, smallwares or toys, hoping in eacli 
case thereby to utilise the services of the wife without taking her 
from bomt^ ; and found their stores rapidly vanishing in bad dabt% 
or consumed in rent and taxes, without prospect of return. 

In testing the effects of the cotton famine npon co-operatiw 
stores, the following fourteen stores are presented as fair spocim 
of the whole: — Manchester Equitable; Manchester ludnstvial] 
Bury ; MoBsloy; Ramsbottoin ; Blackburn , Bolton ; Old ham, 1 
Street; Olilham, Greenacrea Hill; Hcywooil; Rochdale, Toad I 
Stockport; Bacup; Todniorden. The united sales of these s 
amounted, in the quarter ending June, 1861, to £157,948; i 
with the esception of the December quarter of the sajne year, lhe| 
decreased quarter by quarter, until in March, 18ti3, they i 
£113,3112; and then they rose again gradually, till in December; 
181J3, they reached £133,381. The average falling off per qoartM 
for the two and a half years ending December, 1863, was .£29,8X1 
and llie total for the period £298,116. The total number of » 
in the cottun districts, at the same date, was one hundred i 
eighteen; so that, if the fourteen large stores above named t< 
one-third of the transactions of the whole, then the 
would bo nearly £90,000 per quarter, or £900,000 for tbt- two it 
i half yuora The total receipts for goods at the fourteen stoKit fi 



CO-OPEEAITVE STOKES. 341 

I March 24, 1861, to December 24, 1863, were £1,281,364, and 
the dividends on this amount, at seven and a half per cent average, 
would be £90,102 ; and the withdrawais of capital in excess of divi- 
dends during the same period amounted to JE83,007, If, 'therefore, 
our assumption that those stores represent one-third of those in 
the cotton districts be approximately correct, the stores may be 
looked upon as having contributed up to the end of 1863, in the 
shape of dividends, some £288,000, which their customers would 
not otherwise have possessed to help them through the crisis; 
whilst they also released about £249,000 of capital, which they 
had induced their members to save during better times, and which 
now proved the immense value of prudential investments, however 
small Numerous small stores became insolvent, and wound up 
during the crisis, their capital being nearly all withdrawn for 
preseut consumpticjn ; so that they were left witho\it the means to 
make good markets, and with uncertain customers ; the bulk of 
their meml>erH being obliged to go where they could set up scores, 
which would wait till better times for liquidation. The Rochdale 
store alone paid out, from March, 1861, to December, 1863, £14,763 
in excess of dividends, whilst their sales were £8,000 less in the 
quarter ending December, 18G3, than in March, 18G1. In Wigan, 
every penny of capital ever paid in, had been withdrawn ; and at 
Preston, where early in the crisis a free reading room was opened 
at the store, no reply was given to inquiries in 1865, a fact which 
indicates that all wasnot right there. At Stockport the sales fell off 
fifty per cent, and the excess of withdrawals over deposits was £3,178. 
If these stores weather the storm and flourish again, as wo firmly 
l)elieve that most of them will do, they will prove the possession 
I'f more power of endurance and more business qualities by a large 
section of the working classes, than most people give them ere Jit for. 
Before us lies a list of forty-four spinning and manufacturing 
Joint-stock companies, in which the shares were very largely held by 
working men. All, or nearly all, have originated since 185i), and 
some of them are reported to have made fabulous profits in 1^60-1. 
The most favoured and famous is "The Bacup and Wardle." whose 
shares, with t'12. 10s, paid, sold freely in 1861 for 1:20. Rumour gave 
them credit for dividing from thirty to fifty per cent per annum 
upon their paid-up capital ; and it b just possible, that by keeping 
their paid-up capital low, and depending upon the bank, or upon 



342 FACTS OF THE COTTOH FAMINE. 

loans at five per cent per annum, for funds, they might, wliUst 
discounts were cheap, pay largely to their shareholders. It is no 
secret that the average profits of the cotton trade are about twelve 
and a half per cent per annum on capital ; so that if a company can 
manage to pay the batdter and the mortgagee five per cent upon 
three-fourths of their working capital, and can make in a good year 
sixteen and a quarter per cent upon the whole, they may possibly, if 
they dont care for providing a reserve or contingency fund, pay their 
shareholders fifty per cent. But the bad years will come, when 
with no profits, they must still pay the five or more per cent on 
borrowed money, and pay also all establishment charges, even if^ 
the chimneys be smokeless and the machinery dumb. And that is 
the time of trial for the company, as for the individual proprieUff 
who has not a good reserve of capital If a company has its shaiee 
paid-up, it has one advantage over the individual employer; it is not 
forced to pay dividends if it raak&'i no profits, and the working capital 
is to that extent saved ; whereas the individual employer if he makea 
no profit, must eat up his capital,; if he has no harvest, he must' 
live upon hia seed com, and so lessen his own power of increase' 
for the future. But many, not to say most, of the joint-stock com- 
panies, have gone upon the borrowing principle, and have during 
the cotton famine, realised the old adage, " who goes a borrowing 
goes a sorrowing." Some of them will doubtless weather the storm 
of the last four years, and will yet do well ; but some of the forty-four 
in our list are probably paper companies, and some of them arO' 
now winding-up in chancery; whilst many others have lost so 
much by working or by standing still, that the bulk of their ca|HtaI 
is gone, and it will take years of prosperity to make them solvent 
Appended is a list of some of these companies, with the advertiaed 
prices of their shares in 3861 and 1864, 
PaiCEB or Sdibee in Juikt-St'x.'x Spinmiko a:iii MAKUfACTURiKa Coxpjwn. 



Dury and Uenp . .10 t.t o to 13 10 . S T to 8 IS tt 

BirtU Spiuniag . . 10 11 5 U 11 S C Ifi — 

Birtle, Now . ..lOOO lOSOtolOTO 600 — 

CutlHlnwn . . . 10 10 to It 9 G — 

"ci'J"°^'^""",''"l 5 5 5 - 2 6 Oto! 11 



JOINT-STOCK COMPANIES. SiS 

AnioontPuVl FrtiM, Miij, IHUI. Prioe. Jum, 1 SM. 

BoRwndAle lodiu-) £. •. a £ ^ >l i:*.<i £i.d.i:>.d. 

trial , . . I 10 li (I to U II) tl 9 IS 6 — 

Bncnp >nd WardU . 13 10 Id — 16 10 OloU 

Kcwohurob Spinuing 10 12 10 — 10 "to 10 3 S 

Heywood Spmmng . 6 6 15 l''*'^^",)'^^*' ! 8 — 

Shnwrorth Spmning ItiOO — — 7 10 — 

Whitwortl. Uanu-I 503 _ _ lOOtoEOO 

factntiug . . f . w M ™ V 

Smalibridgo M»DU-I r. a n _ _ 115 — 

facturing; . f 

Alma MsDoEuMurilig 35 — — 12 19 — 

CraggVale. .,600 — — 1150 — 

Hobden Bridgo ..10 00 — — 500 — 

Cr»wah>wb<Mlh . .600 — — 2 10 — 

Stonebolm ... 5 — — 1 IS — 

Great indeed must have beea the troubles, and keen the heart- 
aches »f the men who, by the accumulation of a shilling or two 
per week., saved out of family comforta, bad bought these (thares ; 
and who, being thrown out of employmeut, and forced to realise, 
foimd their little stores half vanished without touching ; the funds, 
which were to make them their own employers, and thoroughly 
independent of all "tyranny," gone like a cloud, and all their 
cherished hopes of an immediate future of prosperity thoroughly 
blasted. Nor does this list exhibit the companies at their worst; for 
at Christmu,'?, 1803, many of the shares were absolutely unsaleable 
at any price. They had always believed that when the master 
talked of losing money, the real meaning was, that he had made 
so much less than he calculated upon, and so reckoned that he 
had lost the difference ; but here was demonstration that losing 
meant, not getting a little addition of wealth, but the absolute 
vanishing of that which already existed. Tl)omas Carlyle says 
experience is a good schoolmaster, takes high wages, but teaches 
like none other ; and here was experience out of which working 
men will doubtless profit, for it was dear indeed. 

In one inatanco which came imder our cognisance, a company 
was formed, and an agreement made to purchase a large mill, which 
was already in full operation. Working men agitators were engaged, 
who travelled from town to town, holding meetings and selling 
shares, and in a comparatively short time £5,000 was collected and 
paid over to the vendors ; hut, when the mills stopped, or ran short 
me, and cotton was at three or four times its ordinary price, it 



344 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMISE. 



I 



was useless to appeal for shareholders ; and the company, failing 
to pay its iustAlments for purchase, .lost it^ whole capital of ^5,000, 
out of which, after much begging, the vendors considerately retiuno! 
^250. In another case, where a small company liad collected 
hetween £4,000 and £5,000, entirely from working men, and, being 
ready for work, had prudently decided to lose X450 per annum tot 
standing, rather than riak working, the managers grew tired of tht 
suspense ; and, being urged to try what they could d< 
to weave, and in the first six months managed to lose a little lea 
than by doiog nothing, but, in the next half-year, although niddi 
by the best skill in the market, lost half their paid-up capital 

A gentleman who acts as autUtor to many of the^o compaote^ 
being applied to for information, wrote as follows : — 

" We have no tabular record of the dividends paid by the cottoB. 
companies, but the following isageneral view of the case: In 18G0 
we had only two or three companies working in this neighbourhood 
(Rossendale). but they paid very large dividendi; — in one instance 
nearly reaching fifty per cent per annum. In 18G1, the first year 
of the American war, there were a great number of new compoaiis 
started. Many of these companies had milU to build, but some 
began to work places already built, and for the last four years ttw 
dividends have shown uu regularity. The results in the coUOD 
trade have depended so mucli mure upon skilful buying and selling, 
than upon the daily margin between the raw material and the 
finished article, that dividends as high as thirty per cent Bavebi-ea 
made in some instances, whilst very serious losses have occurred ia 
others, and in the most irregular manner, for the last three yean. 
1864 has been the worst year for losses, especially where there hu 
been a stint of capital ; and the companies have seen their erxorii 
paying such large dividends heretofore, instead of keeping thi 
money in the establisliments, which I always insist upon aa eaaea 
tial to the stability of trading companies." 

lu a third cose, where nearly J^OO.OOO has been invested in fr 
very large mill, nearly one-half the capital consists of loans at call : 
and when the whole of the loans could easily have been converted 
into shares, the shareholders refused to allow it, because they hopetl, 
by paying five per cent fur loans, to be able to divide thirty 
forty per cent amongst themselves The panic came, aud niMt] 
a shareholder, being left without dividend, and with 



ISSTANCES OF B'AILUBE. 345 

liabilities, has since bitterly rued his opposition to the proposei! 
conversion wlit'n it was possible, anil will be quite willing to 
exchange hia trembling anxiety for a moderate dividend, when 
prosperity returns. 

In a, fourth case, where a large mill had been commenced, 
the panic stopped the share contributions, so the building was mort- 
gaged to enable the contractor to be paid, and the mill was thus 
got to work ; but the first serious fall in the prices of yarns brought 
down the company, which is now winding up in chancery, whilst its 
.secretary is imprisoned on a charge of embezzlement, 

In a rapidly increasing and commercial country, the greatest of 
^ill facilities for progress is the railway system. The coat of trans- 
p'jrt is really one of the costs of the production of goods, and an 
increased facility of transnuBsion is equivalent to a reduction of 
prices, because the frt-ight is lower ; and the certainty of receiving 
goods when required, enables the shopkeejjer to economise his 
■ Mpital, by sending frequently to market instead of holding a heavy 
■:tock. Railways are continually extending, opening up new fields 
of enterprise by branch lines, enlarging and improving tenniual 
and other stations, increasing the lines of rails and adding to 
rolling stock ; and yet they never seem, in the manufacturing 
districts, to overtake the demands of the public. Railway travel- 
ling has, like tea and coSee, become one of the necessaries of life, 
and the occurrence of an annual holiday despatches heavily laden 
trains from every large town to the extreme ends of the kingdom. 
Great therefore must be the pressure to proiluce a reduction in the 
year's traffic receipts upon a long line of railway; especially, when 
the trouble of one locality only adtU to the prosperity of another 
portion of the same system. 

The cotton famine in Lancashire led naturally and necessarily 
to the substitution of woollen and worsted for cotton fabrics, so far 
as prices would allow ; and the concurrence of the very high prices 
i>f raw silk, also helped the trade of Yorkshire; and gave a much 
larger traffic to and from the towns of Halifax, Bradford, Leeds, 
Dewsbury, Barnsley, and Huddcrsfield, than they had ever known 
before. Yet the goods traffic, exclusive of minerals, over the Lan- 
oashire and Yorkshire Railway, for 18U2-+, shows a large reduction 
from the traffic of I8G1. We append the returns : — 



1 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE, 



HaiT-yeu ending DeoBmber 31, ISfiO 1,410,376 



Uslf-jesr ending Deoembei: 31, 1861 





2,679,886 


Decrease 


223.823 


Half-year ending December 31, 1863 
„ „ June SO, 1863 


1,336,005 
1,313,153 


Decreaae 


361.65-} 


Half-year ending DecemlMrSl, 1863 
„ Juue 30, 1864 


1,373,388 
1,390,830 






pAgSENQeB 


2,764,088 


Decreue 
ToUl 


89,631 
627,996 


Half-year ending December 31, 1860 
June 30, isei 


8,3H6,I05 
7,637,904 

16.033,069 




M 


Hiilf-yenr ending DecemberSl, 1861 
Juno 30, 1893 


8,890,681 
6,905.169 




J 




15,396,740 


DeereUK 


^ 


Half-year ending DecBmber 31, 1862 
„ June 30, 1863 


7,933.116 
7,312.185 

16,345,801 


Decrease 


787,268 


Half-year ending December 31, 1863 
„ JnneSO, 1664 . 


8,701,216 
8,201,676 

16.903.091 


InoreoM 


870,022 



A decrease of two-thirds of a million of tons, spread over Hint 
years, is an unmistakable indication of severe pressure; for, in 
liealtby trade, the traffic would have increased seven per oent i 
least per annum. 

Analysing the passenger traffic, wo lind that in first-clafs then 
has been a regular increase, arising from the lessened occupation d 
manufacturers in their ordinary vocation ; and also from the 
frequent visits of those who continued working, to the markets ol 
tester and Liverpool 



RAILWAY TRAFFIC AND DIVIDENDS. 



FiHST-ci^aa Paueborm. 



In the second-class passenger returns, the case was very diffe- 
rent They were — 



3,000,305 3,036,566 3,453,^24 3,817,202 

Showing a decrease in the three years of seven hundred and ninety- 
three thousand six hundred and twenty-three passengers. And in 
the third (daas there is a decrease in the two yean) 1861-3 of nine 
hundred and twenty-five thousand seven hundred and ninety-eight ; 
and then in 1803-4 an increase, compared with 1860-1, of seven 
hundred thousand and fifty-two passengers, a result which might be 
expected from the improving circumstances of the operatives, and 
from the depression of shopkeepers and others, driving them to the 
cheapest mode of conveyance. 

Of course such a decrease in traffic made its mark in the cash 
accoimta of the company. The total receipts were — 



4ei,9S3,362 



£1,767,543 



Showing a deficit on the three years, as compared with 1860-1, of 
i'*22,126, instead of an increase of about :£ 400,000, which ordinary 
trade would have given ; and the successive dividends sympathised 
with the changing fortunes of the company. They were as follow : 



Deoembor, 186D — 6 per cent. 



1803— ij 



June, 1861—6) par cent. 
„ 196!— 4 
„ I8B3-4i 
„ 1864— 5J „ 



The London and North-Western company declined (« accede 
to request to fumihh their local traffic returns; but it maybe 
stated, without fear of contradiction, that, had they been furnished, 
they would have fully confirmed the evidence above given, as to 
the severity of the crisis. 



CHAPTER SVIII. 



EffMta of the Cotton Famine on MwTiaaea —Tabular Return, l*!!-*- 
Birtlui,18til-4 — Special Kotura—Cmninnitive llle{ptitDHt« Birthi in 
Wales and in Luicfuhire — The Factory Syntem not ap^cially prnmotive of So 
Inunorality— Prostitution in various Difltricta— Slow Improvemsnt — Effccb 
the Crviig on Crim« in Latuia«lure— Percenta^eii of Crime in vuioiu Diatrid 
Exofm of Femnle Crimt in LonoaaUin: and it« Probable Cause. 

It is related that, during the year 1800, wheu the eispeimy l 
vaB about the size of a man's Jiat, and almost as black as ooai,: 
young couple were engaged in the marriage ceremony in a 
church, when a hoarse voice called out, through a hole in Lhe n 
dow, to ask if that "young fool knew that a pound of bread cost: 
shilling." The brawler evidently thought that marriage ought t 
be [>ostponed until more prosperous times, and the prevalence <1 
similar opinions in the present day, is proved by the fact that tb 
percentage of marri^ea has long been considered a gooil indicsu 
of the prosperity and adversity of the people. A man of ordina^ 
prudence will not enter upon the married state without a fair pn 
epect of a living ; but hope tells a flattering tale, and the futm 
presents a very difierent phase to the intending bridegroom, t 
that which is seen through any other than the lover's lens ; so tha 
the trouble which makes mucli difference to the marriage ban 
meter, must be very real and heartfelt. It will be ii^tmctM 
therefore, to turn to the marriage registers of the cotton district 
to learn how afSanced lovers viewed the cotton famine, and wl 
alterations it made in their arrangements. 

Tried by this severe test, we find that the marriages ceUlint 
in the various quarters of 1861, 1862, 1863, and 186*. wen 
follows : — 

Mauuagei Celebrated in nu Corros Dmwcn. 



Mnrch qnarler 
June quarlur 
(wpleiniior quarter 
Doc«iuber cjuaiter 



4,627 



4,343 4,60a 4.«0 

4.1>6 4,611 4J1I1 

3,967 4,941 4,|« 



EFFECTS OP THE FAMINE ON MARRlAdES, 349 

So that nearly six thousand persons, who, under ordinary circum- 
atancea, would have entered into the marriage state in 1862, had 
their hopes blighted, and their prospects of mutual happiness 
destroyed ; or were at best obliged to console themselves with the 
" hope deferred which maketh the heart sick," Many of them, 
instead of occupying their own neat cottages, probably became 
dependent upon the charitable dole of relief committees, or even 
upon the grudging allowances of the poor-law guardians ; and the 
year 18G3, instead of making up for this deficiency, added nearly 
two thousand more to the list of the disappointed and despairing 
young people, who ought to have begun life on their own accoimts ; 
to have enjoyed the rights of citizenship, and to have home their 
share of its responsibilities. Nor was hope restored with the spring 
of 186+, for the marriages were still five hundred below the corre- 
sponding quarter of 18G1. Again, a thousand loving hearts were 
kept asunder by the grim spectre, want; and pining and despairing 
solitude ruled, where sweet communion should have been. These 
phases of trouble do not appear upon the surface, and cannot be 
estimated in pounds sterling ; but the fainting, dragging misery, 
the separations for ever, and the broken hearts arising out of years 
of disappointment, are not less real, because they refuse to submit 
to tabulation ; and. however blimt and rude the expressions of the 
suEFerers, the feeling would not be much less keen amongst the 
thousands of cotton operatives, whose prospects in life were thus 
blighted, than it would have been in the same number of a more 
highly educated clasa Of course, some allowance is to be made 
for the decrease of population by emigration and migration ; but, 
assuming these causes to have removed thirty thousand persons 
from the cotton districts, the proportion would be about one in 
sixty-six of the population ; whilst the decrease of marriages was 
one in thirteen and a quarter in 1862, and one in twenty-nine in 
18G3, as compared with 1861 ; and instead of these being made up 
in 186+, there was a further decrease in the first two quarters aa 
compared with 1861, of five hundred and thirty-five, or one in 
fifteen ; and the decrease on the whole year was one thousand six 
hundred and sixty-five, making the total decrease on the three 
years, five thousand four hundred and seventy-nine. That the 
affliction was nobly borne, is evidenced by another fact, which 
speaks volumes in favour of the sufferers The returns of iUegi- 



350 



FACra OF THE COTTON FAMINE, 



timate births show clearly that these abstainers from marriage 
were in the main prudent, moral, and well-conducted peopla Men 
of strong animal passions would probably abstain from the respon- 
sibilities of married life under circumstances of great penury. Lot 
they would not in consequence restrain themselves fr^m the; 
indulgence of sexual passion ; and girls, whose daily life is passed 
in the semi-tropical temperature of a cotton mill, with its tendency 
to early puberty, would, unless kept in good training, be likely tfl 
give way to temptation ; but the following tables, contributed 
specially by the registrar-general, will show that, although tha 
abstinence from marriage was so extensive, yet sexual immorality 
was but very slightly increased. 

NOHBEK or IlLEQITIIUTB BiBT&B BsamEKBD IN UOH or TBI Y>AU 1661-i 



Ashton-under-LpiB . . . , 

Barton -upon- 1 twell . . . , 

Blackburn 

Bolton 

Burnley 

Bury 

Chorlej 

ChorlCon 

CUtheroB 

FyldB 

Gantang 

*GlDSEop [Hub-diBtrict] .... 

Haslingden 

LanOtitet 

Leigh 

Mscclcslield 

Mancheatec fmcluding Prcatwich) 

Olilhaui 

Proiton 

tPnutnioh. This Bab-district i» com- J 
priied in the Hanchestsc district > 



Carried forward 



• aioHop ]■ oiw nf ths aob-dinricto of HBT^^d Di 
Oliula 0»(» Uio lUogitinule birth. iD the Glo«op .a4- 

t PiWaioh (mib-dlitricl uf). whlnh la imiuiirlaed In MsnoLntiir dlftiict, hal UilitsaB, M^M 
id ftnuUHi illagUiDuM bitthi nfiiUnd tu tha Ulna jraui IMl-S nqnotlT^, 



iritlitrict^ bottbaDaD 



ILLEOmMATE BfRTHS. 



Brought forward . 4,403 

Sklpton 80 

Btoekport S40 


4,71 a 4,7G0 
76 85 

ei G6 


WarringtoD ■ . . . . Ill 
Wigaa 4&T 


100 107 
COS 462 


MOS 


6.706 5,735 


Geokqi Hobsom, regifllr 


tnfral Jltgultf Officf. SoiHtriil IToiiK, \5lh Dtetmher 


1864. 



Thus, whilst the marriages in 1802 were two thousand eight hundred 
and ninety-two less than ill 1861, the illegitimate births had 
increased by 288 only, more than one-third of this increase being 
in places scarcely affected by the cotton famine ; and when 1863 
had further increased the list of abstainers from marriage by nine 
hundred and twenty-two cases, making the total decrease on the 
two years three thousand eight hundred and fourteen, the total 
increase of illegitimate births was only six hundred and five, or one 
to each 63 cases of deferred marriage ; and the returns for 1864 
still maintain this pleasing feature. Probably much of this result 
is due to the iniluence and discipUne of the sewing schools; and the 
Indies who devoted their time and talents to the iuHtruction and 
amusement of the poor girls, whose education had hitherto com- 
prised no domestic accomplishment, may congratulate themselves 
that they have not only fitted many thousands fotthe performance 
of important home duties, and thus enabled them to render home 
attractive to their future husbands ; but that tLey have also, by 
their inspiring presence, their kindly interest, their genteel man- 
ners, and their insensible moral influence, saved thousands also 
from irretrievable ruin. 

It is very common for strangers to the factory system to suppose 
that the employment is productive of great sexual immorality, but 
the official returns give no countenance to the prejudice. The 
following table is from the census of 1861 ; — 



f lU-eOlTUUTE filBTBB rBOK 1 



EngUnd BDd Walei . 



WwUwk. 


Wodlook. 


^•IS^. 


,048,47'J 


4!S,171 


6-99 


788^66 


67,886 


7-87 



FACTS OF THE COTTtW PAanSE. 



So that with all the evil influences of the factory system, Jand il 
overcrowdiag in large towns, Lancashire illegitimacy is osly 
per cant above the average of the whole of England and Wale&V 
The following return, extracted from the judicial statistics, wiQ'| 
show the variations in the different districts of the countiy : — 

PEBCDmou or tiAxoiTtmtjT ut Ekoluid atd Wiles, t85t 10 ISM. 



7'1 1 Arcrago of tho wbok 



London 

&JU til -Ghs tern counties 

South -Wettern conn lie e 
West-MidUnd counties 
Soutli- Mid land c« an lies 
Monniautli and Wales 
NoTlli-Westem coDnliea 
Yarhshire . 
Nnrtbern conntici . 
Nortli- Midland coanticB 



Thus Lancashire and Cheshire are exceeded in their proportioo 
of illegitimacy hy Yorkshire, and also by the northern and oortk 
midland counties, where the employment of women and girla to 
factories is not nearly so extensive ; and it Is very likely that the 
non-com pukory powers of the Registration Act, will lead to 
which will render the returns for the metropolis unreliable. 

Of course, the returua of illegitimate births are far from com- 
elusive as to the effects of the cotton crisis on morality ; the letters 
of "A Lancashire Lad" to 27i« jTmes, and the commumcaUoos 
various correspondents to local newspapers, all pointed out till 
probability of greatly increased prostitution, unless the guardiaot 
and relief committees were liberal in their allowances. The 
dition of the milliners, the waistcoat makers, and shirt makers of 
the metropolis, furnish proof enough that the fear was not 
imaginary, and the following table will ehow that effective mmt* 
werfl ailopted to prevent the growth of the evil in the oottoi 
districts. The woollen towns appear to have least prostitution, 
and second on the list come the cotton districts; and the 
shows an actual decrease of prostitution during the pressure of 
distress. Higher evidence there couhl not be of the guiding cart \ 
which piloted the people through the depths of their trouble. tli«i 
these wimple figures give. Seduction and want are the two fruitful 
causes of permanent pauperism, and here there have been blight«d 



PROSTITUTION IN VARIOUS DISTRICTS. 



353 



hopes and hard penury for three long years, opening the road for 
the tempter, and yet without any sensible moral deterioration : — 



Propoxtiov or PBOflriruTSS nr Yariodb Distrtcts, 1S60- 1-2-3, 





186a 


1861. 


1862. 


1883. 


Woollen towns . 


1 in 59SS 


664-0 


609*4 


690-1 


Cotton towns 


1 in 506*4 


641-7 


6246 


631 1 


Hardware towns 


1 in 423-3 


499-0 


636-6 


687-3 


Metropolis . 


1 in 366-8 


452-2 


674-5 


576-3 


Mixed textiles . 


1 in 367-2 


4621 


483-6 


494 


Pleasure towns . 


1 in 248-2 


246-8 


262 3 


247-5 


Agricultural towns 


1 in 2410 


268.4 


258-6 


271-6 


Commercial ports 


1 in 1820 


2160 


213-7 


223-8 


ToUls 


1 in 365-4 


406-2 


444-0 


440-1 



The country is slowly improving in this sad phase of life, except 
in the pleasure towns ; and the cotton districts, even during the 
distress, partake of the improvement. 

There is still another aspect in which to look for depreciated 
morality. Famine years are generally expected to fill the prisons, 
and to find plenty of work for the criminal courts. Men, with 
whom, in the absence of a higher motive, the fear of punishment 
is a sufficient preventive under ordinary circumstances, break 
through all restraint under the pressure of want, and rush into 
crime. Bad trade induces stricter economy and oversight amongst 
employers ; and officials, who, in the absence of efficient checks, have 
given way to temptation, are then found out ; and vagrants, who 
during prosperity have found begging to be a better paying trade 
than working, feel the pressure of bad times at second hand, by the 
stoppage of supplies, and they resent the neglect of their old 
patrons by helping themselves. 

But during the cotton famine, the special correspondent of 

The J^imes, the correspondent of the Manchester ExamiTier and 

TimeSy and the special commissioner of the poor-law board, all bore 

testimony, in May and June, 1862, that, notwithstanding the intense 

pressure of distress in the principal unions, crime had decreased ; 

and the following special return will show, that although the trouble 

spread and deepened up to Christmas, 1862, and continued to ebb 

*nd flow, so as not to allow more than half work in 186"3-4, yet the 

<^baracter of the population was pretty well sustained to the end. 

AA 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 



r Pebsors u 

TUE DitiTR[CT lit CmEtoe 

) BOROUOBS, Ul 



t THE Maqutiutes Or THm Cotfn 1 
r THE LiKCAaiuKE CoKBTAarun, 





IMl, 


ISfll 


1^ 


IftM. 


Apr*^ ' Bnio- 


tss. 


^-L 


Apprs- 


m^ 


££^.^: 


DlstricU in charge) 


B,539 Sl,971 


9.731 


31,697 


9,363 


21,727 


8,877 


34,57«' 


Ailiton-uoder-Lyna 


— — 


— 


— 


— 







— 


BlMkbun. . . . 


3.420 


3.106 


040 


836 


1,07* 


1,188 


Bolton . . . . 


3,377 


657 


2,337 


611 


1,939 


678 


3,160 


SIS 


L&noaetei' . 


194 


14S 


137 


41 


182 


64 


151 


M 


Livarpool . . . 


19,746 


n,3Bi 


23.941 


13,813 


26,329 


11,693 


25.M9 


11,161 


MMoheitor. . . 


8,019 


2,175 


9,844 


2,319 


9,469 


2,174 


10,294 


<.H 


Oldhim. . . . 


8*7 


674 


888 


e33 


769 


579 


789 


77 


Rochdale . . . 


G30 


1,005 


594 


776 


a37 


642 


537 


E9 


S^ord . . . . 


1,557 


a, 113 


1,643 


3,873 


i,aw 


8,030 


1,626 


3,86 


Slftlybridge . . . 


6« 


-!« 


40 


16P 


67 


95 


140 






d3S 


704 


54<l 


532 


563 


531 


M7 


64 


WigEn. . . . 


1,013 


I,U1 


998 


1,039 


i.m 


1.140 


936 


1» 



And here it may be remarked, that as the factory system does 
aeem to bear out the opinion that it is particularly promotive of 
aexxial immorality, bo the following retura will show that the cotton 
districts are not peculiarly remarkable for a large criminal class. 

PEBCENTAaE OF CRnOHU. ClAU I* TlBlODS D w TK iow , 1860-3. 





li 


CottoD towns . 


I ID 


Mined lextiUa . . 


I in 


Woollen towns . . 


lii. 


Pleaanre towns . 


1 in 


Oimmercial ports 


lin 


Agricultural towns . 


I in 


Hardware towns 


lin 



96'6 
I30-4 

lOS'S 



116'T 

1(^-B 
106-8 



But there is one aspect in which the factory system exhibits a | 
sorrowful picture. Sexual morality does not sutfer materiallyrfl 
and general crime ia not above the average ; but female crime it 
much higher in Lancashire than in other parts of the country. Cai 
tiiiB be the result of the demand for juvenile labour, which rende 



FEMALE CRIME IS LANCASDrEE. 3-JO 

indepenJent of their pai-onts at fifteen or aixteeu years of 
ige, and frequently takes them away from parental control ? It is 
ia important and a serioiia question, and worthy of prompt consi- 
teration. Can it be that progress towards the independence of 
romeu would develop vice as well as virtue, and that to render 
roman equal to man in power, would also render her his equal in 
rime ? Here is a return from the judicial statistics showing — 

ThI PsOPOttTlOKS OP Feicals CjtlUlWXU IH IBSIdO. 

1851-5— England and WrIcb . 107,768 iOfim or !7'8 per cent. 

LsacBshire . . . 11,933 4,735 or 36 9 per wnt. 

1856-60— England and Wales . 70,310 !0,D!4 or 2S'3 per uont. 

Lancashire . . . 10,594 4,999 or 4U'T2 per oent. 

yleariy here are deteriorating influences at work which demand 
areful inquiry with a view to reform. Female education is too 
^ncrally neglected, and Lancashire does not differ materially in 
hat reapect from other parts of the country ; but in the absence of 
lomestic habits, resulting from the practice of leaving home 
A an early age to work, and which furnishes the means of living 
rithout a knowledge of and without a taste for the various duties of 
he household, the cotton districts are peculiar. To this peculiarity 
uust, we fear, be traced the prevalence of female crime ; and if the 
Lccomplishments of cooking and dressmaking taught in the sewing 
chools become permanent, another moral influence will be at 
rork for the benefit of future generations, and another great con- 
olatiun be established, to prove that out of temporary evil cometh 
)ermaiient good. The eyes of philanthropists ought to be con- 
inually directed to this sad picture ; and no stone should be left 
uiturned, until the judicial statistics of Lancashire tell a different 
A as to the proportion of female criminals. 




OHAPTEU XIX 



Gkiiu and Lones— CoOBiunptiDn of Cotton in IS61 uid 18li2— E9h^ of AmcnH 
Ncns un PriwB— Average Condi^on of the Tndv in I8(i0-^ — Rven>1>l«« >• 
Cotton — Goint by Rnnnio); the Dlocluile — Cooguiuiiticni of Id(>3 — Lkrge EaUn 
Capital Rwiuimd — Effect* of Peace Riunours — Bmkniplcy Keturu — Dccnwtd 
Coiuumption of Indisji Cotton ^Coiidit ion of the Tr&dv in 186^-4 — Adultanfis 
uf GrxHla— The Tnde Lome* in Three Yean — MeMi& Fruer*! CimiW- 
Mx McH&ffie on Cuttou Loues. 

The consumption of cotton reached its highest point in ISM, 
when it was one billion eighty-three million six hundred thouauii) 
pounds.aud cost ^25,961,000. The raw material was tlien pleutifal 
and cheap, dtscouuts were reasonable (averaging about four and n 
quarter per cent), wages were high, and profits large. Even 
spindle and every loom were engaged, and new milU were rising 
in every direction. The progress in the consumption of cotton in 
thepreviousten yearshad been nearly Eixtyi)erceut. Aboutthirty- 
three million sphidles were at work, and they were increasing ti 
the rate of nearly twenty-one thousand per week. Of course, ovetr 
effort was made to increase production, so long as it promised t \ 
profit ; but apart from a fall in prices, consumption could not go i 
on at the same rate as the production, and towards the end of the J 
I y year stocks began rapidly to accumulate. If there had been no rar J 
j in America, tlie large profits of 1859-(i0 would have been broDg] 
^ down to average by a heavy fall of prices on accumulated 
* in 1861 ; and these same accumulations served to prevent ■ 
I serious rise in prices, either of cotton or manulsctures, till tf 
^ midsummer, 1861. 

But the consumption of cotton fell in 1861 to one billion aei 
million four hundred thousand pounds, or about eight per cei 
whilst the prices rose about thirteen and a half per cent, upon I 
average of the whole year ; and as the difference hetweeii Deceml 
1860, and June, 1861, was only three-halfpence per pound, I 
rise in price, reckoned upon the latter half of the year, would 
equal to twenty-five per cent upon the prices of 18G0. 



COXSUMPTIO.V OF COITUS. 3J7 

The year 1861 waa looked upon as a fair average year; for 
whilst there waa no great room for complaintu, the tranaactions 
were not such as to make producers druak with prosperity. 
Measured by 1861, the doings of 1862-t may therefore bo fairly 
tested, and the results of the famine be seen, as it affected em- 
ployers and employed. 

The consumption of cotton in 18G2 was four hundred and fifty- 
one million seven hundred thousand pounds, but it cost more by 
£12,989,000 than the same quantity would have done at the 
average prices of 18G1. Thus forty-four per cent of the quantity 
required eighty-six per cent of the capital of 1861 to purchase it. 
As fully one-lialf of the machinery was idle, those who remained 
at work must either have been ricli men, or must have had free 
recourse to the bankers, for forty-two percent of extra capital. This 
element alone would add very much to the anxieties of trading; 
but producers care less about the prices of raw material, than for 
certainty as to the results of their work. But cloth was fre([uently 
sold on the same day at a less price per pound than raw cotton; and 
every mail from America produced violent fluctuations, so that 
trade became a mere lottery ; but demanding much more skill.and 
labour than if the results were, as in ordinary times, certain and 
profitable. The news brought by each mail was eagerly discussed 
on 'change ; and many a wordy war was ended by a dealing in 
Confederate loan, an a test of the sincerity of the disputants. The 
weight of middle class opinion favoured the Confederates, and a 
Federal disaster produced a drooping market ; because it was looked 
upon as likely to result in peace and recognition, and the opening 
of the cotton port.i. 

The following table will show the average condition of the trade 
in 1800-2 at a glance :— 



1861. . . Hd. . , 12(1. , . I3Jit. . . 4(1. 

1862. . . isli. . . lT4|d. . . ISid. . niiniiB jd. 

_ So that, measured by Orleans cotton, shirtings were upon the whole 
ycarone farthing per pound below the raw material; and any profit, 

.■ and even any payment for spinning and manufacturing, was there- 
fore entirely dependent upon the admixture of lower-quality cuttoo. 



338 



FACTTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 



and upon the element of time, wliich might raise the price during tlw 
process. Averages give no idea of individual exertions and troaWi 
and disappointments; but, when we know that the fluctuatioBi 
in fair Dhollerah cotton were from eightpence to eighteen pencft" 
farthing, in fair Orleans cotton from twelvepence- halfpenny 
twenty-nine pence per pound, the reader wiU be better able 
appreciate the difficulties of the trade ; and to see that every con- 
siderable purchase of cotton or of yam was at the risk of great 
loss, if not of positive bankruptcy, 

When it became indisputably evident, by the progrew of the 
war, that the source of eighty-live per cent of the raw material for 
the employment of Lancashire spindles and looms was indeed rat 
off, the prices of cotton rose rapidly, and immense fortvmes were 
made by cotton holders and speculators. Tales are told of adveDta* 
rous young men, each of whom in one short year converted a hundred 
pounds infjj as many thousands, by purchasing and riiselling 
staple from day to day, during the rise. In the Southern States 
North America the price of cotton was almost nominal, and it 
occasionally used as armour, for war vessels or for forts. But 
material, clothing, and medicines were very soon at fabulous 
and the prospect of gain led to the fitting out of many T( 
at Liverpool and London, on purpose to run the blockade^ So 
great was the temptation, that even New York itself contributwl to 
the blockade-running fle-it, and much smuggling is believed also lo 
have been done across the lines of the Federal army. BetWMQi^ 
the profits on goods carried in, and on the cotton brought out 
the Confederate ports, it wns calculated that one succ^sful run 
of three would make a fair return, whilst five hundred per ceoi 
profit was commonly spoken of, as the result of a single suocesafiil ' 
venture. 

The Confederate government also aided this process by their 
cotton loan, which was borrowed mainly in this country, and made 
payable in cotton at fivepence per pound, at one of the Confedenti- 
porta ; and they sought to restrict the trade to vessels which 
in a certain proportion of Confederate bonds, which, being diK 
charged in cotton, enabled them to borrow again. Under 
inducements, seventy-one thousand seven hundred and fifty bales ' 
American cotton reached England in 18G2 ; and, notwitlistandii 
the increased severity of the blockade, as shown by the rate of int 



LARGE EXTBA CAPITAL REQTTTEED. 359 

ranee, which stood at seventy-five percent with twenty-five returned 
in case of success, yet the year 1863 brought over one hundred and 
thirty-one thousand nine hundred halea. The bulk of the cotton 
consumed was, of course, from India, and for the amount of labour 
employed upon it, the production was more than eleven per cent 
less than it would have !)cen on American cotton ; and where the 
Indian staple alone was uaed, the decreased production was fully 
fifteen per cent as compared with American cotton, whilst the pro- 
portion of waste was very much greater; so that to the man who 
on full-time formerly earned twenty shillings it gave about seven- 
teen shillinga for the same number of hours, but with the exertion 
of much extra care and skill 

The consumption of cotton in 1863 was five hundred and eight 
million four hundred thousand pounds, being about fifty per cent 
of the quantity used in 18G1, but at a cost of £H,iH3flOO, or one 
hundred and forty-one per cent more than the cost of the same 
quantity at tliat date. Still one half of the machinery was unem- 
ployed, one half of the mills were closed ; but for those which 
remained at work an additional capital of £28,74i4,500 was needed, 
being nearly three times the amount required for the same quantity 
of the raw material in 1801. 

It is impossible that the employers who continued working 
could be owners of this extra capital, for, had they been so, it 
would have found profitable occupation somewhere before the 
crisis : the bankers must therefore have supplied it, and this fact 
will help to explain the rise of the discoimt rates at the end of 
the year, from four to eight per cent. Employers were risking the 
capital of many persons who were not practically engaged in the 
trade, and if the much-desired peace haA then been achieved in 
America, the fall in the prices of cotton goods would have caused 
wide-spread ruin in Lancashire. Peace would have added to the 
troubles occasioned by war, and the release of the working classes 
from compulsory idleness, would have necessitated a new list of 
employers, for many uf the old ones would have been swept away. 
The consumption of the year exceeded that of 1802, by about" 
thirty-three per cent, showing that the tide was slowly turning, 
that stocks were exhausted, and the purchasing power increased ; t 
BO that under ordinary circumstances, and at normal prices, a largely 
increased trade would have been done. 



i 



300 FACTS OP THE COTTOIT FAMIXE. 

In 1864, the prices of Orleans cotton still varieil with ereiy 
mail ; but the news produced different effects to those whidf 
occurred earlier in the struggle, A Federal victory caused a 
instead of a rise in prices, for it was now tolerably well knom, 
that tbe road to peace would only be found through the submii 
of the Confederacy. Every month's average was still affected by 
the varying foitunes of the war, and cotton drooped from Jaauaiy 
to April, rose from April to August, trembled in the balance ii 
September, and fell sevenpence per pound from September i 
November, consequent on the peace rumours from Niagara Fallaj 
and then rose again threepence per po^nd before the end of the 
year, when the negotiations had failed. 

It is easy to understand how the peace rumours, with the 
spect of a not distant fall to normal prices, should produce a panic; 
and how good and honourable men spoke of the probable cessi 
of the most terrible war of modem times, as a thing to be dreaded 
Nor were the fears of these men groundless ; for the mere rumoin 
of peace swept down small men as grass falls beneath the scythe 
the mower, until the employers of almost thirteen thousand hand^ 
with liabilities amounting to £1,500,000, were chronicled among 
the failures ; and large holders of cotton were named, whose stock) 
fell in a few weeks from X120,000 to £150,000 in value in each 
And besides the failures which were made public, many compoai- 
tions, by private arrangement, look place; whilst bills were renew< 
and payments deferred to an extent never before known. 

The bankruptcies registered in the court at Manchester, in tl 
years 18(il-t, were as follow : — 



970 



Upon the whole of the year, employment was somewhat morfl 
plentifid ; the consumption of cotton being five hundred and sixtj 
one millions four hundred and eighty thousand pounds, at a cost ol 

53,808,000; being fifty-five per cent of the quantity, and < 
hundred and seventy per cent more than the cost of the t 
quantity in 1801. A little more than half employment in ISW 
required ^38,067,500 more capital than it would have done in 1861 j 
for tlio use of which seven or eight per cent must b&ve beeo j 



EFFECTS OP PEACE RCMOUBS. 361' 

whilst trade to the spinner and manufacturer was still a lottery^ 
depending more upon catching the turn of the market, than upon 
any xkill in the respective operations. 

Wlien, on the fall of Savannah, 2/te Times' correspondent wrote 
from New York that the thirty thousand balea of cotton, announced 
as being captured there, would turn out to be oot more than three 
thousand, men — whose proaperity, in ordinaiy times, depends upon 
the ptentifulness and cheapness of the staple — were heard to 
express enger hopes that the smaller would turn out to be the 
cori-ect quantity ; and when peace was spoken of as probable, a 
manufacturer exclaimed — " If that oewa should come true, some- 
body would ha' to stick to me !" implying that there would be 
danger of lum committing suicide, 

A large proportion of the failures were amongst manufacturers 
(men who simply convert yarn into cloth), and the explanation is 
that this part of the business, in ordinary times, requires but a small 
amount of capital A man who owns a few hundred pounds, rents 
a weaving shed, where the engines, shafting, and fixtures belong to 
the landlord. He fills the shed with looms, on credit for six or 
twelve months, buys yam at six weeks' credit, delivers the cloth 
to his agent, and returns home with money for wages, and for 
fresh purchases of yam. If trade be ordinarily prosperous, the 
goods do not lie long in stock ; but if it be necessary to hold stock, ' 
the agent charges five per cent for advances, besides the ordinary 
commissions on sales, and for the guarantee of debts ; so that if 
there be at any time a serious fall in prices during manufacture, or 
when a heavy stock is held, such a man must needs fail ; and his 
liabilities must be shared by the spinner who supplies the warp 
and weft, and the agent who advances on the goods. 

The moralist will of course ask, if this system be so disastrous, 
why do Manchester merchants not only submit to, but even 
encourage it ? The reply is very simple. The system is occasion- 
ally disastrous, but upon the whole it is sufficiently remunerative 
to pay both spinners and agents. And as far as the public is con- 
cerned there is no cause of complaint; capital is economised, 
production and employment are increased, and goods cheapened 
by the process. 

The Manchester Guardian, of 31st December, 186i, wrote as 
follows: — "The more sagacious seers are beginning to reason as 



i 



3AS 



PACTS OP THB COTTOK PAMKK 



follows : The bnlance sheet of A exhibited assets equal to serea 
Kliilliii)^9 and sixpence lo the pound, and as the creditors agreed to 
take five shilliugs, the unfortunate man has now more capital than 
he ever before possessed ; and may now be more safely dealt with 
on tho old t«rujB. Ill fact, that curious virtue, commercial confi- 
dence, a coiiiixiimd of self-interest and rashness, is once more 
oxhibiting its marvellous power of recovery from a state of utter 
prostration ; and will soon be seen affording the old munificent aid 
to tho atruggling occupiers of weaving sheds." But the return of 
conndenco had another foundation besides the improved position 
of the compounding manufacturers. The prospect of peace n 
Boon dissipated, and the prices of cotton rose almost as rapidly 
they bad fallen; and many houses whichwere trembling on the verge^ 
of bankruptcy, again found firm footing, and could be once mora 
safely trusted. 

Employment during tho year averaged about twenty per 
cent more than in 1SG3, the weekly consumption of cotton bein^ 
twonty-six thousand five bundreil, against twenty-two thousand and 
thirty bales. More than half of the imports of 1863 were bougitt 
on speculation ; but, in 18()+, the proportion fell to little more than 
a quarter, wluch was a good indication of the growing bcalthinos^ 
of tho trade. There was one remarkable feature about the cottoa 
oonsuined — viz. : that tiie quantity of Indian cotton was decreased 
instead of increased. The following table will show the proportioe 
from difterent countries in 1802-4 :~ 



DMripUoo. 


tntho 


^(no.u.i.pon 


■"HH^I 


Tnlhtxtita, 


^155" 


18M. 1««3. 


1S6J. 


IfiW. 


!«• ■ 


Amwrioin . . . 


8,400 


a.390 


8.sao 


2,240 


2,300 


S;BwI 


Bruil .... 


2,620 


1.980 


2.020 


2,15U 


2.140 


1,906 n 


EgypiUii, &o. . 


5,180 


3,-50 


2,100 


3,m 


4.49U 


>.ii« em 


Wult India. Sen. . 


790 


860 


390 


930 


3711 


4So[l 


l^t India. &o. . 


16,110 


16,SI0 


1!,150 


U,060 


17,200 


i3,s»n 


China Mid J*)>*n . 
ToUl 


i,m 


— 


- 1 1,820 


- 




31,400 


S5,*00 


!0,!'tU 15,030 


26,600 


ismol 



CONDITION OF THE TRADE. 



Thus, wliilst the imports of Indian cotton increased abont 
eleven per cent, tlie deliveries to the trade actually decreased by 
one thousand four hundred bales per week, although the total 
consumption of cdttou was considerably larger than in the previous 
year. Whatever might have been the prejiidicea of the trade 
against Indian cotton prior to the famine, spinners had been forced 
to buy it, and to adapt their machinery to it. Yet the very first 
opportunity was seized to thrust it again into the background. 
Experience therefore confirmed the former prejudices, and pro- 
nounced unmistakably, tliat unless the wealth contributed to India 
during the famine Im used to improve the staple, the demand for 
Surats will shortly fall again to aa low a point as ever. 

The following table (suppUed by Messrs. J. Munn and Co., and 
Messrs. Kichard Hawortli and Co.) will show the condition of the 
trade during 18(!3 and ISCi; and it will be seen that, assuming 
Orleans cotton as the standard, the margin between the raw material 
and the cloth produced was, in 1803, very little over one penny, and 
in ISG-i, three-hal ('pence per pound for all the processes. On the 
other hand, assuming the prices of fair Dhollerah as a standard, 
the average margin shown is as lai^e as is given by the Orleans 
standard in 1860, But cotton is almost always mixed of various 
qualities, and the margin in 186(1 would therefore be higher than ia 
shown in tlie table ; whilst in the latter years it would l>e lower 
than is shown in the Dhollerah table. The mixing would vary by 
the introduction of from fifty to seventy per cent of Indian in 
many varieties of goods, and would therefore reduce the mai^n 
shown in the Dhollerah table from thirty to fifty per cent of the 
difference in price between the two staples upon the averse; 
whilst the prices of goods would sometimes show as much as four- 
pence or fivepence per pound against the spinner and manufac- 
turer. It does not follow that these amounts would invariably be 
lost, because in a rising market the element of time would often 
rectify the position ; but in a falling market, as in the latter part 
nf 1804, the appa,rent loss would not only be realised, but e 
exaggerated, by the lapse of time during manufacture. 



■ 






■ 




PRICES OF 40'a MULE TARN, 30'b WATER TWIST, ANB SUlUTlfl 

FUBKIsaBM 






J-nu-r. 




ItutiL 


April 1 mf 


1802. 

40-8 Mule, Fair( 

Secouds. . .( 

Average . . . 


12i 13J 


131 isi 
131 


13} Hi 

141 14 14 

13} 


13i 131 

13} 


"1 

14114 

M 




30'8 Water. Good 1 

Seconds, Ind. .\ 


I3i 14 
Hi IJI 1^ 


14 14J 

"■13" 


141 141 

m u| m 


14J 141 


IJJ 

'"IS' 




Average . . . 


141 


14J 


15 


161 


15 




Shirtings, per Ik-j 
Average . . . 


IS 15} 
15 


15i ISi 
1.1 IJJ 1« 

15i 


i»l m 

ISJIS IS 

151 


15i 151 

IS IS 141 

lilisi 
151 


151 1 
lljjl 


1863. 

40*s Mule, Fairf 

Seconds. . .\ 


24 24 


24 23 


23 23 


35 36 
IS IS IS 


93 

"8 




Average . . . 


23i 


23} 


24 


251 


» 




30'b Water, Goodf 
Secoods, Ind. .\ 


27 27 


27 27 


27 27 


27 25 

asiWiST 


""s 




Average . . . 


26 


26J 


201 


261 


2« 




Sbirtings. per Ib.-j 


25 24} 


24} 24 

Mj3« 24 


21 26 


25 231 


231 

=•3 




Averse . . . 


24i 


24 


241 


251 


2S 


1861 
40'a Mule, Fairf 
Seconds . . .( 


33 31 

U Mi S3 


31 29 


an 27} 

■■„-!.»» 


271 281 
U K K 

SB 


9!J 1 

•Vi 




Average . . . 


32J 


31} 


291 


28 


ijM 




30'8 Water, Goodf 
Seconds, Ind. .{ 


32 31 


31 31 


31 31 


31»i^ 




Avenge . . . 


33i 


321 


32 


32 3> 




Shirtings, per lb.| 
Average . . . 


31 31i 

3M 


311 311 

31 


311 » 
301 


29 291 iSil 

40 so so n n 

wi n 1 

29} X 


1 


Thepri™ 
Aloworq 


■rv given for the bcgitmii 
uality of water twiit (" fail 


ng and end o 

second! ")i« 


«ohmn>stb,u>dfop 
•bout one penn;, or 

1 



TOR EACH MONTH, FROM JANUARY, 1862, TO DECEMBER, 1864. 
lAM MENDEL, ESQ. 



June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


lai 16 


16 18 


18 24 


24 24 


24 23 


23 21 


21 24 


IH 14| IH 


16 17 17 
17 17| 


18 18} 20 
26 


24 25 25 
25 25 


25 24 24 
23 


23 22 21 
21 


21 21) 21} 
U'JJ 23} 


14J 


17 


20J 


24J 


23| 


21i 


22i 


14i 17J 


17J 20 


20 30 


30 30 


30 29 


29 24 


24 27 


IH 1^ 161 


17} 18} 18} 
18} 18} 


20 21 23 
28 


80 80 SO 
30 30 


80 29 29} 
27} 


27} 27 26} 
26} 


24i 24} 25 
26 26 


16 


m 


23f 


30 


29i 


26i 


25i 


15i 17 


17 18i 


18i25i 


25} 25 


25 24 


24 23 


23 25 


m i5| i5i 


17} 18 18} 
18} 18} 


19 19 20 
21 


26 26 26 
26 26 


26 26 25} 
25 


24} 24} 23 
23 


23 23 24 
24 24} 


16 


18 


20J 


25J 


25i 


23f 


24 


25i 24 


24 24 


24 27} 


27} 30} 


30} 34 


34 34 


34 33 


26 26 26 
25} 24} 


24} 2a 24} 


24}24|25} 


27} 27} 30 
80 30 


SO 32 83 
33} 


83} 33} 33} 
83} 


34 J M\ 33} 
33 33 


25i 


24i 


25i 


29 


32i 


33^ 


33J 


26 25 


25 26 


26 28 


28 31 


31 34 


34 36 


;^ 32 


i7 27 27 
26} 26} 


26 26 26 
27 


27 27 27} 
29 


29 30 81 
81 81 


81} 33 34} 
35} 


85} 35} 34} 
34l 


36 36 35 
34 34 


26i 


26 


27i 


30i 


33i 


35 


34f 


26 24 


24 25 


25 26 


26 28 


28 31 


31 32 


32 31 


96 26 26 
25} 24} 


24} 24} 24} 
25 


25 25} 25} 
26} 


26} 27 28 
28 28^ 


28} 30 31 
81} 


31} 31} 31 
31 


1 321 32 J 31} 
31. J 31} 


25J 


24f 


25J 


27i 


30 


31i 


31f 


28 28 


28 31 


* 

31 30 


30 23 


23 21 


21 25 


25 27 


28} 28} 28} 
28} 


28} 30} 32 
32 


32 82 32 
32 32 


81} 29} 27} 
24 


24 23 21} 
19 


21 25} 22 
26 25 


26 2(3 26 
27 


28i 


30i 


3U 


27J 


22 


23f 


26i 


32 33 


33 35 


35 33 


33 24 


24 27 


27 30 


30 30 


S8 33 33 
83 


33 36 37 
37 


87 37 87 
37 37 


36 34} 83 
82} 


30} 29 27 
25} 


27 27 27} 
30 29 


30 J 30} 30.J 
31 


32f 


35i 


36i 


32i 


27i 


28i 


m 


30} 31 


31 32 


32 32 


32 24} 


24} 24 


24 27i 


1 27} 29} 


^Ol 30} 30} 

30} 


31} 82 82 
32 


32 32 32 
82 82 


81} 30} 28 
26 


25 25 24 
22} 


24 24} 26 
30 28} 


29 29 29 
30 


. 30J 


3ii 


32 


28f 


2^ 


2CJ 


, 29 

1 



^tiesday during the month, with the average of each month stated beneath. 
are high twopence, per pound below the quotations given herewith. 



368 PACK OF THE COTTOS PAMISE. 

It will be noticed that in our esUraatea Dothing is said ahoat 
iidulteratioDS as an element in manufacture, and the abstinence is 
intentional; because, although adulteration is often proBtablf 
practised, it ia yet very doubtful if, upon the whole, it adds more t<r 
the production of cloth than Indian cotton suffers by waste, Thcra 
are cases where it is carried to abominable excess, as where a glaeed 
calico has been found to possess only twenty-eight per cent of cotton. 
Adidteration was practised before the famine, and will no doubt coa- 
tinue after it ; and we may as well assume that the reply of an agent 
to a buyer, overheard on 'change by the author, is expressive of a too 
common practice. Complaint had been made of adulteration, and 
the agent, touching the complainant on the shoulder as he turned 
away, replied, " There's juat one thing I want to say to you ; our; 
cloth ia weighted to as great an extent as it will hold." " I've ng 
doubt of it," said the customer, intemjpting the agent, who theo 
continued, " and it always was." And a man who at one time was 
engf^ed in selling adulterants, has since produced a book, in which 
he gives anecdotes of various manufacturers to whom he oGfereii 
his wares, extolling their qualities for the great weight which they 
would add to goods. In some coses he met with indignant refusals 
to purchase, whilst in others his reception was cordial, and the 
result of such a visit ia fairly illustrated by a manufacturer who said, 
" Well, if it'll do what yo sen, it's just th' stuff we're wantin" ; far 
we need siimmat to mak cloth on, now cotton's so dear," It may 
safely be affirmed that with some people the practice of adulten- 
tion will only be diminished by the application of a lest whidi, 
discovering its cKtent, will make a proportionate discount in 
price, so as to prevent it from paying the manufacturer. 

Calculations upon the foregoing facta enable us to construct the 
following tabic of losses, based upon the trade and prices of 1861 :— 



ExcuBB paid Tor cotlon ii 



lequanlityinlSSI £13,969.000 
i. ,. 2T,GO5,nO0 

>, .1 35,35t,O00 



Tolfll for three yasrs 3) 75 84ri,MX> 

Average oxcoas per aniiarn £'i6,3Si,wX 

The excessive amount of capital employed for the same amount of 
production was therefore more than .£25,000,000 per annum. Wb 
turn now to the receipts for exports, to enable us to get a clear view 
of the position of the trade during these three years, and find that — 



I 



TRADE LOSSES IN THKEE YEARS. 369 

tuB EiucBB rMeivad far yarns exported In 18G2 oTer tha price of the I ., -.,, „„« 

same quantity in 1861 -»8 | £l,33n,oU0 

Tlio excaaa received for vsrnBBuported in 1863 over the nriw of the I . ,^nr,n 

RBme quantity in 1861 w«« J *.'™.tmO 

The eiceaa received for varnB eiportad in 1864 o»er the prico of the ) .an ^nn 

wmo quantity in 1861 was I '>.*'5.0™ 

The excess received for piece eooda exported in 1882 over the price I , -,.„ „.„ 

of the name quantity In 1861 was ..... / *.920.000 
The eicesa received for piece gonda oxporled in 1863 over the price! ,. .,, „„. 

of the same quantity in 1801 was f »VG*,000 

The Bice»9 received for piece gciods exported in 1864 over the price ) „„ ,.e nnn 

of the lanio quantity in 1861 was f ^n.Ue.OOO 

49,17.'J,000 
Add three- Sfths for the qiiantity consiimed at home S9,a[)5,u00 

78.680,000 
Dedttot, for interest on extra capital, at five per cunt t,7!<2,3DO 



£T4,S) 



■.700 



So that, without any allowance for increased rates of discount, the 
profit for the amount of trade done was Xy58,300 less than it 
would have been in 1801. Bankers and a^nts made more profit 
than usual, and the merchants who held stock during the rise would 
also realise very largely ; but a large proportlou of what was so 
gained, would have to be deducted from the shares of the spinners 
and manufacturers, the majority of whom are unable to bear much 
stock, attd would not participate in the gains thereon. 

An average of one-half the production of 1801 gave during 
three years nearly j£nOO,000 less pro6t per annum than the trans- 
actions of one-half of 1861 had produced. Mr. Bazley reckons the 
profits of 18G1 at illS.OOO.OOO ; so that, according to his calculation, 
the lessened profits of the trade for three years would amount to 
•£28,500,000. According to the same authority, the wages paid in 
18G1 amounted to i'22,000,000 ; so that the absolute loss of the 
working classes for three years would be X33,OOO,0O0 ; thus — 

Employers' loiges, three years, at £9,600,000 , 
Workpeople's lotees, three years, at £11,000,0110 



Add shopkeepers' losses on wages, at ten per cent 

Add shopkeepers' losses on half employers' pnilits 



The difference between a good harvest and a bad one in England 
and Wales, has been estimated at 120,000,(10(1, or twenty shillings 



I 



FACTS OF TBE COTTO.V FAMDfE. 

upoa the populatioD ; here in the ootion ^unine 
liad, therefore, the efifects of three bad harvests in successioa. 
ceDtrat«il upoD ODG-tenth of ibe population ; being equiTaletit to 
loss of £10 per head per annum throughout Lancashire, ap to th^ 
end of I8G1. Nor is the loss yet at an end, for altboiigh most 
the hands are now (Octobi;r, 1805) in employment, yet the pr 
ducdon does not exceed four-gftbs of the average of 1861. Ho* 
is it possible for any statistics, or for any pen, however eloquent, U 
describe the effects of such a calamity 1 How possible to trace tha 
destituttoD, spreading like a plc^e from house to house, and froni' 
street to street, in every town and village ; beginning with the' 
careless and improvident, and gradually involving the prudent 
man, who bad hitherto toiled like a giant to keep up the respecta- 
bility of a large young family; and whose childrea, when hit 
mule has ceased to revolve, or his loom to weave, first lose the cars 
of the schoolmaster; then eat up the club money; then 
the savings bank fund, and the shares in the co-operative store ; 
till at last the pictures which adorned the walla, the extra 
and guests' chairs, and every bit of furniture which can possibly 
be done without, including even the few favourite books, are all gout 
for food ; and the proud, prudent, intelligent man is found side hy 
side, at tlie relief committee or the board of guardians, with hie idl^ 
improvident neighbour ; who has worked only when his choice wai 
between the mill and the stone yard, and whose children havi 
always been left to the education of the streets, with the almost 
certain result of being enlisted into the armies of future paupei 
' criminals 1 Lancashire has seen tens of thousands of rad 
cases ; and we have to thank the various iufiuences which han 
enabled men to see and appreciate the great cause of their trouble, 
for the patience with which it has been borne ; and for the BmaQ- 

I of the permanent pauperism and immorality, which have 
resulted from it That our estimate of loss is not overdrawn will 
be seen from the following eirtract, taken from the trade report ol 
Measrs. Frazer, Son, and Co. : — 

"Taking the board of trade returns of the exports of cotton 
and yarn for the last five years, and adding to them an estintat* 
the amount consumed at home, which we will take at one-third tl 
exports, we obtain a rough approximation to the whole value of 
cotton manufactures of Great Britain. If we deduct from this 



MESSRS. fsazer's cmcuLAE. 371 

price paid by our spinners for the raw material consumed, we obtain 
the amount of profit which the internal industry of the country 
reaps from the trade. The followiug tables exhibit the diminution 
of this profit : — 

law. 18*1. 1%! i«ii3 ISM. 

Export of ■cotton 1 „(j^(j„gj, 47,000,000 37,000,000 47,000.000 56,000,000 

gooUR nnd yarns . ) ' ' ' ' 

Add one-third for , 

Lome consump- 17,000,000 16,000,000 13,000.000 13,000,000 19,000,000 



19,000,000 03,000,000 49,000,000 63,000,000 75,000,000 



Total valoB of pro- I 

duction . . . l" 
Estiraiited price pilid \ 

by the trade for [29,000,000 85,000,000 27,000,000 «,000,000 53,000,000 

tho raw maten&l I 

oonxUDied . . j 

Profit to the country 40,000,000 38,000,000 23,000,000 31,000,000 23,000,000 

" From these dgures it will be seen that, iu 1860, a sum of 
£4>0,000,000 was distributed among thg industrious population of 
Laiicitshire, engaged in the cotton trade or the brimches dependent 
upon it During the last three years this amount has declined to 
to about one-hal£ Of course there are many modifying circum- 
stances which might be mentioned, such aa the profit made upon 
old stocks held when the war commenced. But, again, it nmat be 
remembered that the exports of 1861 and 1862 were greatly swollen 
by the shipments of these stocks, and represent more than the real 
production for these years. Taking all into account, and making 
allowance for 1860 being a year of remarkable prosperity, it seems 
fair to assume that the manufacturing industry of Lancashire has 
suffered to the extent of ^15,000,000 per annum, or more, for the 
last four years, in consequence of the stoppage of the cotton trade 
with the Southern States; and it ia evident that, if this exhaustiflg 
drain Upon its capital continues for another year or two, serious 
consequences must follow, in the shape of commercial embarrass- 
ment and want of credit, The crisis hitherto has been borne won- 
derfully well, but the day of trial is not yet over." 

This report appeared at the end of 1864, and it will be inte- 
resting now to learn to what extent any modifying influences have 
affected the results indicated. The gains on stocks would, for the 
raoKt part, go to the merchants rather than to the manufacturers; 
whilst the gains and losses on cotton, would be shared mainly by 



J 



372 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMISE. 



the importers and the larger spinners, who, if they do not directJ] 
import, yet time their purchaaes, so as to hold or run out of stodq 
according to their judgment of the future. The main portion 
the trade — composed of amall capitalists, who can neither aSbnJ 
speculate in cotton nor to hold stocks of goods — must gain or lo 
according to the turn of the market during the conversion of 
into cloth ; or, at the utmost, during the time in which their ageadt 
are able or willing to advance upon goods ; so that the results 
speculation will scarcely affect either them or the operatirc^ 
except very indirectly. 

Cotton did not rise much in price till the latter half of 1861 , whei 
the stock on hand was reckoned by Messrs. Chambers, Holder, ani 
Co., of Liverpool, at six hundred and ninety-nine thousand three 
hundred bales. The imports of East Indian in that year had 
from five hundred and sisty-two thousand six hundred and seventj- 
four, to nine hundred and eighty-six thousand two hundred aai. 
ninety biile3;and, knowing Uie dLstaste in which this cotton was held, 
we may safely assume that it made three-fourths of the stock at tbt 
end of the year. Then, assuming three-fourths of tlie stock at tbe 
end of 1861 to have been bought at the medium price of Indian 
for that year (6|d.). and sold at the medium price of 1862 {13J4 
per pound), there would be to the holders and various dealers 
this stock, a profit of ^5,791,050 ; and, assuming the remaining 
fourth of the stock to be American, there would be on that portion 
£3,168,703 ; making a total profit of ^8,959,753 upon the stock of 
cotton. The stock of goods on hand at the end of 1861 wu 
estimated at three hundred million bales. Assuming that the 
transactions in shirtings fairly represented this stock.and seeing tlwt 
their price varied from fifteenpence per pound in January, to tweol 
five pence three farthings in September, we may fairly estimat« 
average gain to the holders of stock of sixpence per pound, or 
total gain upon the stock of goods of £7,500,000, So that col. 
speculators, merchants, and other holders of stock, would dinda' 
amongst them about i:i7,000,0OO, which gain, or so much of it w 
is retained, it may be hoped, will hereafter produce fruit in the 
:tive employment for Lancashire operatives. 



the gains o 



I have had to stand the chances of the i 



vening years, and have been seriously diminished by the I 



COTTOS LOSSES. 



Mr. McHaffie, of Manchester, wrote as follows, on Srd April, in 
refereDce to the losses on cotton and goods during the first three 
months of 1865:— 

" What haa been the loss on cotton during the first three months 
of this year! I will claaa the loss under two heads — 1st, loss on 
cotton gone into use at a fall on its value since Slat December, 
1864 ; 2nd, loss on cotton imported this year, and now in stock. I 
am aware that the first item will not give the full extent of the fall, 
as much of the cotton in stock on SIst December cost more than 
the price of that day ; but I prefer to be under in my estimates, 
rather than in excess. The following table gives the three months' 
consumption and export of each kind by itself, and shows the 
quantity taken in each month: — 



B.1- Aom tinpooL 


An»il- 


Bncil. 


1^ 


Wart 




Ctabut, 


T°UL 


Ttkeo b7 TMda . . 
„ tor Export 


6.820 
1.378 


6,970 
1,695 


15,750 

738 


1.630 
118 


31,890 
17,693 


9,640 

2,606 


70,900 
24,328 


Febtuiry— 

T«ken by Trada . . 
„ for Export 


7,598 8,066 

9,B10l 8,590 

77! 2.326 


16,488 

10.700 

494 


1.748 

1,560 

26 


49,188 
43,640 
11,779 


12,146 

13,360 
2,762 


96,298 
96,360 
18,169 


Mmroh- 

Takeo bj Trade . 
„ for Export 


17,800:18,961 
16,310 6,680 
1,415 1,259 


36,682 
36,190 
1,27a 


3,334 

6,770 

668 


104.602 
64,140 
17,311 


28,268 
19,420 
2,637 


209,747 
U!l,411i 
34,968 




34,eM| 28,821 


74,1611 


9,962 


186,053 


50,525 


394,115 



" Starting with 1st January, 18G5 ; The fall in middling Orleans 
was, in January, 2Jd. ; in February, 4jd. ; in Mait'h, IJd. ; total, 
lljd. In Brazil, taking fair Pemambuco as a guide, the fall in 
January was 3Jd. ; February, 5d. ; March, 4Jd. ; total, I2^d. In 
fair Egyptian, fall in January. 3Jd. ; February. 5Jd. ; March, 3Jd. ; 
total, 13d. In fair West India, fall in January, 1^. ; February, 
5d; March, 4Jd.; total, 13d. In Dhollerah (Eas'. In^iia), January, 
2d. i February, SJd, ; March, 4Jd. ; toUl, 9i<l Acd in foir China, 
the fall in January, 2Jd. ; February, IJd. ; March, 2jd.; total, TJd. 
It will not do to calculate the entire depreciation on this cotton, as 
it went into use on a graduated scale of loss ; but the following 
— ealc< !atioL> is as lair as can be : — The consumption in Februaiy 





37i FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

much exceeded January, and the fall waa also much heavier. I add 
the decline in January and Febniary together, and then take two- 
thirds of the fall as the real loss incurred; while for March 1 take 
a fair average of the five weeks' faU added to the former decline: 
The statement will then stand as follows, viz., loss on cotton iised-*— 


1 


Fram U-etpool, 


nJI'jjin 


t 

a 
j 

6J 
li 
3 

3 


,.„, 




a 
I 


Vidii.. 


1 ■ 


lbs. 
AraoriMO . 140 
Bniil . . .ISO 
EgyplUn . . 600 
West iQdid. Ac. 20(1 
EM India, &a. 350 
Oliiim &c. . 240 


17,880 

le.gsi 

36,68! 
3.334 

11)4,602 
28,268 


£ 

163.900 
71,173 

4P6,735 
16.670 

457,636 
B4,858 


Bales. 
16.726 

9,839 
37,468 

6,628 
Bl,451 
22,257 


H 

^ 

6 


£ 
238,051 

55,344 
663.495 

46,948 
712,696 
100,155 


401,991 

126.517 

I,l60.i30 

G3.618 

1,170,881 

1 193.013 ' 








£l,2a0.971 




£1,816.699 


£3,107 .eeo 




" This is the 6rst item of loss, hut the second is much heavier, 
viz., the loss on imports during the three months and now on hmiA 
With the single exception of Egyiitian cotton, to the market for 
which we havt! had telegraphic comnmnication all along open, I am 
perfectly safe in saying that all the cotton imported this year, aai 
now on hand, cost at least the prices of 3lst December, 1864, hero 
and wc have yet to get from some of our distant markets, cotM 
that will have been shipped in December at these rates. Th 
bilowing table shows losses : — 


1 




SIU^klD 
1W4. 


SbMkiD 


F>iUilii«JuuuTl, 


TuulLaa 1 


Amaiican . 
Brazil . . . 
•EgyptiM . . 
Torkey, &a. 
Wast India, 4c. . 
EMtlndta . . 
Chio» tmd Japin 


lbs. 

. IKO 
. 5011 
. 350 
. 80O 
. 3S0 
. 240 


Balei. 

S7,i)10 
15,500 
44,170 
9,16U 
3,360 
130,630 
66,330 


4fl.6iO 
63,040 
77.870 
16,200 
12,840 
274,040 
65.5:0 


11 IJ. 

ma. 

13d.,Ukenu9d. 

9d. 
13d- 

-Jid. 

7id. 


1 

I,058,OOJ ] 
699.3M \ 

1.460.061 
2H',I» 1 
I3!).10G 

3.707 .en 

620,881 li 


1 


S97,C60 


680,010 




£7.7M,«tt II 


^H •Egjrau.utairtMi^.wo-twidioftt.M. a 



" In giving the fall in prices, I have taken as a standard, at 
both dates, middling Orleans, fair Peruambuco, fair Egyptian, fair 
West India, fair Dhollerah, and fair China. I have now brought 
the loss up to ^10,902,322; hut I have still to add the loas on 
stock in London : — One hundred and four thousand and twenty- 
one bales East India, of three hundred and fifty pounds, at lljd., 
±'1,403,19^ ; eighteen thousand throe hundred and ninety-two bales 
China, of two hundred and forty pounds, at T^d., £133,342 ; and two 
thousand five hundred and fifty bales Brazil, say of one hundred and 
eighty pounds, at one shilling, £22,250. These, added to the former 
amounts of loss, give a grand result of £12,401,113." 

If these calculations be reliable (and they have not been contra- 
dicted), the gains on the stock of 1861 have been nearly balanced 
by the losses of three months in 1865, the balance remaining to 
credit being only £3,500,000. And a similar process has been in 
operation in the goods market, although to a much less extent, 
in consequence of the diminished stocks ; so that, taken upon the 
whole, no very great proportion of the great profits realised upon 
stocks in 1802-3 remain in Lancashire. The operations of the 
bankruptcy court are proof that the losses have not fallen upon the 
shoulders of those who were best able to bear thsm ; and it is 
certain that some of the fortunate speculators for the rise, have 
escaped any serious losses by the fall But, apart altogether from the 
results of speculation, our calculations show a nett loss by decreased 
trade of £06,225,000. How far this loas has been compensated to 
the employer class by other investments it is impossible to say ; 
but aljout one-half of the loss has been in wages, for which the 
only compensations have been £2,857,400 in estra relief by boards 
of guardians and by relief committees, the sums distributed in pri- 
vate charity, the provision of employment under the Public Works 
Act, and the labour at other occupations, found by the operatives 
themselves. 

The numbers of operatives out of employment, the stoppage 
of the mills and factories, the release of capital from its ordinary 
occupation, an<f the consequent losses of the cotton trade, witneBsed 
to by relief committees, and by the increased business of the court 
of bankruptcy, are all demonstrable facta. The floating capital of 
the employer wan, however, not annihilated, as is that of an indivi- 
dual farmer who suffers a failure of his crops, whilst the general 




I 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAJflXE. 

hatrvest u good ; itwasmerelytuniedoDtof itsonJinaiy courae.a 
obliged either to find other occupation, or to iie unproductive, a 
to Rufier ooDsumptiou bj standing charges, and by the living of iU 
owneTB. We know that, apart &om the great staple trade, the titn 
of tbe cotton famine has been characterised by great commenJal 
' activity ; that many good modes of investment have been availaUsj 
and that discount rates and bank interest have ruled high ; but I 
reference to the income-tax returns of the principal distressed 
townships will nevertheless surprise even the most sanguine believtf 
in the recuperative power of capital. 

Liverpool has gained immensely by the rise in the price e 
cotton, and individuals in various localities in Lancashire b&vl 
partaken of this prosperous chance ; we know also that half tiad^ 
at treble prices, has in the main paid agents and warehouseniM 
better than full omplovment, at normal prices ; btit the reader w 
be surprised to learn that in Preston, where the distress was at fii 
most severe, aud where the operatives suffered heavily even to tl 
end, the income of those who paid taxes, as shown by schedule D 
for the years 1862-3-4, exceeded that of ISCl by about £I8,0(i 
per annum ; that Haslingden gained nearly £4,000 per annunt; 
whilst the same class in Blackburn seem to have lost leas t 
£700 per annum ; and Manchester less than -£8.000 per i 
and that the total deficiency of income under this heml, in sixtc 
of tbe principal towns and districts, compared with 1861, as call 
lated by tbe tax collected, amounts only to £2,130.S36. 

Of course it is both impossible and uodesirable for any individna 
to penetrate the secrets of the inland revenue office ; but the o 
cialfl make no secret of tbe fact, that the decrease of revenue h 
very large with cotton spinners and manufacturers; whilst the u 
crease in all other branches has been so considerable, as to prenol 
any great loss of revenue. A few words of explanation are neoceai 
to a full understanding of the following tables, Tbe inland rev€Oi 
commissioners say, in their report — " That the mere account of ti 
produce of the tax does not represent the assessments of the j 
becanse it is composed of nearly one-third of the tax from I 
previous year's a^essment, aud two-tliirds of the tax of the year i 
(juestion. When there has been an alteration in the rate, it is U 
more diBicult to arrive at any conclusion from the acoounta fl 
receipts within the year." Thus the return for 1864-5 is reall 



ASSKflSMKSTS mfDEB gCHEDUT-E D, 377 

made up of two-thirds of the income of 186+, and one-third of 
18(i3 ; so that when we read that the Liverpool aasessments, under 
schedule D, increased in 1864-5 by £997,000, we are to understand 
that one-tbird of tbat increase is due to the profits of 1803, which 
would include the enormous gains upon stock, which were realised 
tovards the end of 1802. 

When incomes of £150 and upwards were charged at ninepence 
in the pound, and lower incomes at sixpence, tbe produce of the 
lower assessment, in the Manchester district, was from five and a 
quarter to five and a half per cent of the whole tax ; and in esti- 
mating what the produce of tbo later years ought to have been, 
we have taken the total assessments in 1S61-2 and 1862-3 at eigbt- 
pence-halfpenny in the pound. In consulting the following tables 
(supplied by tbe chairman of the commissioners of inland revenue), 
and the calculations thereon by the author, the reader must use bis 
own judgment a£ to the increase which ought to have taken place 
in the revenue, and add tbat sura to tbe losses which are shown 
to have been sustained. Tlio total increase of assessments, under 
schedule I>, for England and Wales, in 1864, was £8,263,000; 
assuming the same rate to have held good for three years, then 
the Lancajihire assessments ought to have increased by £2,478,900 
since 1801, and the larger half of that increase should have accrued 
to the cotton trade. The nett losses of income in the sixteen dis- 
tricts tabulated, calculated from the taxes paid under schedule D, 
and based upon the amount paid in 1861, appear to have been as 

Wea-S £316,83* 

11863-4 ....... 917,018 

I8M-5 718,SS4 
£1,951, 536* 

* Of ttu h1»t» UDOUQt, TQOn IhfeU feqnAHflrhu beunloat JQ 4 Rn)Up uf Unmalilpi whk'^li iux> nut 
i ruhvidmlL; lUHiivl, prolHblj baatiuo tii^ ■» ta kubU tbat tholr pbbUonUuii wouJd lead totha 
-■" — '— "TilliidiuU. And tfas laav widncrt nopliiiran d "-- - 



ll.iWidUie I 



iXH 



.. I.MorDHirliTlialfBnimiDB iterlinB; OBit oobub AAtOB, trliliita walhoilld bin iu[]«j(ed la naud 
'ir<[. tmt whtoh hu bat onljF Iwo-Ofttia •■ maDh oi BudUUla ; Wigui, whnua llu Si>( err oT man 
iIiAinm jvuH, BtAuda thinl ; fbllowed b; Holton, wlian tia dlfUw wu not at uiy timo HtlcuJu'lf 
jnren; UldtaBiD, wba«oii<-ftranhorthainhtUui>touadDp«idiiit duOHpndvUon ofmiichiDiiT, 
UJDU* DcM ; inUtnnd hIomIt bj BaUbrd. iiblch hu lUSgnd modi man hmiliT Oaa llu ilMar 
butnnfb, HuK:bBrtu; Okmop. tlia iwin ilniir of Aiblna is Uui iiTari^ of Uw dtatna hmui^ tba 
npunaltiii, utmidii fVTBHth ; aut Burr, auothar partUiljr wfloaBO mauiiBiDtaiingtawri, fbUcmi tJoHly 
afla-. nw>iniplD]unar8tdokiii«,irlKi,Judgliwfr«ii (he pnwaa o/ th* Isvn, han Wn 1«> ftrtn- 
iinU than (bail n^hbtnm in paM tinui, aasai Uto la baro miifcnd lai dulni tba criiili, Ibr Oiiir 
l,"rciii^ nEaDila jiinlb on tiia liat; Boinler baiug baotb; wbUat (ha loiaflaof Ihandualbiiig towna 
aTilBM w haw bMi almoat liuJgrianant. WghaTacinalbaretiiiiuiuidsribs whole of tbe •cbniulaa. 
At bha douMa raaaoD Ibal wa aroid Ibarabf an* alEnBtim of uAdal radmas *^ prDTide mattir 
whlubniay boHftarbaTaloablaflirndhiwioB: but oorownaalnibhUauaraooDfliMaUi tba ratuna 
uodei •dbsdnb D, whkb a^iUaa in paittonlu la lumiiHi ondK taOm and fuliwiuui. 



FACTS OP THE COTTON FAUIXE. 



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mCOME TAX TABLES. 



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FACTS OP THE COTTOS FAJUXE. 










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INCOME TAX TABLES. 



381 



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rjLCTS OF THE 


COTTON FAltlBC. 


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INCOME-TAX KETURNS. 383 

During the cotton famine, 77te Times boasted that the cotton 
trade, although important, was not everytliing, and that it was evi- 
dent the country could do without Lancashire. These income- 
tax returns make it evident that Lancashire capital has followed 
the demand, and has made profit elsewhere ; and that, so far as the 
people who pay income tax are concerned, Lancashire itself seems 
as if it could almost do without its staple industry. Of course tlie 
returns given, being confined to townships, can only be understood 
as specimens ; but assuming that they cover one-third of the cotton 
district, it would appear that, whilst the losses of employers in the 
staple trade were, up to the end of 18G4, £27,000.000, the people 
who pay income tax had amongst them made up nearly four-fifths 
of the loss. 

There are, however, four exceptions to be taken to the conclu- 
sions shown by these figures: — First, the losses consequent on the 
peace panic — which occurred in the last quarter of ISG+i and which 
recurred on the establishment of peace in 1865 — will not tell upon 
the income tax until the returns for 1866 and 1867. Second, 
great losses never show to anything like their fidl extent in income- 
tax returns. A man who has been used to pay upon £20,000, may 
be ruined by losing £100,000, and his return ia nil. Yet, if there 
be anything left, the officers take the returns of this man for the 
two previous years, and charge him upon one-third of £40,000 ; so 
that the income-tax return shows a loss upon £6,0G7 only, not 
upon £120,000, which is the real loss of income. Third, the com- 
missioners intimate that they are subject to great frauds, and it is 
quite possible that, where incomes are extraordinarily large, per- 
sons may not pay upon the whole : firat, because they do not wish 
the extent of their incomes to be known : second, under the idea 
that, having once paid upon a large sum, it will not be easy to 
satisfy the officials with a less amount in future. And, Fourth, 
the districts of the surveyors have lately been subdivided, and it 
is probable that keener oversight has brought many persons upon 
the lists who have heretofore been overlooked. 




TheFJaxTttidB— Calico i.i!r»i«Lia«Q — Irish Energy Eihibited in FUlx Cnllinitim 
Retunmof Cultivation. »nd Imports of FU< Wid Yunis— Increase M Trsda— J 
BAbart Kane aX the Sooivly of Art»'Ii<tiirB of Siiianing Mills, Mid Wi^a 
OperatiTcB — ThsV^lue of a Mill *t Two PoriodB -Estimate of thaGMUB of Pli 
Spuuiers auJ Manufacturers by the Cotton Famine. 

The Irish famine of 1846, awept away tens of thousands of th« 
people intxi premature graves, and drove away a peasantry, wh9 
were almost as devoted to the soil of their native land as to 
natural parents, thus reducing the population of Ireland by aboul 
one fourth. Yet, in connection with this great scourge, there w 
one consolation ; it helped to repeal the English com lavs, and 
establish the Irish Encumbered Estates Court; thus equalisii 
the price of corn, except for the differences of freight, all ovsr tJ 
world ; and furnishing the means for improvements at home, 1 
giving good titles to laud which was otherwise unsaleable. England ~ 
has gained largely by the commercial policy which the Irish famine 
tielped to inaugurate, and Ireland has got back a considerate 
instalment of the debt, out of the distress in Lancashire. linen 
cloth, which had almost disappeared from the wardrobes and 
bedrooms of the middle and working classes, has again becotnt^ k 
necessity for common wear ; and it was a frequent occurrence, during J 
the cotton famine, to see drays loaded with linen yams in Uan* 
Chester streets. In ordinary times, a calico at sixpence pea- yaii 
is laigely used for shirts and for sheets, but when it l>ecame neon- 
sary to pay a shilling for a worse article, people preferred to atiel^ i 
a point, and buy a hnen at fifteenpence, which would at once grutiff 
the requirements of fashion, and outwear the calico. So a portion 
of the activity of Lancashire was transferred to South Yorkabir* , 
and Bamsley and Keighley operatives made up by their inrreasBJ 
activity for the enforced idleness of the weavers of Ash ton, Stockpori, 
and Wigan. "Bonnie" Dundee also gained largely by the scarcity of 
cotton and cotton waste ; but the greatest advantage woe to Uic 



IRISH EMEROT IN FLAX CULTIVATION. 



north of Ireland, where the numbers of spindles and looms rapidly 
increased, whilst new mills were built to meet the great demand, 
which arose out of the cotton famine. 

Whatever may he said of the slothfiilnesa of the inhabitants of 
the south and west of Ireland, no want of energy can be charged 
against the people of the north, for they went earnestly to work 
at their peculiar industry, so soon as an extra profit waa tolerably 
certain to follow their exertions. The following table, contributed 
by the Belfast chamber of commerce, will show the progress of 
flax cultivation during the last tliree years : — 



186! 


147.957 


30,000 


166! 


160,070 


20,000 


I86S 


BU,099 


60,000 


ISG4 


301,943 


80,000 



During the same period the imports of scutched flax and codilla of 
flax, into the United Kingdom were as follow : — 



Y«n. 


CwW. 


V«lne 


PwCirt. 


1661 


1,333.679 


XB,4a3,I37 


61a. 4d. 


1862 . 


. 1,798,851 . 


3,208,993 . 


. 67i. loa. 


1863 


. . 1,453,96! 


4,371.069 


&lEL Si. 


1864 . 


1,842,947 


6.383,360 . 


67«. 4d. 



The economy of labour in the production of linen yarns appears 
to have made great progress during the last decade. Ten years 
ago, nine or ten leas per spindle per week of No, 30's yarn waa 
considered good work ; but in 1865 eighteen teas per week of the 
same number were produced. The bundle is made up of two 
hundred leas. In linen, aa in woollen, the spindles were not equal 
to the work to be done ; and foreign countries were called upon 
for increasing quantities of yam, the imports being in — 



68,866 
1,038,373 
3,997.106 
3,04O,9G3 



£3,268 
62,320 
146.330 
143,449 



li. lid. 
li. Old. 

oi. aaa. 

U. Sid. 



It is not in these islands alone that linen has taken the place 
of calico, for our Irish neighbours have very considerably increased 
their foreign trade, and are making the luxury of linen more widely 
known, and probably creating an enlarged permanent demand for 
the fruits of their induatiy ; an operation which will be much more 



TACTS OF THE COTTON FAStTSK. 

_ serviceable to them, than either the retention of the mimic court i 
Beroy, or the abolition of any ooe of their peculiar " j 
e exports of linen yaros have been as folloir : — 

la. Id. 
Is. ltd. 
l*.Sid. 

lB.5|d. 

Tbua an increased export of forty-four per cent has been estab- 
lished, at prices which, compared with 1861, leave a large margin 
of profit A corresponding increase has also taken place in thft 
exports of manufactured goods, as the following table will show 



. . I7,98I,M3 . 


. £1,622.21 6 


. . 31.659,a44 . 


I,853,U) 


. . 38,463,030 


S,6»,«H 


. . M,610.9«7 


3,010,109 



Tt«». 


Y«Jfc 


VJtu,. 


firTiwd. in 


18«1 


116.3a2,«9 


£3,853.»« 


7Sd. 


1B63 


167,794,613 


5,133,936 


7gd. 


1B63 


181,637,800 


6,508,953 


Sid. 


18U 


309,850,714 


7,691,536 


m a 



Other linen manufacturing countries have felt the pressoieii 
the cotton famine, and, although they have managed to send 
increased quantities of yam to the best market in the world, havs 
been obliged to use up at home moat of the produce of their own 
looms. The imports of linen manufactures have been a£ follow :— 



fl!3,l46 
140,784 
103,908 
140,386 



Sir Robert Kane, at the the Society of Arts, 14th Decemb«», 
1864, stated that in Dublin, in Cork, and in Waterford, woollen ' 
and worsted mills that had been abandoned, had resumed work, that 
mills already in action had augmented their numbers of looms and 
spindles, and new mills were being erected. Where there existed 
nine mills in 1851 there were forty-three in 1863. 

Many mills had been altered from cotton to flax spinning aod 
weaving, in order to meet the increased demand for linen gooda 
Tliis had been the case to a groat extent with the factories of Mesan 
Pim, at Diiblin, and Messrs. Malcolmson, at Waterford, The lattec, 
firm employed, in the manufactory and machine departments, abont 
three thousand hands. Sir Robert gave the following return of 
flax apiouing mills in Ireland . — 



spmynra hills Airo ■wages of operatives. 



FtAi SriHinu Hiua w Iuuhd. 




SpindlH. 






91,3S0 


74 660.7*4 


8,8«0 


Sot W work ioiUy. ISM. . 80,638 . 




Employed in makiiiK thrsid . 14,M8 


— 


fi milla erecting to conUin . 45,000 


— 


L»» TowM Loom. 




l™™. 






609 


42 „ ., 8,187 


208 



PrefHiring foe work in Mmf t,6SS . , — 

By hand spiniiiD^ and weaving, Messrs. Stchardsons, of Lisbum, 
turned out a few years ago from fifteen thousand to twenty thousand 
pieces of goods in twelve months. They now deliver two hundred 
and fifty thotftand pieces of bleached goods per annum. The 
return of wages quoted by Sir Robert was ns follows : — 

On tbe domaitic wbeel Troni 3>, 6d. lo 4i. per week ; laperior hand* 6i. to Sa. 

Uuid loom, Ga, to 7r, wnUj; an expert girl on two power looma, 

10b. per week oloar. 

The progtess of Belfast in ten years had been as follows :-^ 

Tav. EHrLoruarr ix Baij>uT. Paneiu 

1864 Employed in Belhat and ndghbonrbood . . 17,000 
1864 ., „ „ . . 25.000 

The cultivation of ftax received an impetus during the war with 
Kussia, but declined again as soon as peace was proclaimed, to rise 
afresh with the cotton famine, as will be seen on comparing the 
following with a former table : — 

Tow, Oaowra op Flu. Aopw umlw Cnlumato. 

1853 During Crimean war 174,679 

IB.'W 91.640 

1863 914,099 

1864 801.942 

Which last item, at thirty-five atones per acre, would give sixty-six 
thousand and fifty tons of produce; and the value of the scutched flax 
■was thus set forth : — 

ViLDE or SconiHSD Fux, 
1864 10.567,970 alonea, at 7a. 6d £3.96!.9S9 

The increased value of linen maoufBctures exported, was given as 
follows ; — Ezrain OP Lwait. 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMIKE. 



The machineiy trade had fairly doubled in extent of I 
and number of handa, and w^^s had increased in the last t 
years from ten to fifteen per cent. 

Lord DuflTerin stated, that a mill offered for sale in 1S62 foi 
£80,000, and then declined, had since been sold for £180.000. 

Ireland is clearly ahead of the linen, aa Lancashire ia of the 
cotton spinDers and mannfacturera of the world ; and, if tbs 
energy of the laat three years be permanently exerted, the 
Emerald Islanders are in no danger of being superseded. It 
may be presumed that flax at the prices of 1S61 paid the farmer, 
as well aa any other portion of bia produce. And it appeals 
that, although no very great rise in cotton took place until 1862, 
yet the same year eatabliahed a riae of eleven shillings and threfr' 
pence per ton average upon flax ; and this rise added aixty-fiv* 
per cent to the land under flax in 1863, and trebled the produc 
the previous year. It is evident that the prospect of profit stimu- 
lated not only to an extra breadth of land being devoted to this im- 
portant staple, but also to more careful cliltivation, and to greatec 
economy in the preparing processes, so as considerably to enlai]^ 
the percentage of avmlable fibre for manufacturing purposes. 
further advance of one shilling per ton took place in 18CS, and tbtl 
cultivation was again extended by forty per cent, giving a further 
increase in the yield of about thirty-three per cent. Even if tbil 
result haa been attained by the substitution of flax for other crop^ 
the farmers will have gained £70,000 thereby, over the price (rf 
the same commodity in 18(>1. 

A^uniing that the prices of 1861 pfud the flax spinners u 
manufacturers, they will have gained, in the additional prices 
yams exported, as follows -. — 

IBflS . at jd. per n, . £67,S3! 

1863 ... nt ajd por lb. ... 440.fiM 

1B« . . »t4id. perm. . 776,3»» 

And OD maniifactared g(M>dH— 

1663 At gd per jard 



, Jd. per yard 
, abont 4J years' trade 



e66.iM 



done in 3 years i to that, auuming that I3{ pei c 
relurna arc prolitf, ai in the cotton 
at 12J per oeot on tbe extra trade 



3,4I4.8U 
lina been, 
of tlis 



GAINS OF FLAX SPINNEES, ETC. 389 

But the linen trade is done much more largely for home con- 
Btimption than for export ; and to get at any approximation to the 
real case, our calculations must include the whole of the produce. 
Adopting this courae, and adding the imports to the computed 
produce of flax in Ireland for each year, we arrive at the following 
statement of the extra profits for the conversion of flax into yam, 
viz.; — 



2861 - ■ . 2,1DS,SSI Bt 4b. S<1. 




ia,696,S43 


1663 . . . 2,&58.%2 at Z5s. Bd. 




3.412.339 


18S4 . . . 3,442,947 it 44i. 4d. 




7.633,034 




18,741,006 


L.W the ojctr»ooit of home-grown Am . . 


£70,000 




And of imported flax 


1,161,689 








l.!3 1,689 



£12,509,317 
Being the extra sum received over the prices of 1861 for the 
conversion of the flax into yam. If, then, we deduct from the 
sum total of flax, the difference between the amounts imported, and 
the amounts exported as yam, the remainder will represent the 
yam left for conversion into linen thread, or into cloth, TheD, if we 
allow one^uarter as much extra profit per pound for manufacturing, 
as has been secured by the flax spinners, the result will be as 
represented in the following proportion, viz. : As the total con- 
sumption of flax (eight millions three hundred thousand two 
hundred and sixty-six hundredweights) is to the amount left for 
manufacture (seven millions three hundred and seventy thousand 
two hundred and fifty-nine hundredweights), bo is one-quarter of the 
extra profit on yams (£3,127,329) to the extra profit on the manu- 
facture (£2,776,926). The extra profiti of the employers in the 
linen trade arising out of the enhanced prices caused by the cotton 
famine may therefore be taken roughly at £15,000,000, less fifteen 
or twenty per cent for waste. In addition to the profits of the 
employers, must be added about £3,000,000 for wages to the 
operatives, for the extra trade which has Ijcen done in the last four 
years. This total sum of fifteen millions has been shared by York- 
shire and by Scotland ; but the greater portion of it has gone to 
Ireland ; and such a gift of fortune ought, being entirely in addition I 

to ordinary income, to be well invested, and to find perm&n^^^J 



390 



FACTS OF THE COTTON TAMISK. 



emplojment for one hundred thouBand workpeople ; wbo^ 
their dependants, wouid represent two hundred and fifty tbi 
persons, rising into permanent prosperity, out of the aaffenn^ 
their Lanca£hire brethren. 

That we have not over estimated the profita of tlie empltiyen; 
will be proved by the following list of prices for standait] litxa 
goods, supplied by a leading manufacturer in Scotland, tbnxigt^ 
Mesers. Potters and Taylor, of Manchester : — 



Pu™ o 


P TwBlfTI-lHKB ImCH TiuBTT PMTU* D0WI.U. 


1863. Ufk7 e 


e,-^. 


per yard. 


1863 OotobeT28 


W. papH. 


Aagnet 13 


6|d. 




1S6«. Jumary 27 


IH- 




m- 


„ 


M>rohd . 


7Jd. 


September 9 


6Jd. 


„ 


Jane 20 . 


8d. 


1S63. Juno 33 . 


6H. 




July 29 . 


Bid. 


Augnsi 5 . 


e,M. 




Oolobera* 


78d. 


September 16 


m- 




I86S. Manb 31 


6id. 


October 12 


m- 


" 


June 23 . 


- 6Jd. 


pBim or Tm 


arwTwo Ifch TwiEnr-nro POvnn Tow 


iawmmo. 


lem. Majs 


in. 


perjud. 


1863. October 28 


«d- F«Ty«rl 


Angiut 13 


4|d. 


„ 


IBM. Janasry 37 


6H 




*ad. 




March 8 . 


6ftd. 




Sid. 




Jane 3D . 


65d, 


1863. June 23 . 


sad. 




JtUy 39 . 


Td. 


AugoitS . 


6fld. 


„ 


October 24 


6Jd. „ 




6d. 


„ 


1866. March 21 , 


6fL „ 


October 12 


6id. 


" 


June 33 . 


fid. 


PaicM or TaiBTit 


tSX I»OB TwWWTt 


■I08T PCWTBB B«oini F 


i-ax SBaanro. 


1363. May 8 


ejd. 


per yard. 


1963. October 28 


9H. poryiri 


Anpiit 13 


6Hd 




1864. Jannarya? 


9d. 




6ttd. 


„ 


HarohS . 


9W. 


6eptoinUr9 


7Ad. 


„ 


Jam 20 . 


Sid. 


1863. JuueS3 . 


7V.d. 




Jaly 3>l 


9Jd. 


Augusts . 


TUd. 


„ 


October 34 


Sid. . 


BeplBinber 15 


8id. 


„ 


1866. March 21 . 


'id. 


October 12 


9d. 


„ 


June 33 . 


8d. 


•■nurtf 


poUrniB 


iM thirty lhn™U of Burp to tha ini* to » 


iMh. 



These returns show a rise in price between May, 1802, and Jaif, 
1864, of about sisty per cent, so that the rise may be bid] i 
averaged at thirty per cent over the whole period. 




The WooUcn and Worated Tradea— Progr«5 of Hfihty-five Teara— Wttgea in ISOO, and 
1833, nnd IBSS-Mr. Buiiiea. M.P., on the WixJlen Trnde-Tiw Trouble frf Lan- 
CMhire the Opportunity of yortahire — The IncrtMtd Importsof 1862-4 — Eximrts 
if Yanuaod ManufitctuRd Gooda— ThePrioeaf SlBmimg in lSfil'4~YorkBliire 
Qaina by the CatCon Famine. 

Nest in the rate of progress to the cotton manufacture, during 
the present century, must rauk the woollen and worsted industry 
of the West Riding of Yorkshire, which is its principal seat The 
imports of foreign and culonial wool in 1771 , were one million eight 
hundred and twenty-nine thousand seven hundred and seventy-two 
pounds; and in 1856, the amount was one hundred and sixteen 
million two hundred and eleven thousand three hundred and 
ninety-two pounds, being an increase of six thousand two hundred 
and fifty per cent The total exports of raw wool, at this latter 
period, amounted to forty-one million fifty-eight thousand five 
hundred and sixty-seven pounds, leaving seventy-five million one 
hundred and fifty-two thousand eight hundred and twenty-five 
pounds, in addition to the total home-growth, to he spun or 
manufactured. 

At the beginning of the present century, the spinning of wool 
and worsted was all done by hand, on a single- thread wheel, and 
the cost for twenties yam, as given by Mr. James, was from nine- 
pence to a shilling per pound; the spinner earning about two shil- 
lings and sixpence per week. A girl of fifteen years, being a good 
spinner, would spin nine or ten hanks per day, of five hundred and 
sixty yards each, for a halfpenny per hank, or sis shillings per gro« 
The first worsted mill was built in Bradford, in the year 1800. . ud 
wages about that period ranged as follows: — 



CoBbcr. . . 


. i!«. oa. 




WMTera . . 


. 10.. Od. 


For * ftiU week. 


Women, Splnnera . 


. S». Od. 




Qiilf , Spinnen . 


U.6d. 





FACTS OF THE COTTOS FAMINE. 




In 1819, a first-rate banil-lotan weaver would weave three "l 
backs" of forty set, in a week, and would earn thirteat- 
and sixpence. One power-loom wijl now weave five 
in a week; and allowing eleven shillings and threepence for 
one aliilling and sixpence for the cost of room and power, and 
shillings and sixpence for interest of capital, the whole coet 
working will be fifteen shillings and threepence, as against twen^ 
two shillings and sixpence by hand-loom weaving. A compAiisoft 
of wages by hand and mill work in 1833 was made as follows^ 




Wiau BT Haicii Wou, 18!3. 



Warpen . .12* M. 

GirlB, 9 to 11 years 2a. 3d. t 
Giili, U opvFBrdB . 8b. Od. t 



Hiu Wou, 1633. 

. 409. Od. 
. 37«. U. 
. ea. Od. 



WoneD, Bee]«s . IPs. Od. 



Sorten— 
Oreriookera 

Combere — 

Orerlooken . . 40b. 01. 

Ucn . . . . I6a. Sa. 

Boyg . . . 
Proparora— 

Orerlookert 

YoDDg Wotnea 
Spiiinwi — 

Orarlooken . 

Boj». . . 1 

Girli ... I 
B«elen — 

Overlookeri . 

Young WaiD«ii 
WarebooMtneii . 



7«.0d. 

a7«. OJ. J 

Sa-Od. ^^^H 

15s. Od. ^^^1 

4>.7d. ^^^1 

lOi. Od. ^^^1 
ISa. Od. tan«.0l 



WetrDre . . . !!«. Id. to 13b. 

All the economy which has been effected in production in Hu 
woollen, as in the cotton manufacture, is due to macLinery ; fa 
weekly wages have not suffered any depression. In 1838 tha 
number of pieces of woollen and worsted goods exported, was 
million three hundred and fifty-eight thousand nine hundred aixt 
eighty-four; and in 1856 the trade had increased to two mtlUi 
two hundred and nineteen thousand and ninety pieces ; an i 
of sixty -three per cent in eighteen years in the export trade alonti 
But to form a correct estimate of progress, the increased hofoe 
population supplied with woollens must also be taken into aoeounfc 
The increase of population was about twenty-five per cent in tha 
period referred to ; 'but the improved circumstances of the people 
would doubtless render them better customers to the woollca 



MR. BATNES. M.P., ON THE WOOLLEN TRADE. 393 

merchEuits, and it la probable that the espanaion of tbe home trade 

would be nearly as great in proportion as in the export trade. Mr. 

E. Baines, M,P., gives the following return of wagea in 1858 : — 

Wi.oiB 11 A Leeds Wodllek Faotobf. . 

tOOUsn . . avenging !2». Sd. weekly . . £!23 10 

40 Bays ■ averaging 6r. 8 d. weekly . . 13 6 8 

330 Women and fiilB OTeraging 8«. Od. weekly . . 132 I) 



ATerageof the wtiole, \2i. lid. weukly; overlookcra beiag exclnded. 
In an establish m en t in the shoddy district, comprising manufactur- 
ing and finishing, the average wages of five thousand four hundred 
and eight operatives, was fourteen shillings and a penny weekly. Id 
a spinning mill at Pudsey the hands averaged eleven shillings and 
sevenpence-halfpeuny ; whilst in the cloth-dressing establishments 
at Leeds the average was fifteen shillings and tenpenoe per week. 

"It's an ill wind that blows nobody good," says the old proverb; 
and the trouble of Lancashire has been the opportunity of York- 
shire. A considerable proportion of tbe cotton trade depends 
upon the cheapness of the articles produced. In ordinary times, a 
cotton moleskin jacket at seven shillings and sixpence would be as 
warm, and would give as much wear, as a coarse woollen one at 
twenty shillings ; and the cotton garment has the further advantage 
that it may he washed without injury to the material. But fashion 
dictates the wearing of woollen garments, and if the price of the 
cotton jacket be materially raised, the advantage which secures its 
preference is lost; and the woollen garment will naturally be substi- 
tuted. So whilst one-half of the machinery of Lancashire was for 
three years idle, every spindle and every loom in Yorkshire was 
increasingly busy ; the absence of cotton increased the demand for 
woollen and worsted goods, and whilst the raw material was 
imported in considerably increased quantities, the demand for 
manufactured goods increased so greatly, as to absorb the whole 
supply. The quantities and prices of wool imported during the 
last four years were as follow :— 

IhPOBM op FOBKIOM WooL. 
Tom. 

1861 U7,l72,B*llbi. . £9,717,686 

18Sa 171.943,472 Ibi, . . 11,773,943 
18S3 177,377,6641U. . . 11,884,573 
laM S0e,473,04fi Ibi. . . 15,733,808 




394 FACTS OF THE COTTON TiXmZ. 

Thus the imports of 1862 were sixteen per cent in excess of 
1861, with a rise of nearly one penny per pound ; whilst a t'lirth^, 
increase of three per cent in 1863-4 either brought in a lot of veij 
low quality wool, or more than met the demand in quantity ; foe 
imported wool was nearly twopence per pound lower average in 1864 
than in 1861. As there was a considerable rise, during the 
period, in the price of English wools, the probability is tliat the ex* 
cess of imports consisted of very low qualities, and so reduced th* 
averse price. This probability is rendered more evident by tbt 
imports of 1864, which were forty per cent over those of 186J| 
.at nearly twopence per pound reduction. 

The woollen, like the cotton trade, seems to have reached a eol* 
minating puiut in I860, for the imports of wool fell off by a mtUion 
of pounds in 1801, and prices also declined twopence three-faitJun^ 
per pound at the same time. Apart from the occurrence of 
cotton famine, employment must have fallen off in Yoi^shire, at 
well as in Lancashire, as is evidenced by the reilucUon in price 
from 1860 to 1861 ; but the deficiency of cotton brought in two 
million of pounds more sheep and lambs' wool in 1862 than in 
1861, at a rise of nearly three-farthings per pound, or a little mwre 
than half a milhon sterling, over the cost of the Siune quantity in 
1861. And iu 1863 the increase was about twenty per cent in 
quantity, and the cost £369,536 more than the aame quantity would 
have cost in 1861. But Yorkshire spindles were evidently uopquftl 
to the demand upon them, especially for very fine yams ; for tJis 
increased importation of these was nearly fifty per cent in 1 8)j2, and 
nearly 200 per cent in 1863, as compared with 1861, without auj 
sensible diminution in price, as the following table will show >— 
IxpoiTi or WooLLEi «in> Woutid Tinm. 

1861 1,977,091 lb«. . . X36S,5&B . . 4*. T^d. 

IBCa 2,2+1.701 lbs. . . 5U,7U . . 4». Td. 

1863 4,eiG,386lbi. . . 1,039,117 . . is. $ii. 

1864 4,663,467 Ibi. . . _ . . — I 

And an increase took place at the same time in the imports of 
woollen manufactured goods, showing that the Yorkshire looms, lila 
the spindles, were unequal to the work which was required to be 
done. The following table represents the impotta of manufactnted 
goods for three years : — 

1661 £I,4ie,336. ISO Xl,5T4,i81. I8U tifiitJtH- 



i 



EXPORTS OF TAHNS AND GOODS. 



395 



A glance at the exports of sheep and lambs' wool, of home 
growth, during the same period will fiirther enlighten ua as to the 
intense activity of the West Riding of Yorkshire : — 



9 Luiua' Wool — Bunia, 



£1,143,858 


£756,310 


£6ea,3co 


£695.802 


•t I7H 


at 17Sd. 


MSOd. 


Btaijd. 


5,716,888 lb. 


lO,200.M41b. 


8,320,214 th. 


7,860,616 lb 



No raw wool could be spared for export, the home demand was 
so great, that it used up ail which could be obtained. But, after 
conversion into yam, ao as to secure a profit to the spinner, there 
was no objection to export ; and whilst the price of foreign wool 
had scarcely moved upwards, and imported yams had actually fallen 
slightly in price, the coarser home-spun yams were exported in 
increased quantities, and at improving prices, year by year, as the 
following table will show : — 

ElPOBIS or WOOLLES Yaihb. 

isei- isiii 1903. i8st 

27,512,352 tb. 27,821,378 tb. 32,&42,9091b. 31,926,865 Ih. 

>t2*. 6jU. &t2a. 9d. fit .ts. 1^. at 3b. 4Jd. 

£3,652,&76 £3,852,998 £5,087,293 £5,423,163 

And a similar rate of progress, both in quantity and in price, was 
secured in the exports of manufactures, the increase in quantity 
being thirty-two per cent in 18G3, and forty-seven per cent in ISQi, 
over the exports of 18til. 

EXFORTH OP WOOLLKR IKD WoBETID UAZtVACTIIUK. 



164,398,181 7da. 167,000.390 jrdB. 217,160,790 yda. 241,464,954 ; da. 

■tli.4d. at U.Sid. sill. 5d. >t li. 6gd. 

£11,116,692 £i8,14a,43) £16,489,604 £18,666,078 

Thus, it will be seen that the increase of exports hardly made itself 
fult in 1862 ; for only in the end of that year did cotton goods ri«e 
materiaJly in price ; but, in 1803, the increase was thirty per cent, 
■With a further increase of eleven percent in 1864, when the exports 
exceeded those of 1861 by forty-seven per cent. 

The following table, showing the prices of home-grown wool 
for four years, ending 1864, has been supplied by Messrs. James 
Altroyd and Son, of Halifax : — 



ricre or the oottos ruast. 



ttiSwmMn MKwm ras Pdob or W<ml. r. 

iwi, tMi. ia«. ti 

iMMrrtM nik-a 

IMI. Jt •. d. < » 

UaMla B«fi (pcrfMlt) 18 n fi 



IS T 
II 15 I 
18 ' 



i 



>t S • 

tt u • 

IS s 



tl IC 
19 I* 

18 i<» a 

IB to 

S4 6 4 

!1 

3S 1 I 



U>ii!i>ln llogi „ 10 15 S3 5 21 1 

liiiooln Watbnn „ r? 15 D 31 & II 19 1 

IrlJtb Wstlisri „ 17 ! 6 30 <> 18 1 

K«nt Wsthara „ IH 15 SQ 15 19 1 

I HAS. 

Utionin lluf(( „ S3 3S 10 S4 

Uoooln Wstbon „ 30 10 34 32 

Iriah Wotlian „ 30 6 3-10 33 

KmI Wotlian „ SO 10 2t tO 32 1 

1804. 

Unonlo Il'ift* „ 39 31 10 30 I 

Llnoola Wotliuri „ 3B 10 il 37 10 33 1 

IrEah WsHidti „ 34 38 3li 

Kglit Wotliori „ 34 38 26 

Avnmgiiij{ tlio wlio!« of Uie sorts in each year, we find the cost of 
wool to Imve lioon in ISOl.one shilling and sevenpence jier pound: 
in I8((2. ono HhilUng and Bovenponce three farthings ; in 18G3, on" 
tdiiUing and teupunce-halfpenny ; and in 1S64, two shillings anJ 
ihroopi'iico por pound. A trade which can stand a rise of fortj- 
four jHTCont in thu price of raw material, and still flourish, must be 
viM-y sound ; and that York.shire did stand it and flourish, the neit 
tublo, which is also aiipplieil hy Messrs. Akroyd, will demonstralc; 

Sn,nHMn Mmwiira Pbioh or Wohtid Tammi m rwnat, cruao rmtm 

1861. lees, ises, amu issi. 



1 •«-, 


WW. 


~ i - I 


OacUSD^ .. 


K A kd 
t D|to>> 

> 111 MS 11 


■. d. ■. 4. 
t 1 ID 9 li 

teiMSH 

SOftoSW 


3 S]<«>^ Is » ttl* 1 

3 10} M 3 11 1 3 «i M 1 ai ■ 

3 4to49 |4«(M»1 ^ 



Notwithatinding the extraoidiauT prices at wool. «b faA 
t>r ttmn^iit^ alt tbesn jtms, from tens to fortiee, tbmt (he Mi 
tur (■piumn)!: inCRUeil emrj yeAr. Thus, io 1861, tbe cHfl 
^ fiirspiaau^aponwlof yBnieJeT«opeiie«li>l^ieeny;ial 



TOUKSHISE GAINS BY TIIE FAMINE. 



397 



he got one shilling and five-eighths of a penny ; in 18C3, he got 
one shilling and twopence; and in 18C-1<, he got one shilling and 
fivepence. 

Now, if we aaaume that the woollen and worsted trades in 1861 
paid a fair profit, we may, by comparing the later years with it, 
form an approximate estimate of the gains of Yorkshire out of the 
distress in the neighbouring county. Thus, if two shillings and 
sixpence three farthings per pound was a fair paying price fur 
the yarns exported in 1861. the following table will show the extra 
receipts under that head for 1862-3-4 : — 



1862 27.811,378 ft. 

1893 33,M!.600 lb. 

18M 31,B26,855tb. 



; o« Tun Errasno. 

Vulna. 
It SJd. jE3eD,S67 

itfiid. 881,363 

itSd. 1,197,237 



NeMly 11 pore 
ar Brags. 



So, if two shillings and fivepence per yard waa a fair price for 
woollen cloth piece goods in 1861, the following table will exhibit 
the gaina upon subseciuent exports thus : — 



1B6S 35.400,970 yarda a 

1863 !7,7B2,256 yards o 

ISM 29,786,888 7&rdB a 



fH7,504 
607,299 
879,3*3 



6 per cent avGrige. 



The gain on blankets and flannels exported seems to have been 
but small, the price per yard in 1861 and 1862 being the same, 
namely, one shilling and sixpence and five-eighths of a penny; 
but the demand in the latter year was greater by thirty-three 
per cent. In 1863 the price rose only seven-eighths of a penny' 
per yard, and a further five-eighths of a penny in 1864; so that 
the gain would be: — 

Tordi Tdua. Inonais of tndo. 

Abont 33 pec oent 
areraKe. 

The demand for carpets and dru^ets appears to have increased 
considerably, but not to have secured any considerable advantage 
in price. In 1861 the exports were : — 

Youi Tu^ Oala In Prign, Quia in Ttsile Eipoita. 



Y™r. 


Ymi1» 




Y»lu«. 


1863 


17,311.400 a 


3d. 


£63,114 


186* 


18,142,717 a 


IJd. 


113.391 



I8«l 


4.0B7.351 at 2s. 


6d. 


_ 


1862 


5,378,662 at 2a. 


6d. 


— 


1863 


6,257,993 at Sb. 


7d. 


£26.074 


16fl* 


5,988,688 at 2a. 


lid. 


124,763 



PACTS OP THB COTTOS' PAMWE. 



In worsted goods great advantages have accrued, for it is 
that the substitutes for cotton prints have beon found. T1m| 
eiportfi in 1801, under the stimulus of the French treaty, werev 



OilD in Prloa. 



OalnlnTndaK 



1B6L ]3a,QBfi,6[l8 at Hid. 

1863 118,812,137 Ktllgd. 

1863 165,835,112 at UA. 

1864 IST.B66,71Satl3Jd. 

These various aums make a total gain in the prices of expoiC 
goods, as compared with 1S61, of ^5,852,710, iirespectiTe of 
increase of trade averaging at least twenty-eight per cent. 

We have not been able to arrive at any reliable estioiate at 
the proportion of the foreign to the home trade. Mr. Baine* 
estimates the total production of the trade in 1858 at £20,290,079; 
but this estimate is evidently very much below the mark, becauM 
it is incousistent with his own return of the quantity of home-gromi 
wool. It is founded upon the followiiig calculation for 1858: 



Foreign and colonial wool 
Britiih wool . 
8hodd; and mmigo . 



75,903,666 Ik. 
80,000,000 tb. 
45^00,000 n>. 

200,903 .666 ttk 



But the foreign wool left for home consumption in 1859 was one 
hundred and four million one hundred and aoventeen tfaousani] 
eight hundred and eighty-four pounds ; and the amount of British 
wool exported was nine million fifty-four thousand one hundml 
and Jifty-one pounds ; which, deducted from Mr. Barnes's own esti- 
mate of the growth, viz., one hundred and seventy-five millioor 
pounds, would leave a total for manufacture iuto yam and doth 
of two hundred and seventy million one hundred and seventy-seven 
thousand eight hundred and eighty-four pounds, without any 
allowance for British shoddy. So that if the quantity given by 
Mr. Baines produces the value set down by him, the real quantity 
manufactured in 18-59 would produce £27,286,359 ; and if we 
assume the profits, as in the cotton trade, at twelve and a half 
per cent on the returns, then the twenty-eight per cent average 
increase of trade during the last three years, which is mainly due to 
the cotton crisis, will have added nearly .£3,000,000 to the amount 
1 above. But this ia not all ; for .£1,609,000 per aim 



TOBKSHIEE OAJHS BT THE FAMINE. 



been added to the wages fund, so that the total gain of the woollen 
and worsted trades, moat of which has been absorbed by York- 
shire, is as follows : — 

Otia ID price on three gears' eiport« .... £S,8A!,710 
Gain in price on thieo years' bame trade, at otto and A 

balf times the exports 8,779,(166 

Qain on twenty-eight per oent increase of trtds M 

nonoal profits, lay twelra Bni] abalfpei cent . . 818,639 

Extra wages paid . . - 1,609,000 

£18,960,364 

And the British farmer has had his harvest increased by the 
distress of the Lancashire operatives ; for whilst the relief fund has 
prevented his suffering much in the price of grain, he has reaped 
the following substantial benefit from his growth of wool : — 



a advance of Jd. . . £546,870 

„ 3)d. . . 2,653,083 

„ 8d. . . 5,833,3£3 

Total £8,933,286 



That the above estimate of trade profits is not unreasonable, will be 
proved by another method of calculation. If the total exports of 
wool and of yam be taken from the total imports, the remainder, 
together with the bulk of home-grown wool, may be fairly aasumed 
to have been manufactured. Messrs, Akroyds' tables give us the 
cost of preparing and spiiming in the worsted trade, and it is likely 
that the coat of manufacturing will be about half aa much as that 
of the other processes; whilst, in woollen cloths, the balance will be 
the other way, aa the cost of weaving and finishing, will very much 
exceed that of preparing and spinning. A woollen cloth, at eight 
shillings and ninepenoe per yard, will cost — 



1863 


173,000,000 


1863 


„ 


1664 


„ 



Pot wool 6 2 

Preparing 4} 

Spinniog 2J 

Warping, Wearing, Sat. . . .09 
Finisbiog uii Pcessing . . , 10 
Dyeing 5 

e 9^ 



A 



400 FACTS OF THE COTTON TiLMTSS. 

A flannel at fifteenpence per yard will cost — 

» iL id. 

Wool . . . 7J to li 8i 

Spinning 3^ 

We»»ing Si 

Finishing Oj 



If, therefore, we add fifty per cent to the extra margin of thi 
Der, for the gain of the manufacturer, we shall not err very widelj; 
and the table will stand thus — assuming one hundred and 
millioQ of pounds as the amount of home-grown wool atmiuUf 

manuf actu red — 



1662 
IB63 



!7G,G80,4T7lh.Btl|d. a 
265,490,778 lb. St Sfd. 
!9&,(i62,5e0 tb. Bt 6id. 



Add gftin on juni exported 



£1,873,357 
3.940,878 
S,I98,G34 



And this estimate takes no account of the extra normal profit 
arising from increase of trade, nor of any gain upon the manufac- 
ture of the fine yarns imported, and which are used chiefly for 
waistcoatings ; but there is probably an excess in the calculation, 
arising from the avenge process, because the production of coarse 
yama and cloths will naturally be larger, than of the finer qualities. 
This estimate also excludes the manufacture of British shoddj, 
which, together with material of the same kind imported, exceedi 
thirty million pounds per annum, but It also excludes all allowance 
for waste, and the one item may be set against the other. 

Thus, the trade of Yorkshire has been greatly and profitahlj 
extended, first, by the French treaty in 1860, under which tho 
exports of woollen and worsted manufactures to France, rose kI 
one bound from £607,609 to -£1,0*9,347 ; and since that period stiH 
more, by the sufi'erings of the sistor county, in consequence of 
which the total exports of woollen and worsted manufactures \an 
risen from ^11,118,692 in 1861, to X15,*89,5e4 in 1863, and 
j;i8,566,078 in 1864, or sixty-seven per cent But this good for- 
tune has not been quito all one-aided, for some thousands of cotton 
operatives have doubtless found employment in the worsted trade, 
and it is probable that much Lancashire capital has followed them - 



YORKSmBE GAINS BY THE FAMINE. 401 

the worsted trade has also crossed the borders of Yorkshire, and 
found work for a large number of cotton looms in Lancashire, which 
are now busy producing Orleans, cobourg, and alpaca cloths. The 
mills erected for the manufacture of cotton goods in Warwickshire, 
with the laudable view of finding a secondary occupation for the 
ribbon weavers, have also gone ad viUeri/m into the worsted trade ; 
8o that either a wider permanent market will be necessary for 
worsted goods, or the occupation which promises to pay better 
for the time being, worsted or cotton, will hereafter chiefly obtain 
in these localitiea 



DD 



■■*■- \ 





*TmK CocBon SdpDiY ^wir i tfr i M ii jip i i ii i (1857) m ^m pnt- 

vponttt 

•nr^jiciitfr.'iiii ?:i2ji«:;irj:a :r r*:scrj.i:*»c *IaT^ laboar, as the miin 

Tli-f ii.v7» rtxzruiz fr.Gi :ii*e ifiii .-fcrnTaf rvpon tmlT saTS that 
i-. : r^jzikz^i fr:ci -^m ?f jt^ :i £ pyrtiL>m *y tke irade^ for the 
iiLin;ririr^'.d :::ii'fief:L=^ vis --.i: jir^. ;Mid the sahscripdons did iwt 
inii'rjLrrr iiij TrLie >preiki btfliec ia irs rwoesjatT. And, although it 
'^ins preiiii::<eii ;iu :a-e nir^e'inc zhiZ. ^z (he (hen rate of consumptioB, 
tL-rPr TiMild n-r-c b*r '± bole vc 'X^cton left in Liverpool at Christmai^ 
yet -iQ-r ot the Urp5st niAiiaficatrer? pff«;»ent declined, for want rf 
time, to act apm zh^ co-jLitiii^tee. With the prospect, that in a few 
moaths all his miiLs wo'ili hikve to stop tor want of cotton, he had 
not time to devote to seeking out a remedy for the evil Of suA 
material are the mass of mankind made : the present moment ii 
everything, the future nothing to them ; and it is continualh t» 
the few active, sensitive, and patriotic spirits^ that the world ii 
indfihuA for its onward progress. 

But, nev*;rtheless, there was real need for the active services of 
the as.sf>ciation, even apart from any such catastrophe as the 



ASSISTANCE OF THE FOREIGN OFFICE. 403 

anticipated servile war, or the more serious war of secession, which 
precipitated the trouble of Lancashire, in 1861. Between the 
years 18+0 and 180O, the American cotton crop increased about 
one hundred por cent ; hut during the same term, the number of 
spindles employed in England and on the continent of Europe had 
increased about one hundred and fifty per cent. The United 
States Eoonomiat, as quoted in the report of the Cotton Supply 
Association for 18G0, said : "The question is, whether the United 
States crop is likely to increase in the same ratio as the demand ? 
We do not think it is. We have the soil for producing infinitely ; 
but our labour is already taxed to the utmost of ita producing capa- 
<;ity. • • • Xhe prospect, then, seems to be, that the steady 
increase of the demand, as compared with the crop, will be still 
coutinuetl ; and that, as a consequence, the price of cotton will rise 
to a yet higlier standard" 

The association, although not receiving such support as the im- 
portance of ita object deserved, yet steadily devoted itself to earnest 
work, and opened up correspondence with eveiy tropical and semi- 
tropical country to which it could get access ; and it is only just to 
put upon record the fact that, by the aid of the home government, 
the co-operation of the British consuls throughout the world was 
secured, and that very valuable results accrued therefrom. The docu- 
ments of the association were distributed with the despatches from 
the Foreign Office, and the various consuls were requested to report 
to the association, upon the capacity and adaptabihty of the various 
countries and climates where they were stationed for the growth 
of cotton. The association thus collected most valuable informa- 
tion from all quarters, and learned how, most profitably, to expend 
their energies. 

In the report for 1 862, we read : " A prize of from ^30,000,000 
to £40,000,000 per annum is at the present moment offered by the 
trade of Lancasliire, to be competed for by all nations capable of 
growing cotton ; together with innumerable social and commercial 
advantages, resulting from successful competition. Never in the 
history tif nations was so magnificent an opportunity for national 
aggrandisement afforded to tropical countries, as that which is now 
presented through the failure of our supplies from the Southern 
States of America." This is rather grandiloquent in style, but 
India has since proved the truthfulness of its basis, for to the 



J 



purduwe d 
ilsicm woali 



404 PACTS OF THB COTTON FlXtVE. 

increaaed porehases of cotton nt (amine prices for LaQCsslpn 
Bpiiidka Slid looms, is msinlT owing the coaversioa of the dc&dt m 
the leveDoe of that country into a earploa. 

It is poadblc that if the trade could have been induced I» 
Bohscribe £1,000,000 for a joint-stock oompaDV, to establiidi agesa 
in all cotton producing countries with power to purchase d 
proper prices all the st^e which they could la; hold of^ 
diate result would have been better than has yet beeit> 
And if the cotton so purchased had been bought 
ordinary market price, and had been auctioned amongst 
holders in the company only, a sort of moral compulsion 
have been exercised to eoforce nniversal sapport for the pn^ect 
The association, however, haa lived upon voluntary cnntribotioii^ 
and has confined its operations to the spread of informatioD, to Iha 
distribution of cotton seed, and the improvement <^ the 
for cleaning and packing. This more disiuterested coarse 
given it a better claim to public gvmpathy and to govenm^ 
help ; baa uiuversalised its sphere of operations, and will doubUes 
eventually fix the production of cotton in the most suitable dimatM 
and localities ; for to such will be the victory in the market, 
the supply at normal prices again overtakes the demands of tbt 
trade. And the good done is not confined to England and 
colonies, for seed has been sent in coosiderable quaalitie 
Algoria and other colonies of France ; and the Paris correspondenl 
of The Times, writing in September, 1864, says : "The attempt to 
cultivate Cotton in Algeria, Guyana, and the West Indies, togietho 
with the encouragement given to it by the government, leads the 
manufacturers to hope that, in a few years, there will be suffiaeflt 
cotton grown in the French colonies to supply all their require- 
ments. The consumption during the first three months of I86i 
was one-third more than for the same period of 1863, and only one- 
third less than in the first three months of IStiO," Of coum 
the supply of France, or any other country, direct fTx>Ri U» tin 
colonies, will, by removing that country as a competitor from lk« 
general market, be just as advantageous to England as if die 
home supply was increased by the same amount 

In eight years, the association has dbtributcd ten thnasmd 
huixlred weights of cottonseeds; sent out one thousand twohundnd 
gins, for cleaning the cotton from the seed, prior to its being padtd, 



numd A 
mini a 
«cbiJ 



THE MISSION TO INDIA. 403 

for Hliipment ; and, besides a great number of tiy-wheeld, to be used 
where steam power is not available ; and of saws to supply the 
gins, in case of accident, or destruction by ordinary wear and tear ; 
sixty-two ploughs, and a large number of agricultural implements. 
Its supply of reports and pamphlets may be counted by millions; 
and it has stimulated production and improvement, by the distri- 
bution of eight gold, nineteen silver, and fifty-three bronze medals. 
It has also given prizes for the best essays on the management of 
the cotton plant, and the most improved method for its cultivation. 
Corresponding agencies have been established in Turkey, Italy, 
Egypt, Spain, Portugal, Australia, the Brazils, Paraguay, South 
America, &c., &c. ; and the association " has given careful attention 
to about thirteen thousand letters." 

All the information collected from time to time, pointed to the 
conclusion set forth in the report for 1862: — "India is our chief 
reliance, possessing as it does every element of soil, climate, and 
labour, necessary to furnish us with adequate supplies of cotton." 
In July, 1861, the association, in connection with the Manchester 
Cotton Company, sent out Mr. Haywood, their secretary, as a 
commissioner to India, Tlio government aided this mission by 
sending out Dr. Forbes Watson with Mr. Haywood, and the fol- 
lowing are some of the conclusions reported to the association : — 

" That had land and water communications been more exten- 
sively opened throughout India, the present exports of cotton fr6m 
that country would now have lieen doubled. That the annual 
growth of cotton in India is between four million and five million 
bales. That the rapid completion of the various leading lines of 
railway in India will prove an enormous advantage, by hastening 
the establishment of European agencies in the interior, and by 
bringing the crop down to the ports, before the setting in of the 
monsoon. That branch feeders will be required to connect the 
main lines with the remoter districts. That especial attention ought 
to be given to the construction of bridges upon existing roads, 
and this work would save thousands of miles of circuitous traffic. 
That cotton can be grown in India, and laid down in Liverpool, at 
a less cost than the New Orleans variety; and that the acclimated 
American seed of Dharwar, when properly cleaned, is a fair rival 
to New Orleans cotton. That adequate provision should be made, 
by a sound law, to secure the fulfilment of contracts between the 



406 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 



CDDtractor and producer ; and tliat greater facilities should be pT» 
vided for the settlement of disputes Id th^ courts of the mofnssi 
which are so few, bo inacces-tible, and so Bubject to corruption, a 
to prove an ioauperable barrier to the course of justice." 

In accordance with these coaclusious, we dnd by the report b 
ISG-lr, that the committee of the association made Btrenuous 
in parliament, to obtain for India the adoption of measitr^ 
they believe would have been of great utility ; and subseqaently; 
suggestions were offered to the secretary of state for India, 
secure the services of well-qualified commissioners, in certain d 
tricts ; whose labours should be wholly devoted to the improvemeol 
and extension of the cultivation of cotton, chiefly from exotic seei, 
and to the prevention of adulteration and fraud. 

The interest excited in foreign countries by the work of tbi' 
association was very great. The Turkish government has given Uad. 
rent free and tax free for five years, if devoted to the cultivation 
cotton; and also allows the import of machinery for the ean 
purpose free of duty. 

In Upper Egypt, waste land devoted to the cultivation of oa 
ton, is free from all contributions to the state for ever. TW 
Portuguese government lias ma<le a like exemption for thirty 
years, in respect of land in its possession in India. The seveotli 
report of the association says: "Theindifferenceof our Indian rulet^ 
so strikingly in contrast to the eager solicitude and enlighteDed 
exertions of other govemmeots, still renders the country 
was expected to become the most prolific source of supply, as 
occasion of mortification and disappointment." Sir Charles Wood 
had not only annulled the Canning minute for the redemption 
the land tax and the sale of waste lands ; but when the goveraot 
of Madraa had given to the collectors discretion to remit the 
tax for five years, to holders of not more thaa thirty acres devotcdl 
to cotton cultivation, he also renuested that the iustrucUons 
this subject should be withdrawn. 

It is difficult to understand upim what principle the 
ment of India is conducted, for it seems certain tJiat, if 
encouraged, no better paying crop than cotton could be prodocaJ 
in many parts of that country ; and it is equally certain that 
less such encour^emcnt be given, Indian cotton will fall ttgaio 
of use, either by the cessation of the American war, or by a sapjij 



DIBTRIBDTION OF COTTON SEED. 407 

from the various other countries, to which the efforts of the Cotton 
Supply Association have introduced it ; and that the principal cause 
of the surplus revenue iu India will then have vanished. In 
1861, the association reported fifty-eight new, revived, or increasing 
sources of supply. It is amazing, that whilst Lord Russell, as 
minister for foreign a,fFaii's, so effectually aided the efforts of the 
association, as t» have produced the general impression in foreign 
countries that the gifts of cotton seed were due to the British 
government; and thus secured the utmost attention and help; 
the secretary for India, " the finest jewel in the British crown," 
has acted as if he wished tu exclude the cultivation of cotton from 
a country, which, if properly encouraged, would be able to supply 
with eaae, all which Europe can need for many years to corae. 

From the report for 18Gi-5 we learn that the distribution of 
seed for the year had been two thousand two hundred and ninety- 
eight hundredweights, and that it had been sent to Constantinople, 
Smyrna, Jaffa, Brussa, Acre, Latakia, Trieste, Tlie Caucasus, Wal- 
lachia, South of Spain, France. GreecCj Piraeus, Carrea, Corfu, 
Patras, Zante, Italy, Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Kurrachee, Batavia, 
Penaug, Shangai, Kin Kiang, and other parti of China; Mauri- 
tius, Lejchelles, Natal, West Africa, Siberia, Caraeroons, Mazagan, 
Teneriffe, and various parts of Egypt; Maranham, Peru, Porto Rico, 
Rio Janiero, Rio Grande, West Coast of South America, Berbice. 
Vera Cruz, Gaudaloupe, Tobago, St. Thomas, Antigua, Tortola, 
Cuba, and other Jdaces in the West Indies ; Queensland, Port 
Macquarrie, New South Wales, New Zealand, Navigator's Islands, 
New Hebrides, and Fijii. Turkey would gladly have taken three 
hundred tons of seed and have paid for it, had as much been available. 

And the association received samples of cotton from the three 
presidencies of India, from Java, Rangoon, Bokhara, Queenslajid, 
Western Australia, New South Wales, the West Indies, Cape de 
Verde Islands, Porto Rico, Costa Bico, New Grttnnda, Venezeula, 
Peru, The Argentine Republic. Bahia, Honduras, Brazil, Mexico, 
Cartb^ena, and other places in Central and South America ; Cape 
Coast, Natal, Madagascar. Navigator's Islands, Turkey, Asia Minor, 
Smyrna, Syria, Greece. Italy, Morocco, Algeria, Malta, The Cauca- 
sus, and the United States, Speaking of India, the report says : — 

" Disappointed that so little has been done to render India 
a satisfactory and permanent source of cotton supply, your 




PACTS OP THK COTTON FAMINE. 

commiltei> hare renewed tbeir appeals to the Indian council 
subject ; recapitulating the measures previously recommeadd 
showing by numerous samples that an improved quality can, wil' 
proper care and effort, be grown, and ui^ng that immediate ste\ 
be taken, to preserve the magnificent cotton trade of that coustqi 
Your committee also had an interview with the Right Hononrab) 
W. N. Massey, the new finance minister of India, prior to Ii 
departure, to whom they represented the importance of using nu 
means as might he in his power to promote the desired improw- 
ment in Indian cottou. Whilst these representations were in bo 
cases received with courtesy Mid attention, your committee fe 
that ofiicial procrastination and neglect will continue, until th* 
opportunity which should be used will be irrecoverably lost. 
coasignment of Indian cotton from Dr. Shortt, of Madras, 
recently sold by your association at fourteenpeuce per pound, llM 
value of middling Orleans being at the same date Bfleenpei 
halfpenny per pound ; showing conclusively, in addition to 
evidence, that ludia is capable of producing a quality which w 
bear comparison with that of American growth." 

In the beginning of the year 1 865 the Bombay correspondent 
7%e Times wrote to the following effect : — Up to 1860 the «u 
paid by Europe for the whole cotton export of India was not abovi 
seven millions sterling annually. In 186M the import of bullii 
into Bombay alone, was six and one-third millions sterling, chiefly 
in payment for cotton But in the three following years, EuropI 
paid to India nearly forty millions sterling per annum, one-hal 
of which was in hullion. In Calcutta the trade is almost entirely 
iu the hands of Europeans, the Bengalese playing but a stihordinaU 
part But in Boml>ay the trade is largely in the hands of thi 
caatelcss native Parsees ; and many of them, and a smaller numlia 
of Scotchmen, who a few years ago were petty brokers, ara no 
millionaires. A Hindoo, named Prenichuud Roycbund, lately 
subordinate clerk in an English house on £30 a year, has by daiiiif 
speculation amassed two millions sterling. Rustoojee, the serand 
son of the late Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, who inherited but > 
moderate fortune, has become the millionaire of Bombay, his capiuL 
being reckoned al two and a half millions sterling. Twenty «<" 
cages could be named. Nor is the wealth confined to the morel 
whu acts as middleman between the peasant grower aad the Ii' 



WHIMSICAL T.iSTES. 409 

pool buyer. The ryots of the Bombay presidency were {except 
tLuse of Madras) the most miserable in India : burdened with a 
weight of hereditary debt, which every generation increased, they 
were the veriest bond slaves of the native usurer, who bought their 
crops at hia own price. Now they are rolling in comparative 
wealth, and the occupation of the usurer is gone. All are, according 
to their ideas, comfortably clothed, housed, and fed to the full ; 
and the majority of them indulge in the most whimsical tastes. 
One prides himself on his fine breed of bullocks, for which he has 
p.iid five times the old price ; another rejoices in his riding-horse ; 
wliilst a third has actually used English silver to make tires for 
his cart wheels ! and a worthy farmer in a fe&tive procession exhi- 
bited his wealth by carrying enormous bags of rupees at the ends 
of poles 1 In this presidency, once ao waste, and yielding com- 
paratively ao little to the revenue, there is not a culturable acre 
unemployed. Even in Kandeish, the only country which has not 
recovered from the effects of Mahratta devastations, there has been 
witnessed in anobscurc village, a crowd of peasants squatting round 
two i^enta from Bombay ; one with forty thousand rupees, and the 
other with thirty thousand, paying for the growing crop at enor- 
mously high prices. 

Such an influx of wealth has raised the prices of all commo- 
dities, to such an extent that persons who live on small fixed 
incomes are in great difficulties ; and subalterns and even captains 
in Her Majesty's service, cannot afford to have butcher's meat on 
their tables more than ouce a week. The youngest and ablest 
men leave the service of the crown for merchandise. Speculation 
is wild. In a single Bombay share list, there appeared thirty 
banks, land reclamation, and financial companies, nearly all the 
produce of ISO-t. Hardly one had paid a dividend, yet the shares 
stood at premiums which the maddest speculator had never dreamt 
of. According to the reports of the government collectors, the 
cultivation of cotton is rapidly extending, and increased attention 
is paid to the quality. Mr. Hume, the collector of Etawah, tells 
the Suddar board of revenue, that the cotton growers begin to show 
a desire to ship cotton on their own account to England, and 
inquire the prices which could be realised in their own districts, 
in Calcutta, and in England respectively. Mr. Plowden, secretary 
mio the board of revenue for the north-western provinces, says that 



410 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

"the groat majority of tbe profits have this year (1864) at 
reached to those iinmeJiately conoected with the soil," but then 
does not appear to have been much saving of money. Mr, Forb^ 
(another collector) says i " It has been nuticetl by everyone thai, 
the care bestowed upon tbe cotton lands this year, exceeds *h^ 
ever known before. Men, women, and children were continn«Ilf , 
to be seen in the fields, weeding, clearing, and looseniag the euib 
about the young plants, and fondly contemplating the crop iipos 
which all their hopes were centered." Mr. Martin, of MoozuSii- 
mugger, says :" I am at a loss to conceive how the Maiichentar 
Chamberof Commerce makes out that the tenure under which the 
land is held in India impedes the cultivation of cotton ; in re^iy 
there is no such impediment. The cultivation is going on at 
rapid strides, and displacing other crops. The minute sub-Jivisios 
of landed property has no doubt the effect of preventing tbe grawtb 
of capital, and thereby the means of purchasing cotton-cleaning 
and pressing implements ; but private companies are springing op 
all over the country, and providing the necessary apparatus to the 
trading classes. As long as prices remain Kteady, Manchester 
need not fear any contraction of the breadth of land sown with 
cotton." This evidence of Mr. Martin tells us that, so long u 
from two hundred to three hundred per cent over the onlinuy 
price is paid for cotton, the cultivation in India will conliuu^ 
to extend, and that the defective tenure of land wilt not be an 
obstacle, But prices will not remain at those rates, and tbe tax, 
which at present is unfelt, will again make itself evident; and 
a needy government may again render the ryot's calculations as to 
the produce of his crop perfectly useless. Unless the staple of 
Indian cotton be greatly improved, its consumption in England 
will infallibly fall again to the old standard ; and it will have b) 
compete not only with its former successful rival, but also with 
Turkey, Egypt, China, Japan, Brazil, and a host of other new 
aspirants for a share of the vast sum which is now annually 
disposable by Lancashire. 

The Indian government has not done what It might and ought 
to have done to aid the cultivation of cotton ; and there is out 
monster evil which it cannot abolish if it would, and which ia a 
great hindrance to progress. The ryots are very superstitioua, and 
are bom to hereditary debt, arising out of this superstition. 



SUPEKSTITION THE CAUSE OF INSOLTKIJCY. 411 

According to their creed, it is necessary for each man to pay a 
very heavy sum (often two years' income) to the priest, for the 
welfare of the soul of his father ; and it is necessary to provide 
sisters and daughters with husbands before they reach a given 
age, at whatever cost ; and these two practices help to throw them 
all into the bands of the native usurers, and to keep them there 
generation after generation. It is proposed to erect insolvent 
courts, to enable the ryots to shake off their load when it becomes 
intolerable ; but the influence of such courts upon the moral 
character of the ryot ia doubtful, supposing them to get into opera- 
tion ; whilst if they require the insolvent to surrender his land, it 
is more than doubtful if they will ever get to work at all. 

Tlie gain to India by the cotton famine has been enormous, and ' 
if thatgain had been spread amongst a prudent population, would 
have been sufficient to secure much permanent prosperity. But a 
large proportion of it is in few bands, and will be, if it be not already, 
spent iu unprofitable speculations; whilst the remainder, it is to be 
feared, will be freely spent in other directions than for land im- 
provements, or the production of a quality of cotton which would 
be permanently marketable. 

Mr. Henry Ashworth, speaking at the annual meeting of the 
ManchesterChamber of Commerce, 30th January, 18(i5, said: "The 
quantity of cotton consumed in 1860 was valued at £34,000,000. 
Last year (1804), for a quantity probably not exceeding one-half 
what we received in 1860, we had to pay, in round numbers, 
^80,000,000. In 1800 our consumption was one billion eighty- 
three million pounds. In 18G4 it was five hundred and sixty-one 
million pounds, or about fifty-one per cent of the former year. But 
the inferiority of the material required much more labour; hence 
the fifty-one per cent of cotton consumed, required from sixty to 
seventy per cent of the hands to work it up. In 18C0 American 
cotton furnished five days' labour out of six in every week ; in 1 864 
it did not furnish enough for half a day per week. In 18C0 we 
paid for Indian cotton £3,500,000, and iu 1 864 nearly X40,000,000. 
The quantity had increased two and a half times (from two hun- 
dred and fourteen million pouuds to five_ hundred and thirteen 
million pounds), and the price bad increased ten or eleven times." 

Assuming the average price of Indian cotton, in ordinary years, 
at fivepence per pound, then the paymenta of the last three years 
may be set forth as follows : — 



i 




FACTS OF THI COTTOS FA3DSBL 



m OatufAMT PMicn or Isdiab Cottw. 



403 197.300 U SJd. tp 
449^71 ,000 at Itji 
513,756,110 M I5id. 



£t4.«S»MS 
S3.7IfiJSI 



£T<,U!7,SM 
And the year lS6o will at least have added £10,000,000 more t 
this enormous gain. 

This immense stimha9 not been all retained in lodiA, for en 
hanced prices of goods have necessitated a considerable retan; 
but whilst the payments for cotton have gone first to the mei 
and speculators, and money lenders, and then, in a lesser degree. Ui 
the tyota ; the cost of goods has been drawn from the whole of tha 
consumers, and has also afforded a profit to the merchants. It il 
impossible to get anything lilce an exact estimate of gains and 
losses, because goods are eiported in so many different forms tlud 
the total weight sent to any place cannot be given. Tbe impoHs 
of cotton are given in pounds weight, but the exports of piece goodt 
are given in yards ; and it is not possible to arrive at the weight </ 
an average yard. The Times' correspondent says that about o 
half of the payments of 1862-3-4 have been in btilUon; lnit,M 
India imported much more largely than usual of other maltoi 
besides cotton goods, one half of the extra payments for cotton will 
not approximate very nearly to the absolute gain by the cottm 
famine. Our exports of cotton goods to India have been as exhi- 
bited in tbe following table : — 

CoTTOS TjUtn. 
Taui lU. pa Ik 

1661 — — M Hjd. 

IS62 16,033,319 £I,4TG,SS8 at 19d. £33S,I» 

1SC3 S3,468,TT1 2.905,314 at SSgd. I.454.5T4 

I8S4 17,686,636 !,349,MO at algd. 1,280,43$ 

KiavrxcTUMED Ooovs. 

1861 — — 

1862 614,663.198 £8,056,540 
]86i> 669,3)'.4,030 1 1 ,708,984 
1864 476,9;S,103 11,346,676 

£13.731,661 

If we add fifty per cent for items overlooked, to the excess hen I 
brought out, we shall see that the terrible Lancashire cri^ bill 
given to India about X56,OUO,OUO, or more than a quarter of tlM I 



ilh^Ku 



at 3d. 


_ 


«31d. 


£1,608.319 




4,661, 3M 


ategd. 


4,388,841 



DECHEASIKG COSaUKPTION OF IMDLAN COTTON. 413 

■whole capital invested in the cotton manufacture ; and which gives 
direct and profitable employment in the Lancashire district alone 
to more than half a milhon of workpeople. 

Let us hope that the merchanta of India, instead of being 
satisfied with their present prosperity, will adopt means to render 
it permaneut for themselves and the ryota. This can only be done 
by stimulating the production of improved staples. Apart from an 
earnest effort in that direction, Sural cotton will as surely be 
superseded within a few years by the productions of other countries, 
as it was in former years by that of the Southern States of North 
America. In 1S60, the proportion of Indian consumed in this 
country was nearly seven percent of the whole ; in 18til, it rose to 
fourteen and three-quarters per cent ; and in 18G2, to nearly fifty- 
nine per cent ; and in 1863, it reached nearly sixty-five per cent. 
The actual increase of consumption, Including the small amounts 
received from China and Japan, for four years, is shown below : — 

1660 .... 173,700 balcE. 

1S61 .... 348,GOO ,; 

1E62 .... 69S,3!0 „ 

1898 .... 892,800 „ 

But that the character of the cotton is not much improved, is also 
proved by the fact that the consumption of 18G4 showed only about 
seven and a half per cent increase over the previous year (about 
one thousand two hundred and seventy bales per week) ; whilst the 
imports would have allowed eight thousand bales per week more 
to be consumed. The total consumption of cotton increased about 
seventeen per cent, but of East Indian only seven and a half per 
cent ; indicating very plainly that it is not prejudice alone which 
prevents its use, and that it must either be considerably improved 
in quality or fall again speedily out of use. In the first four weeks 
of 18G.5 there was actually a less consumption of this cotton than 
at the same period of 1863. Ttie weekly deliveries from Liverpool 
are thus given in the Manchester Gitardian, 7th February 1865 : 

Ftnt four ndu in laW. Fint AjBt mcckm Id IMX 

AmericMi .... I,o60 bales . 940 bales 



Braiil 
Egyptian. &e 



EMt India, China, and Japan, 



414 FACTS OP THE COTTON FAMINU. 

Thus, whilst the consumption of every other kind had ii 
by fifty per cent, Indian cotton had decreased seventeen pe» i 

Surat, which was used almost esclusirely for yams op to 
during the year 1862, haa since been mixed to the extent of t 
one-third to two-thirds of better cotton. Spinners and maan&S 
turers follow this course, not liecause they choose to use \a^ 
priced cotton, but because they are forced to it, in order to 
their workmen and to sell their goods. 

We have elsewhere spoken of the efforts of Mr. A. N. 
formerly government collector in the district of Dliarwar, to improi 
the character of the cotton grown in that district, by the iotoNJiie 
tiou of New Orleans seed Let us now calculate the pecttniai} 
resiilt which would flow from generalising that improvement 
a paper read at the Society of Arts, in 1803, by Mr. Shaw, wb 
the following extract : — " New Orleans still maintained ita 
at the head of the price current, being, on 12th Noveraber, 186!^ 
one hundred and fifty rupees per candy higher than the beat cottoft 
in the Bombay market, • • • Allowing that it requires 
acres of the New Orleans seed to produce a candy, or seven buiidr«4 
and eighty-four pounds, of clean cotton, and that thirteen acn»<i 
the indigenous cultivation are necessary to yield an equal amount; 
(the relative prices of the indigenous and New Orleans cottoDf 
being, as quoted in Bombay at the above date, five hundred mi 
sixty rupees and thme hundred and ninety rupees per candy,) the 
difference of the value of two hundred and eighty thousand 
of these respective cultivations, taking the rupee at two sbilling^ 
would be as £2,240,000 to £840,000; leaving in favour of the N» 
Orleans £1,400,000, to be divided amongst those concerned in Iiidi» 
in growing and selling the crop ; and manifold more valuable to tha 
government and the country than the whole aggr^ate of the expen- 
diture which has been incurred in all the experiments throughout 
India." And the account given of successfiil improvement il 
Dharwar, has since been repeated in Madras. 

The difference between the indigenous cotton and that gromi 
in Dharwar, from New Orleans seed, was nearly fourpeuce Uiree- 
farthings per pound in November, 1862, and it would be at 
least one-half as much in ordinary times. Assuming such u 
improvement to be generalised upon the production of 1R64, Uie 
diS'erence of price would be ^4,281,318. Such an improvemimt 



MR. FBEDERIC WABEEN S EFFORTS. 41 

would render a large portion of the demand upon Inditi permanent ; 
and, whilst securing a market for a most important staple produc- 
tion, would also pay interest at five per cent upon £85,01)0,000 for 
irrigation and other necessary improvements. And if tlie calcula- 
tions of Mr. Shaw as to the increased yield of New Orleans seed 
be correct, the same eflfort, instead of displacing other crops, and 
rendering India dependent upon imports for food, would actually 
set at liberty nearly half the land which is now under cultivation 
for cotton. Surely, if the immense influx of wealth of the last three 
years does not effect this most important object, by demonstrating 
in what direction the duty of government lies, all hope of the im- 
provement of India may be given tip. 

Now that the cotton famine i.s nearly over, and the raw material 
bids fair to return, at no distant date, to normal prices, even without 
very large supplies from the Southern States of North America, the 
reader will naturally ask why men of keen intellect and large 
general knowledge ever allowed the great staple of their industry to 
depend on the rotten foundation of negro slavery ? All thinking 
men believed that the institution which upheld property in man 
as a right must, sooner or later, come to ruin ; and it was some- 
times talked of as a crime that Lancashire manufacturers should, 
by their trade, encourage and tend to porputuate its existence. 
Everjbcdy believed that the system would some day break down, 
and the hopes of most people favoured their belief; but the con- 
servative feeling which dictates that we should let well alone, 
prevented people who averaged twelve and a half per cent upon a I 
continually -increasing capital, from troubling themselves much 
about the future. Manufacturers were concerned chiefly in the 
production of a cheap article ; they bought all suitable material 
which came to hand, and the doctrine of laisses/avre taught that 
cotton ought to lie, as experience showed that it had hitherto been, 
supplied in sufficient quantities to make a fair profit. Neverthe- 
less, efforts were made from time to time, setting forth the danger 
of the dependence, the capacities of India, and the necessity of 
encouraging an increase of growth and improvement of quality 
on that continent. 

After the failure of Mr. Bright's motion for inquiry, in 1847, a 
working man, named Frederic Warren, who had originally been a 
carter, and then an assistant to a drysnller, and afterwards a dry- 



416 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMTtnt 



Salter on his own account ; and who had also been an active v 
in the operati^'es' anti-b read-tax union, set to work to enlightOl 
the public mind upon this aubject. He iasued a pamphlet, showiny 
from good authorities that Indian cotton could, with the encourage- 
ment of the government, he laid down in Liverpool at twopenot 
halfpenny per pound. Having considerable mechanical geDtuB,!)*' 
applied to a machine maker, and obtained leave to use the tends i£ 
the establishment, and produced a complete and beautiful set of: 
working models of cotton machinery, from the steam engine to tba 
calico printing machine. With these models Mr. Warren travelled 
through the country, and lectured upon his favourite topic id bk 
of the important cities and towns, at the universities of Oxford u 
Cambritlge, and at the Society of Arts in London ; on which It 
occasion the late Prince Consort presided, and so highly appreciated 
his efforts, as to introduce him to the East ludia Company. B«l i* 
was too early for much useful result, either to the country or to the 
leoturer. The carriage of tlie machinery was costly, and althongjl 
Mr. Warren was his own mechanic and his own labourer. U* 
lectures failed to pay expenses, and were obliged to be diacon- 
tinued. Lancashire manufacturers were in no immediate dutfiei^ 
and did not value his self-imposed labour and energetic exeitioa 
to produce a public opinion in this country, in urder to enforo 
Indian cultivation; and so left the lecturer to seek a new o 
patiou, and his machinery models to fill a lumber room. 

About the same period, Mr. Thomas Clegg, a ManchetM 
manufacturer, appears, through his acquaintance with Mr. Thosiua 
Bazley, M.P. (who has been a promoter of most of the attempts M 
widen the area of cotton cultivation), to have been led to take n 
than usual interest in the subject 

Messrs. Cross and Hacking, of Famwotth, attempted, in 1851, 
to get up a company for the growth of cotton, but, as might havo 
been anticipated, they did not succeed. Men who could profitablf 
employ all their capital at home, were not likely to risk it it 
Jamaica, or other far off colonies, entirely beyond their o«n 
contn)l ; and they pleaded, " we are spinners," or, " we are mana- 
facturers," and our employment requires all our care and absorb* 
all our means. J 

Messrs. J. Pender, M.P., the late Joseph Sturge, of Birming-I 
liatn, J. A. Turner, MP., Thomas Bazley, M.P., and others, tried Wfl 



Ma THOMAS CLEGO. 



417 



procure cotton from the west coast of Africa, but without much 
auccesa. Mr. Clegg, desiring prominently to promote the gi'owth 
of free labour cotton, procured samples of indigenous African cotton ; 
which grows wild, in great profusion, and for the most part falls to 
the ground and rots, from year to year, uutil it forms a coating upon 
the earth, like the guano on the islands of the PaciBc Ocean. 

The samples from Sierra I^eone were found to possess all the 
qualities of American cotton, but were a little coarser, and not so 
white as the cotton grown from New Orleans seed. Mr. Cle^ set 
up agencies at Lagos and Abbeokuta, where young Africans were 
taught the principles of mechanics, to enable tliem to clean and 
pack, whilst others purchased cotton for the English market ; and 
these eEForts resulted in the following imports : — 



S,03e 4,BI4 1,64S 
B which date, internal v 



lU. Its Iba. 

13,750 36,319 319,38! 



Since which date, internal wars have reduced the imports again to 

an utterly insignificant amount This cotton was bought in the 
seed at Abbeokuta at from a halfpenny to three farthings per 
pound, whilst clean cotton realised in Liverpool, from sixpence 
farthing to ninepence per pound. So that, whenever it shall 
please His Majesty the King of Dahomey, and the rest of the 
chiefs, to leave off fighting, England and Africa may he mutually 
and largely benefited by a renewal of the tradft 

In 1855, various motives induced Mr. Clegg to take a tour in 
the east, and he travelled to Tunis, to Algeria, Constantinople, and 
Egypt, taking with him a gentleman from Tunis, to enable bim to 
see the various modes of cotton cultivation. He reports that in 
most places which he visited, he found that the Enghsh govern- 
ment had interested itself by presents of cotton seed, or of gins for 
cleaning, seeking by these means to promote the growth of cotton ; 
but in no case were the gins found either at work, or in workable 
condition ; one, at Jaffa, was buried under sacks of grain, and 
another, at Jerusalem, was going to ruin with rust. 

The traveller was everywhere well received and over-loaded with 
promises that the growth of cotton should be promoted ; and the 
Bey of Tunis gave a passage to Constantinople in his own steamer, 
A company was afterwards formed for cotton growing in Tunis ; 
England wad to provide one-third and Tunis two-thirda o£ the 



+18 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE 

necessary capital, an American planter was eag^ed, and the Cotlun 
Supply Association was to furnish the seed. The seed arrived I^j 
late for the first season, the planter was impracticable, the bman»s 
y/aa badly managed, the experiment failed, and in a very sban 
time the capital was lost and the company wound upL 

Since the coramencemeat of the Cotton Supply Afisociatian 
many efforta have been made to procure cotton troui new aources: 
and Mr. Cle^ says he has been consulteii about the fomiatioD or 
operations of more than sixty companies. In order to spreaii 
information upon the subject of cotton cultivation, he |H«parMl a 
number of small tin boxes, in each of which, under glass, was t 
range of compartmeota containing cotton seeds of various kind^ 
the different varieties of cotton separated from the seeds ; samplei 
of the fibre drawn out to show the length of each ; and a prinbNj 
card, giving the name, the average length of fibre, and the average 
prices in 1S59, and showing the capacities of different varieUM 
of cotton for affording employment The best moiiem mill for 
coarse Indian cotton employs only three and a half hands to eveiy 
one thousand pounds of cotton used per week, whilst the finest 
spinners employ about two hundred and fifteen hands for every 
thousand pounds of cotton consumed per week. These Ixixes were 
sent to the Cotton Supply Association, to the South KfOsingtiKi 
Museum, the Sfwiety of Arts, and to many other public bodies. The 
boxes wore each accompanied by a little book, containing a descrip- 
tion of each kind of cotton, the counts of yam usually spun froia 
them, the length in miles of each pound of yarn, and the purpose 
for which each kind was generally used, from the production of ibe 
heaviest fustian to the finest muslin or lace. 

Mr. Cl^g also, with the help of Mr, Haywood, the former 
secretary of the Cotton Supply Association, prepared a pam[^et 
on the cultivation of cotton, which was largely circulated hy the 
association, by various merchants, and by the English govern- 
ment, in all parts of the world where cotton was likely to be grown. 
Of course he had many difficulties to encounter, and amongst 
others was the opposition of an English consul in Africa, who 
attempted to prove that the country would not grow, and that its 
natives would not cultivate, cotton ; and when a trade had really 
been opened direct with the African chiefs, a leading Uauchest^f 
merchant actually remonstrated with him, for opemag dJr«ot 



PROTECTION AMONGST THE MEBCHANTS. 419 

communications, and thus spoiling the trade of the middlemen. And 
the president of the late Commercial Association is said to have 
repeated this nonsense, asking what the natWes and other traders 
on the African coast were to do, if Mr. Clegg was allowed to go 
direct to the natives ? The liverpool cotton brokers also resented 
this attempt at direct trade, and for a time refused to sell cotton 
to the man who imported direct from Africa ! So that the evils 
of protection and of trades unions, are not confined to the working 
classes, but make themselves known whenever the wheel of pro- 
gress crosses the path of the defenders and supporters of existing 
interests. 




CHAPTER XXIII. 



^H CoutimtioD tad Utilitr trf Cluiabn* <d G maw ia — 

CImbM of ComiDeroe — to the Req uitnaen M rf Britiih Isdu— IiidiB CtfaUt 

nlTimnBiliiin n afiillj in PnCiliiii Pnjduotioo— Kcan^iMof Dcfcdiiw l^nd 

CentTMJt— Plopcaak irf I^irdi StaoW wd Oamaas on Wiato LMd*— Sir ChMU 

DcpaUtion to Mr. Maaeir— The R«] T^K Boml— Sr Ourka Wooifa Balpt 
S[ietch — ComparatiTe Eipemlitim on Improvaiitqit* al Ike 1 ■mTliBut Go<w>- 
mrat iu Indu, uid of tb« lAt« Dokc of Xorthumbisriuil kt Hons. 

The Maucbeuter Cbamber of Commerce compnBes 
members tbe principal maoufacturers and merthajits of 
districts. It is governed by a board of directors, and its 
business ia to watch over and promote the ioterests of the tnde 
and commerce of the country generally, and of tbe cotton and tU 
affiliated trades in particular. Such a body, being pcacticaDy 
familiar with the productions and wants of the various countriet, 
with which England h commercially connected, ougltt to have 
siderable influence with the home government, unless their n 
sentations are at auy time contradicted by those of similar bodies 
other localities. Of coiirse their evidence in reganl to 
legislation would be looked upon as ex parte, but the 
the free-trade principle as the rule of commerce, very mudi- 
if it does not quite annihilate, the danger of selfish repi 
Tlie object nimed at In any proposals must be the increase 
niercial intercourse, and whatever facilitates this end, must 
benefit all the parties concerned. 

There may still be a question as to the proper limit of goren- 
ment operations in regard to trade ; and bodies of merchants seekij^ 
their own gain may occasionally call upon the government to spen^ 
principally for the benefit of a class, the funds of the nation ; in wiadk 
ca«e Hound policy will, of course, dictate a refusal But the 
duties of a government must vary in different countries, ocooidiBg 



latullr 



I 



THE QOVERJJMEST LAJIDLOttD OF INDIA. 421 

to the relative poaitions of the governors and tho goverueJ. In this 
country, where the whole of the land, except bo much of the sea 
shore as lies between high and low-water mark, is private property, 
held in fee simple; it would he preposterous to expect the central 
government to make roads, or to erect water works, in any one 
locality. Individual proprietors often see their own advantage in 
setting apart land for making roada, and giving them up to the 
public ; and if a given locality needs a road, an act of parliament 
can be got to authorise the purchase of the land, and to authorise 
the exaotion of pasHing tolls to pay for road making and repairing. 
So if a municipality wants water or gas works, it goes to parliament 
and gets power to tax the inhabitants, who are to be benefited by 
the works. But if all the land belonged to the government, and 
the holders were simply tenants at will, liable to have their rents 
doubled, or to be turned out at any time for non-payment, then they 
could hardly be expected either to make roads or to lay out much 
capital in improvements; and the consequences would naturally be 
parsimonious outlay, slovenly farming, and an exhausted soil Now, 
during the reign of the East India Company, the condition of the 
country under their rule was as above described, but with this 
aggravation — that the landlord government was not certain as to 
its own length of tenure, and its interest was therefore to extract as 
much present revenue, for as little outlay as possible. Much of 
the land of India is eminently suited for the growth of cotton, 
which is indeed an indigenous plant ; and, if properly cultivated, 
the production of cotton would be sufficient for all the mills in the 
world ; but neglect renders it short in staple and brittle in fibre, 
whilst the want of proper roads for its conveyance from the interior 
to the shipping ports, subjects it to the deteriorating influences of 
long exposure to weather ; and to the accumulation of dirt, from the 
bursting of the bales during the loading and unloading of the bul- 
locks which convey it to port; and these disadvantages limit the 
range of its consumption, and, by reaction, discourage its growth. 

The Manchester Chamber of Commerce — with the double view 
of enlarging the Indian market for manufactures, and of providing 
against a possible failure in the principal source of cotton supply, 
either from climatic influences, or from a revolt of the slaves in 
America — has continually appealed to the home and Indian govern- 
ments, to adopt measures for promoting and improving the growth 



I 



i 



' 423 FACTS OF THC OOTT(»( FAVTHK. 

of cotton in India. The principal re<^uiremeDt8 set forth hare been. 
the making of public roads, tlie improvement of the rivers, the pro- 
vision of works for irrigation, the security of land tenure, and an effi- 
cient law of contract All these measures have also been advocated 
by many independent authorities, and ovenvhelming evidence liai 
been accumulated to show their necessity and value to India, u 
well as to England. It is true that the trade haa not always been 
quite unanimous in its recommendations ; for when, la 1847. Kr. 
Bright moved in parliament for a committee on Indian affairs, tiie 
East India Company found apologists in Manchester ; and a countflr 
petition to that from the Chamber of Commerce was presented, and 
the motion was in consequence lost. In and outof parliament itW 
been said that the growth of cotton in India was only a (juestion of 
price ; that if Manchester men would pay for it, they would get it, 
and that if it did not come at their call, they might go but to Indii 
and grow it for themselves. But what is the use of cotton-growing 
land without roads, when the products must be conveyed a t) 
sand miles to the sea coast ; and what sensible man would invert 
capital to improve land of which he had no secure tenure ; orn 
man would advance uioney upon a crop which he had no means of 
securing when ready for market ? There is no doubt that the growth 
of cotton as of any other product is mainly a question of price, but it 
i.'* also certain that proper encouragement by the government would 
enable the Indian ryot to compete with the American planter ; and 
until he does so, it is simply foolish to expect that Lancasliire i 
chants will go out of their way to buy an inferior article at an extnt- 
vagant price. The most useful quality of cotton to the manafacturer, 
is received from the state of Alabama ; and it has been ascertained 
that the analysis of the soil and subsoil of the principal cotton regioni 
of India closely resemble those of Alabama Moreover, the simi- 
larity of effect under careful cultivation has been most fully corro' 
berated by Mr. Shaw (the late government collector), who undertook 
to cultivate the American cotton plant in tihe district of Dharwar, 
and did it with signal success. Referring to his published stat»' 
meut, we find, that, with a cost of production of not mure 
three farthings per pound, he received in Liverpool sixpence balf- 
I>enny per pound for this cotton, whilst at the same time only three- 
ponce- halfpenny could be obtained for the indigenous cotton of Om 
country. It is clear, therefore, that India could produce the oo(tOfl 



ISDU COMPETMQ SUCCE3SPULLT. 



4S3 



which is required, and that it would be much to the advantage of 
India and of England that she should do no. But it would be idle to 
expect Europeans to invest money in land, the rent of which is 
annually and arbitrarily assessed by government officials. 

The Calcutta Englishman. 2i)i\i July, 1864, wrote as follows: — 
" Recent experiments in. the growing of cotton tend to prove that 
India, by judicious care and attention, the selection of lands in 
districts well suited for that cultivation, and finally, the introduc- 
tion of New Orleans and Egyptian cotton seed, can in time make 
England independent of America. In fact, cotton from New Orleans 
seed, in the instance brought before us, has rather improved than 
deteriorated in quality and veJug, and we can now bring forward 
the results of recent trials from that stock, showing a wonderful 
improvement during the past three years. Dr. Eonavio, of Luck- 
now, has cultivated, in an experimental garden, cotton from New 
Orleans seed, and has sent several samples (which we have seen) to 
the Agricultural and Horticultural Society. From that stock he 
gave some seed to Dr. Brandis, who sent it to Rangoon, to be sown 
in the government experimental cotton plantation. The result is, 
that the samples sent lately from Rangoon to the Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society, have turned out to be superior to those culti- 
vated at Lucknow; and have been valued by the cotton committee 
of that society as worth now, in London and Liverpool, two shillings 
and threepence per pound. We attribute this improvement in 
quality to the auitahie soil and climate of Rangoon ; and a proof 
of the correctness of our opinion is to be found in the arrival from 
Moulmein of some cotton superior to any we have yet seen in Cal- 
cutta ; in bales, fifty and sixty at a time, which have been here as 
high as fifty-four nipees per bazar maund. It is supposed that this 
cotton is grown at Moulmein or in the Tenpaaerim district from 
New Orleans cotton seed, probably distributed there by one of the 
members of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society, who receive 
annually small supplies for experimental plantations, when applied 
for. This cotton is put down by competent judges as being worth 
now. in London and Liverpool, about twenty-four pence per pound, 
and is of such a description and quality that the majority of buyers 
in England prefer purchasing it. We have been told that it has 
been imported here by an up-country native, and grown by natives, 
and we are therefore anxious to mention its superiority, and the 




4St TiCTB or TfflK COTEDS FAXE9K. 



^ «fll abmr* neaiue high prteei, ami k wSE i 




■nwbr of ftHMe win b* J 

Tb^ a> to the aJvaDoe of nwo^ e 
fedbrc tlte eoioai—tiog of biifn a m i nriitr^ , Jul;, IS33. 
fi^iy^ ta ipiaiDdD ?(ol ^^BKI : — "* The ■adve cooxts w 
ywemOy, iSmn the jai%ai downwwdB. I advoBcnl oaaa 
eosttwl Wbes the coOm Amid have farai JdiTocd. W (I 
CBBOactor) fcfined to lie&rcc. I asked him — ' Whj- da jmm ^ 
fa> taUX jBor enotnct V In lune nwDCha I gat m « 
tttB;^ The eoart exanuned & moiiss one dej, I 
eaae • maotb. The coort then exaained odKr 1 
again poa^ooed at his pteacnre^ and lO go. 
appealed to a tnfenoc enor^ who eoofitawd the c 
&«oar, (or priocipal, withooG iatextA The d 
man of w«altfa, had no property that I cDohl aeiae ; 1 
nptlj made it away. After two yean; I iiimiaj^nl I 
aerenty-Gre per eeot, with taterest, and paid my i 
Wilnawen caa be got to prore anything required, 
a nnnnary prooeas, nmKy ooold be recovered. Tbe a 
tbeae frauds opcm each other, and complain of I 
adminintering jiutice. It took me two years to recorer. from t 
inatitutiDg the suit to tbe final deciaioD of tbe upper court, 
much for civil courU. 

The Honourable Mr, Scott, a member of the le^Utive o 
of India, on 12th April, 1862, said, in a debate on the I 
(^Tontract Bill, " No prudent European dare, in the existing s- 
the law, eoUihliith Kuch agencies (for advances to tbe ryou) od a laigi 
•vale, witlioiit Home Kystem of easy registration of contracts, a 
witlinul Home nummary law — for the enforcement of contracts 
rimiiiAl or otherwiw!. • * * On 6th May, 1852, we contrart 
with a porsoti in the Dbarwar di-stricts for tbe delivery of a oerti 

f cotton, and, according to custom, paid hajf purchaM 



irt 



the 1 



DEFECTIVE LAWS OF CONTBACT. 425 

money in advance. He fuiled to deliver, and we sued upon the 
contract We obtained a decree in the Sudder Araeer'a Court, on 
23rd November, 1853, and an appeal in the Judges' Court, on 27th 
November, 185i. The defendant then appealed to the Sudder, and 
his appeal was dismissed, with costs, 30th January 1857. His 
property was then attached, and almost simultaneously he died. 
Claimants then rose up against the attachment. We again obtained 
decreei in our favour, and an appeal waj^ again made in August, 
1861. Ten years' fighting for a paltry sum which would have been 
abandoned long ago, save that we objected to being " done." The 
film to which I belong is the only one on this side of India which 
has attempted such operations (advances up country) on a large 
scale ; and in my own earlier career in India, I had a great deal to 
do with their management up country. A history of our doings is 
on the records of government, and I need not enter upon it here. 
Suffice it to say that, aft«r fighting against alt difficulties for ten 
years, after expending large sums in machinery and in the impor- 
tation of foreign cotton seed, &c., &c., we were obliged to withdraw 
our agencies, and abandon altogether a large siim in outstanding 
advances. What caused our failure? The want of a system of 
registration of contracts, and the want of some means of summarily 
enforcing them. Give us these and we will commence' again, and 
so will many others ; without them we can do nothing." 

It is not wonderful that the East India Company (whose tenure 
was inseCTire) sought to extract the largest possible present revenue. 
whibt they were careless about permanent improvements; and 
the transfer of the government of India to the Queen was, there- 
fore, hailed on this side of the water with great satisfaction, 
and accepted as a measure of consolation, for the immense losses of 
life and wealth, in the mutiny of the sepoys. And the Queen's 
government has accepted some of the duties, so often and per- 
sistently urged upon its predecessor. It has either undertaken the 
making of roads, or has given an Indian government guarantee of 
five per cent, for the outlay on approved lines of railway. But. 
although the prosperity of India obviously depends to a large 
extent on the prompt completion of the system of railways and 
canals which have received government approval, yet in a minute 
by the governor-general, bearing date November, 18G0, the atate- 
I oaent was made, that all necessary and useful public works had 



*26 FAOTB OF THB COTKW FAHIWE. 

been liefeired and stopped, because of a deficit in the revenue. 
Thus, the chief means by which the revenue in to be permanentl/ 
increased, were neglected, because they were urgently needed. 

Representatives of the diflerent chambers of commerce uf 
Manchester, Glasgow, Bradfoi'd, Halifax, Sheffield, and Liverpool, 
met at the Westminster Palace Hotel, 19th February, 1S61, 
and adopted a petition to parliament, of which we append the: 
summary : — 

" Your petitioners, therefore, earnestly pray your houourableh 
house to take under your early consideration the important 
questions which they have very respectfully ventured to bring to 
your notice, in order that measures may be devised to secure ; — ■ 
1st. To India the benefits of good govemment — 2nd. To the 
British and native capitalist free and secure tenure of land, the 
want of which is now so severely felt. — 3rA The completion of ttia 
railway system sanctioned for India, as well as the execution of 
such other reproductive works as are necessary to develop th« 
agricultural and other resources of wealth, now lying dormant in th* 
country. — 4th. The relief of trade from the existing duties which 
are admitted to be founded on a system that is false and vicious is 
principle. — 5th. The production in parliament, as early as poseiblfl 
in the session, of clear, simple, and distinct accounts of the revi 
and expenditure — 6th. To all who may proceed to India as set- 
tlers and cultivators, and to all engaged in commercial pursuits, full 
and effective justice, without oppression from the official class ; the 
interference of govemment being limited, ' to providing good \&va, 
good magistrates, good judges, and good police ;' offices, now held' 
exclusively for the civil service, being thrown open to all who may 
be efficient to discharge the duties attached to them ; to secure, in 
fact, the extinction of all invidious or class distinctions, such 
now exist ; and to devise such other measures as may in tha 
wisdom of your honourable house appear to be well calculated 1 
promote the welfare of our fellow subjects in India," 

Lord Stanley, when secretaiy of state for India, seems to ha^ 
been inclined to do effective service ; and he issued two despatchc* 
31st December, 1858, and 16th March, 1859, containing iostnictioni 
respecting the sale in pei^petuity of waste lands, and the redempti 
by purchase of tlie land tax. He proposed to sell the waste laiidi 
at a fixed price, and to allow those already under cultivation to 



LORDS STAHtET AHD CASNINO ON WASTE LANDS. 427 

come the property of the holders, at twenty years' purchase, when 
tlie land tfljc should have reached something Uke a permanent stan- 
dard by assessment. One-third of India lies waste, and if action had 
been immediately taken upon these despatches, some two hundred 
and 6fty thousand square miles of land, various in quality, and sub- 
ject to various climates, would have been brought into the market 
two years before the outbreak of the American war; when many of 
the capitalists of Lancashire were of opinion that the American 
planters were getting some X10,(MX),000 per annum more for their 
cotton than was necessary to give them a fair profit; and were also 
becoming fully alive to the danger of dependence upon one source 
of supply. But these instructions were not attempted to be put in 
oj>eration until the blockade of the Southern ports of America 
made it too evident, what would be the condition of Lancashire. 
On 21st December, 1801. the late Lord Canning (then governor- 
general) adopted and promulgated a scheme for the disposal of 
waste or unoccupietl lands, and for the redemption of the land tax; 
which was received with general satisfaction, and was hailed by the 
natives as a "golden opportunity" offered to India. He proposed 
to sell the forest lands at five shillings, and the cleaa^ed lands at ten 
shillings per acre. Here are the terms of the minute : " The sale of 
lands shall be granted in perpetuity, subject to no enhancement of 
land revenue assessment. There shall be no condition obliging the 
grantee to clear or cultivate. No time must be lost in having a 
survey made, and the survey need not embrace more details than 
may be necessary to define rights, and insure identification of 
boundaries. The collector will advertise the application for thirty 
day.s, and if no claim is preferred, a document of sale is granted. 
If after allotment any person shall establish a right to the property, 
the possession of the buyer shall not be disturbed ; but if the 
claim shall be established within one year, the claimant shall 
receive from the government full compensation for the actual 
value of his interest in such land, and after one year all claims 
will be altogether barred." 

Under such regidations there would have been no difficulty in 
Lanca.ihire companies purchasing land, and employing Indian 
labourers, with European tools, for the cultivation of cotton ; for the 
circumstances of the time were singularly favourable. The American 
:ar had passed through the initiatory phase ; the great battles had 



i 





nets or rttx coTTOK rAinsK. 



t in real earnen ; tbe Sou(h«ni ports were Llockailed ; and 
ererything betokened a long and desperate smiggte. Cotton 
risiug rapidly in price; mills were stopping, and capital boag 
Bet st liberty; whilst the whole world was being scoured for aoppliet 
of cotton. Thelandof India and the capital of Lancashire were both 
at liberty ; and capitalists would doubtless have been willing to 
vest, for tbe need was great The imports of lodiau cotton hare 
been temporarily increased to an immense extent by tbe mere riss 
in price, without security of land tenure, without a proper law fgf 
the enforcement of contracts, and without any appropriation of 
waste lands. What would have been the increase, if English and 
Indian capital could have been safely spent in improvementa ! 
Lord Stanley had been succeeded iu the India secretaryship by Sr 
Cbarlex Wood ; who no sooner heard of Lord Canning's minute, than 
he suspended, and virtually rescinded it He condemned tbe plan 
for the rbdcmptiun of the land tax, as injurious to tbe Indian 
revenue, and substituted another plan for the sale of waste landi 

To assume that the revenue of India would be injured by the 
redemption of the land tax at twenty years' purchase, is to admit 
that the- measure of Lord Canning was a popular one, and would 
have been extensively applied ; and it is quite certain that nativa 
capitalistB would only have purchased for the sake of greater profit 
which profit could only have been secured by capital, expended 
improvements, so as to increase the produce. It is clear, tbcnffonv 
that in tho proportion of the adoption of this measure by tbe laiul> 
holders of India, the government would have had twenty yeai^ 
revenue in band for public improvements ; whilst tbe demand foc 
labour would have Wen promoted, and the wealth of tbe conntiT 
greatly increased. Capital must be worth fivu per cent to ths 
Indian government, for it guarantees that amount to the sfaaro- 
holders in approved railway companies. On the other band, if 
minute had not found favour with the landholders, tbe reve 
would not have been iu any way affected, and therefore could 
have suffered. Sir Charles Wood's instructions for the sale of 
waste lands were as follow i — 



"MODE OP PROCEEDING. 



" Waste lands are available for purchase No greater quantitjr 
_ than three thousand acrea shall be sold iu one lot, except with tl 



SIB CHA.HLE3 WOOD'S FLAN. 429 

'«cpress sanction of the government. No lot will be sold unless it 
has been previously surveyed and demarcated, in consequence of 
au application for purchase. The applicant shall depoait with the 
collector the estimated expense of such survey and demarcation ; 
and, on completion of the survey, the lot shall he advertised for 
sale by auction to the highest bidder. If the land is sold to some 
other purchaser, the applicant will obtain repayment of the money 
he has advanced for the survey. Should he (the applicant) become 
the purchaser, he shall receive a deed, sigued by the collector, put- 
ting him in possession of the land ; subject, nevertheless, to all 
general taxes and local rates, and to any other claim, whether of 
government or otherwise, that may have been, or may hereafter be 
established, in any cou|t of competent jurisdiction." 

It is not difficult to see that, compared with the instructions of 
Lord Stanley, and the minute of Lord Canning, this plan would be 
eminently injurious to the Indian revenue. If^a man wants land, 
he is first to pay for its survey, and then to advertise for com- 
petitors against himself; and then, if he outbids all competition, 
he is to remain without a title, and prolmbly find that he has 
purchased only the right to be ruined at law. In Ireland, some 
years ago, many estates were subject to such complicated incum- 
brances that it was found impossible to sell them in the market, 
and they fell to an almost nominal value. Parliament passed an 
act to enable such estates tiy be sold, and gave in each case an 
indisputable title ; and the influx of English and Scotch capital 
immediately brought up the value of those estates to their proper 
standard ; and the estates were improved, the demand for labour 
increased, and wages raised, whilst agrarian crimes were sensibly 
diminished. Yet, with tlie full knowledge of this success, Sir Charles 
Wood refuses in India to give to purchasers any security of tenure, 
but would make the jfovemment title the worst of titles, by leaving 
to itself a right to make further claims, or even to revoke the sale; 
and leaving the purchaser liable also to have to contest either real 
or pretended native claims. This must surely be one of the latest 
governmental illustrations of " How not to do it !" 

Add tt> this that a free-trade government, because of & deficit 
in the Indian revenue, actually doubled the import duties on Lan- 
cashire goods into that country, and the reader will not he surprised 
at the irritation felt and expressed at various public meetings against 



430 



FACTS OF TBE COTTOS FAMISE. 



I 



the secretary for India. The Manchester Chamber of Commewtf 
passed the following resolution: — "That this chamher protests 
against the present duty on yams and manufactured gooda, aa crea- 
ting a protection to native spinning and manufacturing; as aa 
oppressive tax on the consumption of the masses ; as inopeialivfl 
for permanently increasing the revenue, as well as pernicious ana 
inconsistent on the part of a oatiou pledged to free-trade pria* 
ciples." The substance of this resolution was adopted by the con- 
ference on Indian affairs, held in Manchester, 31st January. ISBl, 
and transferred into a memorial to Sir Charles Wood, and a petittirf 
to parliament by the representatives of the various chambers of 
commerce who met, in London, 22nd April, 1861. 

The Manchester Chamber of Commerce ^Iso presented a memo 
rial hereon t« the late Lord Palmerston, which his lordship charac- 
terised as a bill of indictment against Sir Charles Wood, *' in whom^ 
however, he had the utmost confideace." Lord Canning, during hi* 
short tenure of office, and whiJst Mr. Laing was financial minister, 
reduced the duty on yarns from about ten to five per cent ; but tb« 
value of that reduction has been since Jn great measure frustrated, 
by charging the duty ad valorem,, whilst goods are at double theii 
normal value. The late Sir Robert Peel laid on an income tax 'n 
England when the revenue was suffering from a deficit, and adopted 
free-trade measures to enable the country to boar the income lax; 
and every succeeding step in the same direction hy him and 1 
his pupil, Mr. Gladstone, has been eminently successful ; evei^ 
reduction of the tarifT having added to the total revenue, &o tlul 
continental nations are induced to follow in our track. Sir Charta 
Wood takes just the opposite course; and, because the revenoi 
of India fails, he lessens the ability of the people to pay, by 6cti 
tiously enhancing the cost of their clothing ; and by encuuragia) 
them to throw away money in manufacturing goods, which th«] 
could get cheaper from England, if he would let them. 9^i also, fa 
fear of injuring the revenue, he prefers to keep one hundred aik 
sixty million acres of land in waste, paying nothing and produdn^ 
nothing of value, U> getting an average of six shillings and eight 
pence per aero for it, and raising up a flourishing popiilatict 
upon it, who would contribute to all future taxes. If this I 
statesmanship, we must confess that it is a science beyond w 
3) prehension. 



IMPORT DUTY ON LANCASBIBK MANUFACTUIIES. 431 

Tlie only defence of Sir Charles Wood was fiscal necessity. 
But Mr. Laing camt: home proclaiming a surplus in India, which 
Sir Charles, although he disputed at the time, lias since been forced 
to admit ; yet he delayed his reply to the memorial of the Man- 
chester Cliamber of Commerce, in 1864, until the day on which he 
brought forward the Indian budget, and so prevented any comment 
by the chamber through the representatives of the cotton districts, 
in the House of Commons. The explanation through Lord Wode- 
house of the ad valorem charge was, that it waa made with a view 
to correcting the inequality between goods charged with duty 
according to>the tariff valuations, and those charged according to 
their current market values; to which the chamber replied, that 
the goods charged according to market values were light fabrics, 
which did not exceed one-fourth in value of the piece goods im- 
ported into India; whilst the remaining three-fourths were heavy 
goods, costing little for labour, but a heavy sum for freight ; and 
that on these the manufacturers in India enjoyed a protection to 
the extent of the duty, besides the loss of time and the cost of 
freight of ootton from, and of manufactured goods back to, India. 

It is impossible not to admire the perseverance and the temper 
of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce. They are convinced 
that it would be greatly to the mutual advantage of England and 
of India, that the latter country should grow cotton for Lancashire 
manufacture, and their own interest certainly coineidea with the 
improvement and enriciimeut of our grandest dependency. They 
have sent deputations and memorials ad iiauseum, to ministers at 
home ; and. although continually disappointed for. twenty years, 
they still let sbp no opportunity of impressing their views upon 
Indian ofBcials, Tliey entertained and reasoned with the late 
Right Honourable James Wilson, who, whilst in England, was a 
thorough freetrader; butwho, finding the Indian revenue deficient, 
laid a tax upon the importation of Laucoshire manufactures, suffi- 
ciently high to induce the erection of milts in Bombay, They 
apjiealed to, and apparently made a proper impression upon, the 
late Lord Canning, in respect of the objectionable land tenure ; but 
his enlightened views were no sooner communicated home, than bis 
proposed alteration was vetoed. They appealed to Mr. Laing, and 
he reduced the import duties ; but, not being able to agree with 
Sir Charles Wood, resigned his post before he had time to complete 






432 FACTS OF THE COTTOS FAMINE 

his contempt uted measures of reform -, aud, as if ia very spite, he 
had no sooner left, than Sir Charles Wood altered the definite duties 
into ad valorem chai^ea, which, heing done when yams and cloths 
were at double their normal prices, was equal to a return to tie 
old duty which had been reduced by Mr. Laing. The chamber 
appealed to Lord Elgin, but wilh no result ; yet, when, iu Februaiy, 
18G2, Mr. Masaey (M.P. for Salford) was appointed finance minister 
for India, they, notliing daunted by past failures, mode an appeal 
to faim also. 

Mr. Ross (the president) pressed upon the new minister the in- 
justice and the impolicy of levying duties upon Lancashire yama 
and cloth^the necessity of inaugurating some comprehensiva' 
scheme for the Kale of waste lands — of encouraging the influx of 
British capital, skill, and enterprise — and he referred to a sugge§- 
tion for the establishment of post office sa^ing^ banks. 

Mr. Cassells showed, hy lettera from ludia, that native cotton 
spinning at Bombay wa^ beginning to interfere with BpinoeTs in 
this country, in consequence of the protection afforded by the high 
rate of import duties; and Mr. J. A, Turner (late M.P. for Uao- 
chester) stated that he had a tangible grievance, which admitted 
of a practical i«medy. With a number uf other gentlemen, who 
were anxious to promote the development of Indian resources, ho 
had assisted to set on foot a project fur the construction of cheap 
railways, without a government guarantee, and i!2,000,000 d" 
capital had been subscrilted for the purpose. Tbey had obtained ft 
conctissiuQ in Oude and Kohilcuud, and intended to niake eight 
hundred miles of railway. They had constructed one section of 
their line, whith had been eminently successful ; but now the com- 
pany was so hampered by absurd and useless conditions, introduced 
into their deeds hy government legal officials, that, unless these con- 
ditions were modified, the whole undertaking must be abandoned. 

Of course the deputation was courteously received and listened 
to. But the minister could give no pledge ; all his sympathies lay 
on the side of freedom from all restriction in commercial affaire, and 
against any measure which ha<l the tendency to uphold one intcreit 
at the expense of another. The facta brought to his notice by Mr. 
Turner would have his immediate and careful attention. And moit 
important were those facts. Hitherto every mile of railway made in 
India has had to be guaranteed by the government a return of fi«t: 



THE EED T-U-E BOND. 433 

wr cent, whether earned or not. Here was an offor to make eight 
hiiDtired miles of railway at the sole cost of the ehareliolders, and 
the bonds of red tape set the promoters fast. How different to tlie 
state of atfairs in Egypt I The same newspaper which reporte<l Alio 
interview of the deputation, published also an extract from a letl«r, 
describing the opening of a cotton ginning factory, on the eastern 
liank of the Nile, near ZifUi, which covers six acres. The gins were 
fifty in number, made from the newest designs of Messrs. Piatt, of 
Oldham ; the roofing of galvanised iron from Liverpool, the engines 
from Manchester. An iron cistern covers the whole s[}ace of the 
boiler-h.mse; the pressroom is supplieil with hydraulic presseH ; the 
water for the engines is pumped by steam power from the Nile. 
The Egyptians saw prosperity in these innovations ; and an aged 
Arab priest was present, performing religious rites at the opening 
ceremony; whilst crowds of visitors looked on with a pazzled air, to 
see the cotton entirely separated from the seed, and poured forth 
in a continuous stream, without the aid of human hands. 

Why is it that the wisdom wliich permeates various other cotton 
growing countries finds no admission into India J Mr. Maasey, full 
of free-trade ideas, no sooner arrived at Calcutta as iinance minister 
than we got the following summary of news ; — 

L "THE INDIAN BUDGET. 

H " CaJcutla, April 1. 

r " Mr. Massey has promulgated his budget, 

" The Times says ; ' Telegrams from Calcutta, dated April 3, 
announce that the income tax has been taken off, and an export 
tluty of three per cent has been imposed on jute, wool, tea, and 
coffee, and of two per cent on hides, sugar, aud silk. At the same 
time the duty on grain is increased one anna per maund, and on 
rice it is to be three, instead of two aunas. This intelligence has 
i-reated great surprise, since the evil of import duties has recently 
been demonstrated to the Indian government by the results in the 
instance even of saltpetre, of which it wa.s supposed Bengal had 
almost a monopoly ; while the production of all the articles above 
enumerated has opened a wide-spread competition, so that any 
export duty imposed, will operate simply as a bounty to other 
countries." 

" The Daily News' city article says t ' These changes will be 
viewed with regret by all interested in the development of the 



434 



FACTS OF THE COTTOS FAMINE. 



af^cultural resources of our Indian empire, as they indicAf« a 
retrograde policy. Thedutyon tea, cofifee, and jute is quite new, and 
seems especially objectionable, if regard be had to the importance 
of iosteriDg the growing trade, in these promising articles of Indian 
produce. The alteration in the duty on rice ia equivalent to an 
increase of fifty per cent, while Indian production and commerce 
are thus practically discouraged. The new finance minister for 
India, in abolishing the income tax, betrays a desire to curry faroar 
with the official classes.' " 

But this measure was too much even for Sir Charles Wood, 
who, on the news arriving home, vetoed the tax on exports. And, 
judging from his budget speech, on 29th June, 1865, it might 
almost be hoped that an impression had at last been made upon 
the Indian secretary, who said : — 

"Upon a judicious outlay upon public works of a remunerative 
character depended the safety of the Bnances of India. He for one 
was fully impressed with the necessity of a judicious outlay upon 
public works; which facilitated communication, and developed the 
productive resources of the country. He believed that the local 
authorities, and the people themselves, would subscribe any amoaut 
of money for these objects ; and he himself had told the Indian 
government, that he was prepared to borrow any amount, wlien they 
supplied him with a well digested plan ; but he certainly would 
not go hand over head, and raise loans for any or every project that 
was started. During the last two years, there had been spent upon 
railways and public works £1 1 ,000,000 out of the public funds, and 
£2,500,000 from local sources, making, during the last seven yearf. 
a total of £73.000,000 expended upon railways and public works 
alone." The honourable baronet then detailed the instances of 
assistance afforded by the government towards the cultivation of 
cotton, which, he said, had been attended with great success; and 
said he was informed that the capitalists and merchants of Bombay 
were establishing in various localities, at the various railway sta- 
tions, machinery for cleaning, pressing, and packing cotton. 

But he had not re-enacted Lord Canning's minute for the dis- 
posal of waste lands ; he did not tell the house how mucli of the 
expenditure on roads was for merely military purposes; the import 
duties on cotton goods into India were still in operation ; and he 
did tell the house that capitalists and merchants of Bombay "wen 



EXPENDmiRE ON IMPHOVEMENTS. 

also preparing to weave a description of cotton goods that would 
not interfere with English manufacture, but would supersede the 
wasteful process of hand-loom weaving, and allow the persons, who 
were so employed, to engage in agricultural pursuits." 

Here is the statement of an importaut fact The import duties 
on Manchester goods encouraged the building of mills for spinning 
in Bombay, and their continuance has now secured the next step — 
the commencement of weaving factories. It is indisputable, for we 
have it even on the authority of Sir Charles Wood, that India couH 
profitably grow a good quality of cotton, as cheaply as any other 
place upon earth, if the great quasi landlord (the government) would 
only give them proper encouragement, by providing the means of 
irrigation and of communication : it is equally indisputable that 
Lancashire can maniifacture cotton more cheaply than any other 
country, and the interest of England and India, therefore, dictates 
the freest possible commercial intercourse; and yet the secretary 
for India prevents this intercourse, by the imposition of protective 
duties, because that is the easiest mode of raising a present revenue, 
although it sacrifices the growth in farvour of the manufacture of 
cotton. It is the fable of the goose which laid the golden e^s, put 
into actual practice by Sir Charles Wood. 

Large as is the sum spent during the last seven years on India, 
it represents less than two years" revenue, after a hundred years 
of neglect and extortion ; and it must never be forgotten that 
the first duty of a government is to develop the resources of a 
country; and the first step in development la the provision of roada 
The Komans understood this duty when they came to Britain, and 
performed it so well that we derive benefit from their work even 
now. In India, works for irrigation, and piers for the convenience 
of loading and unloading the imported and exported merchandise, 
are equally necessary, and might all be made sources of permanent 
revenue. But Sir Charles has indicated his willingness to spend 
any amount of money for a we 11 -digested plan, and perhaps the 
profitable outlay of a great landlord at home may, in some respects, 
exhibit a picture of what is to be desired for India. 

Tho Ntwca-itle Chronicle, at tlie decease of the late Duke of 

North uml)erland, gave the following particulars respecting his 

estates :— " The extent and nature of his grace's poseessions in the 

. coimty may be summed up as follows :-^ 



f 



In woodlandB S.CHJO 

Id hill paatnres, gna* lands, &o. . . 1I6,SOO 

In tillage ocoapation 38.900 

In waste rook, tea abore, &c. . 4,700 

ln»ll 163,800 

The average size of the farms ia nbout two hundred and fifty acres ; 
the largest arable farm belonging to the duke is nine hundrwt 
acres. The following abstracts of the amounts expended by the I 
duke on the estate since lie came into possession, in 1847, will show 
how clearly his grace understood bis responsibilities as a large land 
proprietor, and how fiiUy he discharged them. Tlie amounts, under 
their respective heads, are made up to December 31, 1863, and are 
exclusive of the large outlay upon Alnwick Castle and other resi- 
dences, churcbes, parsonages, &c. : — 

For roads, bridges, Stc. . . , £39,989 1 
For baiidingR, cotlagee, &c. . . 308,336 13 9 
For draining 176,68! 4 



£524,607 16 10" 



The Duke of Northumberland found it advantageous to him- 
self to spend, in sixteen years, ^3, 59. per acre, or upwards of three 
shillings per annum, two-fifths of which was for roads, bridges, and 
draining alone, in a country supposed to be pretty well developed 
already ; whUst Sir Charles Wood boasts of an expenditure of 
shillings and a penny per acre in seven years, or a little over ten- 
pence per annum, in a country where bullocks have to carry cottoo 
one thousand miles to port ; and the fact is, that a large portion 
of that amount will not sensibly benefit the people of India, being 
intended mainly to facilitate military operations. 

It is not assumed by the above parallel that the duties of the 
government of India include a larger share of landlord responsi- 
bilities than the provision of roads and piers, and the iraprovetnent 
of water courses ; if, in addition to this, they would do wliat ia in- 
cumbent on all governments — provide good laws, and see tbeiu w«U 
adminiatered — we should soon have a different state of affairs; and 
India would, indeed, become " the brightest jewel in the Bf 
crown." 



CHAPTER XXIT. 



Objects of th« M&ncherter Cottan Compuij — EipBctatiaiu of Govermnent H^lp— 
Promisea of the Indiui Secretary— Dr. Forbe* on the Neouttuty for Koaila and 
Piani in IniKa— Evidenoa o( the Indian Manage of the Company — The Madra* 
Timtt "B the Necesaary Meaaurea tu Insure Cotton Cultivation— Lorb of Capital, 
and Winding-up of the Company — The Anglo-Indian Cotton Compuiy — 
Conclunion. 

The Manchester Cotton Company (Limited) originated in a meeting 
held in the, town hftll, Manchester, 14th September, 1860. Its 
nominal capital was XI UO.OOO, afterwards raised to £1 ,0UO,0OO. The 
prospectus stated the objects of the company to be — " To encourage 
and promote the increaaed cultivation of cotton in every part of 
the world suited to its growth ; to create a direct and thoroughly 
effective agency between the grower of cotton in India, Australia, 
Africa, the West Indies, and other countries, and the consumer in 
England." The suggested proapectiis, wliich accompanied the 
circular calling the meeting, said:- — ^■' India pos.sesses the great 
requisites for growing cottj3n for useful and general purjxises of 
consumption, and probably in no other country can it be grown so 
cheaply, or better adapted to the wants of the most extensive sec- 
tion of the great cotton industry. To the supplies of cotton from 
the East Indies, it is therefore recommended that nine-tenths of 
the capital of the company shall be devoted. " * ' It is believed 
that in the East Indies and in Australia, the government will ren- 
der every possible facility, wliich can contribute to the success of 
the great object of the company. The government will make free 
grants of land, or concessions of land on terma almost equal to a 
gift; and assistance, where needed, to procure labour would be 
afforded. The government officers would be instructed to support 
the just interests of the company, and to protect its rights and 
property." The third paragraph in the prospectus, as ultimately 
issued, ran thus : — " The company will endeavour to stimulate a 
large ly-increatied production of cotton of improved quality, by the 
introduction of superior kinds of seed, the best agncultural imple- 



i 



^ 



438 



FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 



nicnta, machinery for cleaning, and presses for packing ; and, with 
the promised aid of government, will co-operate in developing 
creased facilities of transport," 

The rate at which new machinery for the cotton manufactnre 
was being produced, in 1861), was sufficient to use up an extra foiir 
hundred thousand bales of cotton per annum; and there wa 
possibility of any such increase of cotton being procured from the 
Southern States of North America. This, and the fear of disasten. 
in America, were the pleas urged to prove the necessity for the 
establishment of the Manchester Cotton Company. But no one pre- 
sent at the inauguration meeting seems to liave had the slightert 
idea of the manner in which the immediately pending crisis would 
be brought about Mr. Bazley, M.P., who occupied the chair, 
asked — " Is it safe, is it discreet, for a commercial country to de- 
pend mainly on one source of supply — and that a foreign source — 
for the chief part of its raw material ? If unhappily some great 
calamity should arise— if disease should attack the black popuhk- 
tion of North America — if a revolt should occur there — if tempest 
should destroy a crop — what recriminations should we hear OB 
the part of statesmen, and merchants, traders, manufacturers, and 
spinners, about the negligence and culpability of some persons who 
had not, by provident regulation, arranged for more regular and 
less dependent supply of this great raw material : " 

The first annual report showed that the executive committee 
had, by deputation and otherwise, been in communication with the 
Right Honourable Sir Cljariea Wood, the secretary for India, and 
that the government had agreed: — 1st To order the completion 
of the road at Kyga Ghat, from Dharwar to Sedaslicgur, without 
delay. — 2nd. To construct a landing and shipping pier at Sedashe* 
gur, — 3rd. To afford to the company the opportunity of purchasing 
land at the new port of Sedashegur for the erection of cotton-gin 
factories, presshouses, offices, and stores. — 4th. To send out instruc- 
tions to the various government officers to afford to Mr. Haywood, 
the special commissioner of the company to India, all the assistance 
and information in their power. 

The special commissioner sailed in July, ISfil, with instructioni 
to procure an interview, when in E^ypt, with the viceroy, and to pan 
through and report upon the cotton districts of that country. On 
arrival at Bombay he was to inquire into and report upon the present 



■rw 



PROMISES OF THE INDrAN SECRETART, 439 

system of conducting tlie cotton trade ; to seek out suitable a>;entB 
fur the company's operations ; to settle the position of the preeshouse 
at Sedashegur ; to report on the progress of the harbour and pier, 
and on the condition of the road from Sedashegur to Bunkapoor ; 
to visit the cotton districts of Dharwar, and to decide the place for 
the head quarters of the company. 

At the date of the first report (August, 1862) there had been 
sent out seven hundred and twenty-four cotton gins, sL\ large 
hydraulic presses, ten screw presses, fifty bullock-power machines, 
two steam engines and the requisite shafting, &c.; which, it was 
estimated, would suffice to clean one thousand four hundred bales 
of cotton per week, or seventy-two thousand eight hundred bales, of 
four hundred pounds each, per annum; whilst thesis presses would 
press one bale per minute. A second ship load of machinery and 
stores had also been despatched. But, when the special com- 
missioner had completed hia work, and was ready to leave India, 
the road from Sedashegur to Dharwar was not available for use ; 
it had been made twelve feet wide, but so made, that the monsoon 
had washed it away again. 

The second report of the company, dated ith Soptembor, 1863, 
stated that a deputation to Sir Charles Wood on the 25th October, 
1862, had complained of the non-fulfihnent of the promises of the 
government, to construct a landing and shipping pier at the Bay of 
Beitcul, and to construct a road, leading from the Bay of Eeitcul to 
the cotton fields of Dharwar. Sir Charles repeatedly denied having 
made any such promises; whilst Messrs. J. Piatt (now ALP. for Old- 
ham) aud W, Wanklyn, both of whom were present at the time 
when the promise was affirmed to have been given, reiterated that 
tiie formation of the company was based upon the undertaking of 
the government, to open roads between the port and the cotton fields. 
To show the necessity of such roads, the chairman of the annual 
meeting read from a communication by Dr. Forbes (the reporter 
on Indian products to the government), dated 5th March, 1861, 
as follows: — 

" The want of good roads and other means of communication 
between the interior and the sea-board, as well as of suitable con- 
venience for the shipment of produce at the existing ports, are 
still, as tliey long have been, the acknowledged impediments to t}ie 
'development of India's resources. This is more especially the case 



4i0 



PACTS OF THB COTTON FAMINE, 



as regards the production of cotton ; and nowhere is it more per- 
ceptibly felt than in the praviuces of the Southern Mohratts 
country, to which you are turning your attention. 

" The cotton exported from these districts is at jn^sent taken 
to the port of Compta, whence it is conveyed in native open boats 
to Bombay harbour, for final shipment to England. At Compta 
there is what is called an iuland creek, in which these native boats 
might find shelter in bad weather, were it not that a formidable 
' bar' prevents them obtaining access to it. They are consequently 
compelled to remain outside, at anchor in an open road3tea«l. exposed 
to the dangers of a lee shore, should a storm set in ; and daring 
tlie period of the soiith-west monsoon (which may be at anj- time 
from May to September} they very rarely attempt to approach tho 
placa Owing also to the imperfect state of the communicatiou 
with the interior, only a very small proportion of the cotton of each 
season, finds its way to Compta (even from the nearest districts) in 
time for the boat transport to Bombay ; the remainder b^j; 
detained at the places of growth, imperfectly stored, and ill pro- 
tected from the wet and damp of the monsoon. 

" To add to this evil also, so ill adapted is Compta for the export of 
produce, owing to local difficulties, such as unbridged creeks, water- 
courses, &c., in the immediate neighbourhooil of the harbour; that 
cotton, after arriving at that place, has to undergo no less than five 
changes of transpoH before it is depositeil on hoard the native boats 
in the roadstead; and the result is, that the actual cost of its 
port, even thus far on its way to England (about seventy sliiUings 
per ton), very nearly equals that of its cultivation and production. If i 
to this is added deterioration ol' quality, from tlie causes mentioned, 
and the interest of capital sunk by the time lost under the present 
system of exportation — ^which rarely admits of the produce arriving, 
at home under eighteen months — aome idea may be formed of thft 
disadvantages which India's cotton has to contend with, in competing 
with that of America 

" It is to the necessity for the immediate construction of one oi 
two piers that I would be^ to draw your attention ; and in doinf 
so, I also wish to repretjeut that the work can only be looked upM 
as bearing directly upon commercial interests ; aud a» tu m 
cotton aloue is concerned, the result would be — taking the 



freight at fifty sliilliugs per ton, and a 



^ twenty-six shil 



THE NECESSITY FOR ROADS AND PIERS. 441 

"toland carriage, and say two ahillin^ for final pressing — that the 
[.irodiice would be conveyed from the cotton fields to Liverpool, at a 
cost of £Z. ISs. per ton, iDstead of being subjected to an expense 
of £7. 5s., as is the case at present by the Bombay route; or, iu 
other words, that the Lancashire apinnera might have it delivered 
at their doors, at actually less cost of carriage than the Bombay 
mills have to pay for it at present, which is about £i. 15s. per ton." 

These reasonings were intended to show the advantages of the 
jwrt of Sedaahegur for tlie purposes of the cotton company ; and 
we add two more facts from the same authority, viz. : Firat, that 
" there are no wharves at Bombay harbour ; cotton bales have, 
therefore, to be put on board ship by means of boats, and ship cap- 
tains assert that, even in that port, where every convenience is pro- 
vided, the expense of boat hire, superintendence, &c., amounts to 
three rupees, or sis shillings, per ton." Second, " a better harbour 
than Sedashegur offers, with easy access to such cotton fields as 
those of the Southern Mahratta country, cannot be shown upon the 
map of India ; and, besides the fact that by no other means can 
the valuable cotton produce of these districts beobtainod so cheaply 
and expeditiously as by this channel, it can be shown that, of all the 
projects now under consideration for increasing our coluniid exports 
of cotton, from India and elsewhere, there is not one capable of 
being realised with aiich immediate results." 

Here we have proof from a government official of the necessity 
and the value, both to India and to England, of the work which the 
company had engaged to perform. But it is impossible to give, in 
a small space, a comprehensive view of the difficulties which the 
company had to encounter. They (whether justified or not in their 
conclusions) acted upon the full faith of a government promise that, 
by the time their first vessel got to the port of Sedashegur, a pier and 
road would be ready for thtm ; instead of which they found'no ap- 
pearance of a pier, and were obliged to land their machinery from 
deep water, three quarters of a mile from where it was needed ; and 
then found no road by which to transport it. Then there was a six 
weeks' (]uarrei between the Madras and Bombay governments, as to 
which the port of Sedashegur belonged, and the company could not 
get possession until this was settled ; then they had to build a pier for 
themselves, in order to anticipate the arrival of the second vessel with I 
_ machinery and stores. If they had been ready to use the promised ■ 



442 



FACTS OP THE COTTON FAMWE. 



road over the Qhauts the first season after their arrival, it would not 
have been available ; and when it was really mode, it was so madt 
that the &rst monsoon washed it away. In March, 1863, the nai 
which was promised to be ready in November, 18(il, was still incom- 
plete ; and thii manager of the company had to send round by 
Compta, gins, presses, cattle, engines, and machinery, for a workshop' 
at Hoobiee, ninety-two miles from Beitcul. The Indian manager 
Bays he rode over the Ryga Ghat road in April, 1864, and found it 
Btill in a very unfinished state. The de!aj-s and difEcultiea to whiiA 
the company had been subjected, had then lost them two years' trader 
dissipated much of their capital, and dissatisfied the ahareholden. 
They saw, with great mortifi cation, that whilst office clerks and men 
without capital had, in Liverpool, in Bombay, and in Calcutta, made 
tens of thousands of pounds, during the three years of the American 
war, by dealing in cotton; they had £70,000 lying idle and meltinf 
away, in the country from whence the bulk of this cotton had come; 
and where its active use in cotton purchases, would probably have 
realised a thousand per cent. But they were now ready for active 
work, having established machinery at three stations in the inte- 
rior, as well as at the port; and hoped slowly to retrieve their 
disasters ; and, whilst making good profits for themselves, to be of 
considerable servicetolndiaand to England. They bad surmounted 
difficulties which, except for the extraordinary tircumstAoces of the 
times, and the absolute necessity of gathering the raw material Irom 
every possible source, would have driven them from the peniusula; 
they had mis.sed a golden harvest fur the present, but had laid the 
foundations for future and permanent usefulness. The cultivaton 
of, and dealers in, cotton, in the Dharwar district, had also missel 
the opportunity of dealing direct with England, during the season 
of highest prices ; and the export to England, being thereby leo- 
sened, the cotton operatives and the general public at borne, had 
also suffered from this governmental neglect. The duty of ntii 
making, if not pier building, is admitted, and is promised to be per- 
formed ; but the neglect which ensues, and the manner of the work, 
when done, are alike suggestive of the great "circumlocution offioe," 
and illustrative of the axiom — " How not to do it !" 

The Madras Tirrue (copied into the Mavcheater Guardian of 
21st October, 1864), speaking of cotton cultivation in India, saysi — 
"Kr. Brown, of Aujarakaudy, whose practical koowledgc of the 



THE "MADRAS TIMES" ON COTTON CULTIVATION. 4+3 

subject we are now discussiDg few individuals, unconnected with 
officiaJdom, will be prepared to queation, nttributea the nuD of 
cotton cultivation in this country, to the selfish and oppressive 
system of government, pursued for so many years by the late 
East India Company ; and in a recently-published pamphlet upon 
' The Supply of Cotton from ludia' he very succinctly sets forth 
the reasons, and adduces the facts, which warrant the conclu- 
sion to which he arrives. That conclusion is, to use his own 
words, that 'a Sirkar proclamation should be put forth in the 
most authoritative maimer, and personally circulated by the col- 
lectors of the provinces; suspending for five years, the tax on all 
land, that in the yearly rotation of crops may be cidtivated with 
cotton; leaving the tax on all other land untouched.' No measure 
short of this will, in the opinion of Mr. Brown, ' directly reach the 
grower; nor will any other secure his receiving the price he ought 
to get for his cotton ; for no other will enable him to hold his cotton, 
and save him from being obliged to take the Bunniah's price for it, 
in onler to pay his money land tax.' The proposition is not a new 
one. Mr. Brown urged its adoption twenty-five years ago, and, in 
a powerfully- written letter to government, dated August 10, 1862, 
again pressed its consideration upon our local rulers. These autho- 
rities condemned it as being not only 'opposed to sound policy,' but 
liable also to render 'every experiment unsatisfactory and incon- 
clusive.' Other objections, of greater force, have been brought 
against it, which our space will not allow us to enter upon more 
fully ; and the fact that the home government have already more 
than once expressly prohibited its trial, is perhaps quite sufficient 
to render any further efforts to obtain even its experimental adop- 
tion futile. In remembering, however, the acknowledged inabihty 
of the government to aid the native cultivator, in his attempts to 
compete with the slave owner of America, we should bear in mind 
that ample evidence has been afforded, of the case with which the 
cotton plant can be naturalised in this country. It can be, and has 
been, grown in eveiy climate ranging from that which is rainless, 
to tracts where the annual rainfall is from one hundred and twenty 
to one hundred and forty inches ; and it thrives not only in that 
rich black earth which has become identified with its name {'cotton 
soil'), but also in the ordinary red clay which principally consti- 
s the rest of the agricultural soil of India, 



444 FACTS OF THE COTTOy FIMISE. 

" Let Tia now, for a momeut, turn our eyes from India to Tar* 
key. There. aUo, for many year* the cotton trade was coraparatirel; 
annihilated by American competition. But immedintely the pro- 
spect of a failure of the cotton supply from the United States j»e- 
sentod itself, what did the Turkish government do i It abolished, 
for five years, all tases upon cotton-gTowing land, and set apart 
money for the construction of roada. And what haa been the result 
of a step so (according to our government's views) "opposed to Btmai 
policy?' Let the following extract from a short article in Uie 
Smyrna Mail bear witness: — ^'It ib estimated that Turkey will 
produce this year from five hundred thousand to six hundreil thou 
sand bales of cotton — without Egypt; and should the present 
high prices continue, it will give the startling result, that Turkey 
will receive nearly one-quarter of the value of the whole Ameri' 
can crop of cotton sent to England four years ago ; thus proving 
that circumstances may be such as to permanently enrich a cuuntiy, 
if the government fosters and protects its resources.' And not 
only ia Turkey is cotton cultivation making such significant strides 
onwards. In Italy it is being carried on with marked and u 
creasing success. In Sardinia, in Ellta, and even in parts of Pied- 
mont, we read and hear of its rapid progress. But it is only to 
poor misruled India, with its unblushing, obstinate, and inc»- 
pable state secretary, and its meek, helpless, and timid load 
governments, that the retributive embarrassments of slave-driving 
America, have failed to prove an opportunity for stimulating tb« 
industry of the many, instead of pandering to the passion of the 
gambling, grasping, speculating few." 

Mr. Bazley, in The Exchange, for Januan-, 18G2, speaking »jf 
the capacity of India for the growth of cotton, says : — " From the 
Dharwar district, cotton is now obtained of a quality quite eqoid 
to middling American, and which j-ields satisfactory profit to 
cultivator ; and for this boon a great debt of gratitude is duo W 
Mr. Shaw, who caused the average yield to be quadrupled, and iw 
market-worth per pound to be doubleii. thereby afibrding an eigbU 
fold benefit to the ryots, who now declare that their cotton cuUan 
is their gold gathering — their whole crop being now about IWO 
himdred thousand bales. If every part of India, where cotton 
grown, were rendered equally productive, tlie entire crop would be 
four times the extent of the present yield ; and the market price of 



WL\1)ING-DP OF THE MANCHESTER COTTOS COMPANY. 445 

' the superior produce being double that of the inferior, we ahould 
Lave the eightfold ailvantage extended over the whole duminioD ; 
nnd in place of a yearly production of four million bales, for which 
the ryot has not been paid an average of twopence per pound, there 
would be grown Rixteen million bales, worth i:9(J,000,000 ! Tempt- 
ing as this picture is, it really only represents half the advantage 
which would accrue from the improved cultivation of cotton in 
India ; because, any large portion of such a crop of cotton, coming 
to this country, would only be paid for by extended exports, chiefly 
of cotton manufactures." 

At the annual meeting of the Manchester Cotton Company, 
held in the summer of 1SC4, the report of the governmental annoy- 
ances and neglect, and the consequent loss of capital, was so dis- 
heartening, that it led to a resolution to wind-up ; and the whole 
stock and plant in India, which had cost nearly £70,000, was ulti- 
mately Sold, to a firm of enterprising Indian merchants, for about 
£17,000. Such a result is moat thsappointing and i^gravatingi 
but there is still room for hope that the company proposed to be 
founded, in India, upon these ruina, may, by active superintendence 
on the spot, together with a fuller understanding of the necessitiee 
and difficulties of the trade, meet with better auccesa The machi- 
nery i-i there — the workshops are pn.' pared— roads will surely be 
some day ready — and earnings, which would leave the defunct 
company without dividend, will suffice to pay six per cent to the 
new operators. 

But a little more energy, and a somewhat higher sense of jus- 
tice, in the mind of Sir Charles Wood, might have saved the capital 
of this company ; and by aitUng its operations, would, by securing 
its success, have led to further efforts irom this side ; and Lave thus 
induced a lai^e measure of prosperity both here and in India. But 
in whatever direction we look, the same complaints about the secre- 
tary for India meet us ; rendering it evident that the short-sighted- 
ness of a single official is sacrificing the interests of both countries. 
Lord Stanley saw the wisdom of the course proposed by the Cotton 
Supply Association, the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, and 
the Manchester Cotton Company, and Lord Canning inaugurated 
the change required ; but Sir Charles Wood has stopped all pro- 
gress ; the waste landd are not sold, because they are not offered on 

I saleable terms ; a proper law of contract is not passed, and the 



4+0 PACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE, 

required roads ioto the cottoD distncts, which are to open the way 
to unexampled prosperity, are delayed, because prosi)erity is not 
already achieved. 

A company called " The Anglo-Indian Cotton Company" was 
originated in 1862, also in Manchester; and the directors prudently 
sent out their manager to India, before taking any practical steps; 
and on the receipt of his report, setting forth the difficulties to he 
encountered, they also prudently resolved for the present, to keep 
their money in the bank. The great want of India is English 
capital, accompanied by English energy ;' and any amount of Eng- 
lish capital and EnglL^h energy are ready for a good investmeol. 
India and England hold uiit their arms to each otiier, ready for a 
prosperous and permanent union, but the secretary for India for- 
bids the banns. Lord Russell aids the cultivation of cotton in e?ery 
suitable foreign country ; Sir Charles Wood hinders it in onr chief 
dependency. Either this hindrance is the work of one official, or 
else the collective action of the government says practically — ^" We 
will aid in the cultivatiotfaud improvement of the staple uf cotton, 
anywhere and everywhere e.tcept in India ; that is our great nilE- 
tary farm, and we don't want commercial settlers there." 

We have no wifib to adjudicate between Sir Charles Wood and 
the various commercial bodies and cotton companies; but, after ids 
own acknowledgment of the successful experiments in Dharwarand 
Madras, and after the stimulant of the great prices of the last tbiee 
years, we may surely hope for an improved quality and lai^ 
quantity of cotton from India; and, since the revenue is now |WD»' 
perous, we may also hope for the utmost freedom of coi 
intercourse between this country and the Indian peniusuljL 



We have now completed our task; and, to the best of our ability,! 
brought down the history of Lancashire industry to present date I 
We have found that a county, which is inferior in soil and climats I 
to many in the United Kingdom, has yet, by means of its staple I 
employment, increased in population and in real propt-ny mon I 
rapidly than any other. We have seen how, in consequence i>f the f 



coscLUsroN. 4i7 

cheftpneas and tbe peculiar adaptaltility of the cotton fibre to almost 
all tbe purposes of clothing, it bas to a considerable extent super- 
seded liuen, woollen, and silk, amongst the majority of tbe inhabi- 
tants of this country ; and has also come to rank first in the annual 
returns of eiports. We bave seen the gi'owing demand for goods, 
aided by tbe mechanical genius which necessity seems always to 
develop, supersede tbe domestic wheel and loom by tbe most per- 
fect machinery ever produced; and the free and easy home life of 
the people, exchanged for systematic and associated work, earned 
on with as much regularity and punctuality as the alternations of 
day and night. Under this system, we have seen industrial life 
develop into massive strength, and associations of workmen, ty 
means of trade and friendly societies, grappling on equal terms with 
rich capitalists ; occasionally doing great mischief, but struggling 
gradually, and with much effort, into the -knowledge and practice 
of economical laws — saving and productively applying, instead of 
wasting capital ; and bidding fair to become ere long, as their great 
grandfathers once wore, owners of much of tbe machinery which 
affords them employment. 

We have seen towns rise bo rapidly, under tbe stimulus of this 
great industry, that there has been no chance for regular plans, 
either for streets or for buildings, and no opportunity for sanitary 
arrangements ; so that, whilst population has increased much more 
rapidly than ordinary, the grim spectre. Death, has also secured 
much more than his proper share. 

We have seen how Anglo-Saxon enei^, even under tbe ener- 
vating influences of a tropical or semi-tropical climate, in tbe 
Southern States of North America, has yet practically superseded 
the cotton growth of all other countries; and extended the accursed 
legacy left to them by this country, until it threatened to become a 
permanent slave empire. We have seen "vaunting ambition o'er- 
leap itself," and the boasted strength of eight millions of people, 
holding in bondage four millions of human chattels, completely 
paralysed, and their country reduced again to chaos; whilst tbe 
shock of the convulsion bas crossed three thousand miles of ocean, 
and has shaken the foundations of society in Lancashire ; demon- 
strating practically what many persons had attempted to teach — 
tbe fatal danger of reliance upon one investment for safety and 
progress. 



k 



as FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMIXE. 

We have endeavoured to depict the coodition and saSeruigs of 
tbe people under their great trials^ — the unexampled lienevolenca 
which sprang to their aid — the organisations which were impro- 
vised for the collection and distribution of funds — the action of tha 
poor-law board, and of tbe various boards of guardians; and we hav© 
found that, whilst the provisions of the poor-law were quite 
a^lequate to the requirementa of ordinary times, special nieas 
were necessary for special occasions; and that a wider area of mttnjf 
will be a permanent improvement. We have also tried to calculsta 
the losses of workmen and employers; and to follow the course <f 
the diverted current of demand, from the cotton, through the Uoen^ 
woollen, and worsted trades ; and we have tried to extract a monl 
from the whole. 

Tbe master ev*]! — dependence upon a single source of supply 
for the raw material of a great manufacture — will probably be efleo* 
tually dealt with, for many years to come, by the joint op«^raticlO 
of the Cotton Supply Association, or some organisation springing 
out of it, and the abolition of American slavery, which latter i 
sure will make the competition equal in all cotton -growing a 
tries; but there are various minor features of Lancashire Life which 
will require earnest and patient attention. 

The great demand for juvenile labour prevents education; and 
it will be necessary, in the absence of a rate-paid education in ftM 
schools, with compulsory powers of attendance, to generaliso the 
Factories Education Act, so as to make it applicable to all eniplof- 
ments, thus making employers reaponsible for the instructJon of 
their juvenile workers; and it will also be necessary to take 
measures to secure the competence of the teachers in bcUay 
schools. If, in addition to this, the elective franchise was con- 
ferred upon all youths, as soon as they reach tweuty-one jwt 
of age, who shall have earned certificates, under the examinations 
of the Society of Arts, the Government Science Department, or ibe 
middle-clasa examinations of the Oxford, Cambridge, and I>urban 
universities, an immense impetus would be given to secondary edu- 
cational institutes and to self-culture; and the esaminations abort 
referred to would be extended and perpetuated. 

One humiliating peculiarity of Lancashire is the excess of fcnuJa 
crime ; arising, probably, from the early independence of girls, and 
from the loss of the domestic and home influences, involved by Um 



CONCLUSIOS. 



449 



fectory work of married woDien. How thia great pvil is to be 
remedied is fm from plain ; and we can only hope that improved 
oducation will achieve the desired result. 

The Public Works Act, and the Union Chargeability Act, are the 
immediate offspring of the cotton famine; and if the first of these 
were rendered permanent, ao that in any future calamity it might be 
at once resorted to, much evil would be prevented ; for a considerable 
proportion of such works as are aot forth in Appendix No. 2 could 
be accomplished by unskilled labourers, under efficient superin- 
tendence ; and the sanitary results of these worka, are quite a suffi- 
cient recommendation for their being undertaken, in any locality 
where there is a single mile of unpaved or unsewered street, or 
where proper water works or cemetery do not already exist; whilst 
the terms on which the money can be profitably lent by government 
(three and a half per cent) makes the burden of repayment almost 
unfelt With regard to the Union Chargeability Act, its ofwrntion, 
in any similar crisis, will inevitably point to the adoption uf a still 
wider basia for rating; Ijecause the diffierences of rating, l>etween 
union and union, will be quite as great, as were the dilferenceH 
between township and township, in the same union, prior to the 
passage of the bill; and there i» no reason for equalising the rates 
between township and township, which does not apply, witli the 
same force, between union and union, or even between county and 
connty, except that each union is under separate jurisdiction, which 
ttter is also capable of remedy. 



r 



The final business meeting of the general committee was held 
December ♦th, 1805, when the reports from the various districts 
showed that the recipients of parochial relief had fallen to within 
seven hundred and thirty of those at the same date in ISfil, when 
the stoppage of mills had barely commenced. So small a re- 
siduum of pauperism, from a long period of severe distress, is 
unparalleled; and speaks well for the independent character of 
Lancashire operatives, and also for the management of the hoards 
of guardians and relief committees. It is singularly pleasing also, 
to find that of the localities which suflered first and most heavily 
from the cotton famine, Wigan alone remains more heavily bur- 
dened than usual, having 1,178 more recipients of relief than in 
November, 186! ; whilst Ashton, Blackburn, Glossop, Preston, and 



♦30 FACTS OF THE COTTOS FAMETEL 

Stockport have reapectively 410, 27. 26. 2.428, and 485 fewer 
dependente than at the former seasoa In Buiy and in Cborilon- 
upon- Med lock distress Btlll lingers; but elsewhere the guardiatu 
of the poor feel that "the cotton famine has come and gume," and 
they have now returned to their ordinary duties — looking aA«r pCT<- 
maneDt and casual case^ and enforcing disagreeable tests to axre 
the pockets of the ratepayers. 

The busineas of the committee ended very appropriately in a 
hearty vote of thanks to the central executive ; and the ioauguia- 
tion of a testimonial in recognition of the senices of Mr. Maclurc, 
the honorary secretary. 

The following report of the central executive was received and 
adopted : — 

"At the meeting of the general committee in March last, a 
hope waa expressed that it might he possible during the summer 
montlid entirely to discontinue the diatributiou of relief through 
the local committees. This anticipation, the central esecutire 
committee is happy to state, has been fully realised, and since the 
19th June last, no grants have been made to any district Your 
committee trusts that it will not be necessary to resume the dis- 
tribution of relief ; but in the still exceptional state of the cotton 
trade, it Is thought more prudent to defer the consideration of tht 
disposal of the balance remaining in the treasurer's hands. It is 
with no little satisfaction that your committee contemplates the 
extraordinary crisis which has been passed through since 1862. 
There has actually been a diminution of crime under circumstances 
when, from compulsory idleness and poverty, an increase might 
have been expected. Notwithstanding the gloomy forebodings oi 
those who, in the early part of the distress, expressed their opinion 
that the distribution of relief through exceptional channels, would 
tend to a permaneut incnease of pauperism in the district, retonu 
from twenty-eight unions prove that the pauperism of the cotton 
district has been reduced to the ordinary level. As the Usl week 
in November, 1862, was the time when almost the largest Dumber 
of persons were in receipt of relief,* returns have been ohtmnttl 

* The k^Mt nnmber reliered at any one time »aa in December, 1S63, «hn 
two hnndred and thirty-foor tboaBaad oJgiit hundred and atxlr-iix were rdieved hj 
tbe local committcefl, and Iwo bandred and fifty tbooaand fire bandri^ aod eigfatf- 

J eight by the guardians, making a total of foar hundred and eightj-fire ' 

L. Jbar hnndrod and filly-fonr penaos in leceipl of relief. 



CONCLUSION. 



451 



from the guardians for the corresponding week in November, 18G5 ; 
and the following figures show the numbers relieved by them at 
that time in 1861 and 1865, and by the guardians and relief com- 
mittees in 1862, 1863, and 1864 : 









18dl. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


AHhtonnnder-Ljne . 1,827 


66,863 


23,668 


20,638 


1,417 


Bftrton-on-Irwell . . 


. 663 


8,910 


1,230 


1,220 


896 


Blackburn . . . 




4,110 


88,104 


9,467 


10,012 


4,083 


Bolton . . . 






3,200 


19,626 


8,013 


6,643 


3,166 


Burnley . . . 






1,503 


17,502 


3,016 


6,948 


1,557 


Bury .... 






1,782 


20,926 


10,048 


16,113 


2,932 


Chorley . . . 






1,350 


7,527 


3,409 


2,471 


1,155 


Chorlton . . . 






2,042 


16,367 


9,984 


6,694 


3,993 


Clitheroe . . . 






624 


1,379 


976 


1,138 


547 


Fylde (The) . . 


« 




633 


1,282 


1.086 


771 


699 


Garstang . . . 






667 


1,026 


696 


807 


458 


GloBsop . . . 






221 


7,606 


. 6,762 


3,263 


195 


HaBlingden 






046 


17,346 


3,340 


7,108 


1,243 


Lancaster . . 






903 


1,129 


1,026 


901 


789 


Leigh i . 






636 


2,722 


1,091 


901 


806 


Macclesfield 






2,168 


6,609 


2,776 


2,429 


2,319 


Manchester • , 






4,678 


62,477 


13,818 


9,036 


5,046 


Oldham . . . 






1,622 


28,861 


8,371 


9,164 


1,892* 


Preston . . 






4,805 


49,171 


17,489 


13,226 


2,377 


Prestwich 






601 


4,794 


1,958 


1,078 


593 


Rochdale . . 






2,060 


24,961 


8,132 


6,243 


1,789 


Saddle'vvorth 






237 


2,414 


1,287 


988 


261 


Salford . . 






2,607 


16,663 


6,600 


3,600 


2,265 


8kipton . . . 


\ 




1,902 


2,636 


1,856 


2.030 


1,354 


Stockport 






1,674 


34,612 


10,661 


8,503 


1,189 


Todmor^en . 






706 


7,690 


1,689 


2.696 


668 


Warrington . 






1,131 


1,992 


1,416 


1,468 


1,220 


Wigan . . 






2,360 


14,969 


11,627 


6,866 


3,538 


Total 


I 




. 47.637 


468,441 


170.268 


149,923 


48.267 



* RetnnoB for prerknia week inaerted, this week'i not hariiig been MQt in yet. 

"Your committee cannot refrain from expressing at this oppor- 
tunity its highest sense of the credit due to the local committees 
for the results it is now able to record ; the self-denial, energy, 
and judgment which these bodies have brought to bear upon their 
labours cannot be over-estimated. The balance in hand of this 
fund is now £37,546. 18s. ; and of the cotton districts relief fund 
j£59,674. 5s. 3d — Signed on behalf of the central executive 
committee. ., ^^^^^ chairman. 

" John Wm. MacLURE, honorary secretary." 



452 FACTS OF THE COTTON FAMINE. 

Mr. Rosa, preeident of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, 
read the minuteB of a epecial meeting of the central executive 
committee, at which it was unanimously resolved that a teatimonial 
from that committee should form primarily, a recognition of the 
valuable services of Mr. J. W. Maclure, the honorary secretary of 
the relief fund ; and that the resolution be communicated to the 
general committee, that it might take such steps as it deemed 
proper in support of the testimonial Lord Derby was requested 
to make the communication. The members of the central execu- 
tive committee had each contributed towards the object, and bad 
raised £l,0i>6, which would remain a sum entirely distinct from 
any additional subscription on the part of others. 

The Earl of Derby said: By the direction of the centnl 
executive committee, I have to bring before you the resolution, 
which has been passed unanimously by that body, with reference 
to the recognition of the services of Mr. Maclure. But before I 
say a word upon that subject, allow me to congratulate you and 
the county — which I think I may do most conscientiously — upon 
the satisfactory character of the report which you have just beard 
read. Not only has there been a reduction of the amount of 
pauperism, after the severe struggle through which the county 
has gone, to a figure very httle exceeding that of 18G1, which 
was in the highest and most flourishing state of the cotton 
manufacture, but there is a considerable sum stilt left in hand ; 
and, what I consider is of infinitely more importance than 
either the one or the other, there has been an in6nitely less 
amount of demoralisation and deterioration in the independent 
character of the working men of the county than could have been 
possibly expected, when so large a sum was to be distributed in 
gratuitous relief. I think those who were the most favourable to 
expenditure of money for the charitable purposes in which we have 
been employed, had forebo<ling8, and I confess that I bad myself 
forebodings, that such a large sum of money could not by poea- 
bility be expended, without a very injurious effect upon the 
character of the working classes, who bad to receive that amount 
of relief. And it is most satisfactory to perceive — and the Buren 
test of it is that there is no increase in the demand for parochial 
relief — that though to a certain extent that result may bavo 
followed, the result has been inaveryinfinitesimallysmall propor- 



CONCLUBIOS. 453 

tion to the amount of relief which has been afforded, and the risk 
which I don't hesitate to say was incurred. Gentlemen, in bring- 
ing before you the immediate subject of the resolution, I wiah to 
state, in tho first place, that I hope no discussion will take place 
now with regard to the final disposal of the surplus still remaining 
on band. Still more do I hope that no discussion will take place 
with regard to the best mode of dealing with that surplus, suppos- 
ing we had it in our power. But I think it may be convenient to 
say that in the course of the spring, the Bridgewater House com- 
mittee, contemplating the possilnlity of a surplus being finally left, 
thought themselves called upon to take the opinion of counsel 
as to whfit powers they had of diverting the sum to any other 
than the strict purpose for which it was subscribed. The opinion 
of counsel was that we had no power to divert it to any other 
purpose, except upon an application to the Court of Chancery; but 
that the Court of Chancery, taking into consideration all the 
circumstances of the case, would probably be disposed to look 
favourably upon any scheme which might be proposed by the 
committee, for the permanent disposal of the surplus still in hand. 
Now, it is quite obvious that any scheme of that kind requires 
very deliberate consideration, before it is submitted to the Court of 
Chancery. On the other hand, I think I may say, as the unani- 
mous opinion of the executive committee, that it is not desirable 
to keep on hand a very large balance beyond the time at which we 
may feel tolerably secure against any recurrence of the cotton 
famine. I think that it will not be thought desirable that the 
fond should remain in hand, to be looked upon as available for 
meeting any casual and temporary fluctuation of employment I 
think that there would be very serious injury done if that principle 
were acted npon, and that we ought to dispose finally of our 
surplus, as soon as we are satisfied that there ia no probability or 
reasonable expectation of anything approaching to the distress 
which we have gone through recurring again. But the state of 
the cotton trade is so uncertain, and must be so uncertain for the 
next few months, that I hope there will be a unanimous concur- 
rence in the opinion, that it is advisable to keep this fund on hand 
for a few months before its final disposal Now, gentlemen, in 
looking back to the period which we have gone through, of tliree 
I jrears of intense distress, there is one other most gratifying circum- 



*H FACTS OF THE COTTON TAXSSE. 

Btaoce to which I modt advert — the manner in which tliroughout 
the whole of the country, all c]a3sea and all ranks, have each in 
their several localities, exerted themselves towards the diminutioti 
of distre^ ; and not only by their pecuniary contributions, but by 
their personal labours and their personal supeiin tend e nee To 
the local committees the report does no more than justice, in 
speaking of the judgment, the discretion, the ability and zeal wi^ 
which they have discharged the duties which were imposed upon 
them — duties often very painful, very invidious — the duty of 
keeping a strict watch over the funds entrusted to their charge, 
and also the duty of bringing their cases before us without undoa 
pressure, or arguing too strongly in favour of their own personal 
and local interests. With regard to all these matters, we cannot 
but be moat grateful, for the services which have been reodcnd 
both by tbe local executive committees generally, ajid by thow 
gentlemen who have represented them on the central oxecotiTC 
committee. Members of that committee have also, each in thmr 
own districts. Laboured with a zeal, and diligence, and iuduKtiy, 
which I trust will in every case meet with their reward, in the 
increased respect and affection borne to them by their poorer 
neighboura But among all those who have laboured, and laboured 
diligently and earnestly, for the promotion of the great object we 
had in view, I thipk I may venture to say, without fear of contia- 
dictiou, that there has been no person whose services have been so 
unflagging, so invaluable, and so unceasing, as those of th^ booth 
rary secretary, Mr. Maclure. For three and a half years he hat 
gratuitously performed the duties of that office, and has to my own 
knowledge for weeks, I believe I might say for month-i together, 
devoted, certainly very much to his own inconvenience and lo«j, k 
period of not less than twelve hours out of every fuur-and-twenty, 
to the vast amount of business which pressed upon hira in reference 
to this relief committee. That the accounts have been kept with 
fidelity, care, and accuracy, that the money has not been waetefolly 
squandered, that a strict watch has been kept over it* appUcatian ; 
and finally, that as compared with the total amount exjicndod, tbe 
per centage required for superintendence and for expenses has been 
infinitely lower than ever was known with regard to a subscHption 
of this magnitude — for a very great portion of this we are certainly 
indebted to the care, tbe unceasing energy, and the vigilance which 



CONCLUSION. 455 

have been displayed by Mr. Maclure ; and it was the unanimous 
opinion of the central executive committee that it would be a 
matter of positive ingratitude if, at the period at which we have 
arrived, even although we have not possibly arrived at the final 
close of our labours, we were longer to defer such a recognition of 
his services as it was felt that they were fully and amply entitled 
to. I must say also that, the question having been raised whether 
it was competent or desirable that any portion of the public funds 
should be taken in order, not to remunerate (because really such 
services are beyond pecuniary remuneration), but to recognise the 
services which have been so rendered — the moment that question 
was raised, Mr. Maclure said that under no circumstances would he 
receive a single shilling, in remuneration for his services, from the 
funds which have been subscribed by the public. That being the 
case, and we being desirous of showing our esteem for Mr. Maclure, 
and the value attaching to his services — services which may in 
many cases have brought down upon him no inconsiderable amount 
of unpopularity in those districts where they felt the pressure put 
upon them by the central committee, we felt that it would be 
impossible for us longer to delay the expression of our own opinion ; 
and consequently, ^in the executive committee, it was agreed that 
we should subscribe among ourselves, as from the central execu- 
tive, a sum of money sufficient to give Mr. Maclure a very hand- 
some testimonial of our esteem and gratitude, and at the same 
time to accompany it with a sum of money in addition to whatever 
testimonial might be finally decided upon. We have discharged 
what we felt to be our duty in entering into this subscription, and in 
reporting it to the general committee. It will now be for the general 
committee, and for those who have had the opportunity of witness- 
ing and estimating the value of Mr. Maclure's services, to say 
whether they will or will not be willing to join in this expression 
of gratitude and this recognition of his services; and we leave it in 
your hands whether any further steps shall be taken in the matter. 

A sub-committee was then appointed for the Maclure testi- 
monial; and the following resolution was also unanimously adopted 
by the meeting : — 

" That the hearty thanks of the committee are due, and are 
hereby given to the Right Honourable the Earl of Derby, chair- 
man of the central executive, who, by his high position, great intlu- 



456 



FACTS OF THE COTTON PABfTNE. 



I 



ence, and [>crsonal aMeDdaoce, did much to secure the confidence 
of the public in the cominittee ; to Sir J. Kay-Shuttle worth, 
chairmao, whose previous official experience and great eKOCOtivo 
power have been moat valualde during three and a half years of 
constant labour and anxiety ; to J. W. Maclure, Esq., honunrr 
secretary, whose oonstant superviaion and untiring enei^ sod 
activity, in the service of the committee have been unparaUded, 
and whose statistical reports will be mwt valuable as references to 
future historians of Lancashire ; and to the other members of the 
central executive for their great and efficleot services in the distii- 
bution of the largest benevolent fund upon record." 

Lord Derby : I presume that it devolves upon me, aa faaviog 
been the ch&iiman of the executive committee — whose labours I 
hope are now abiioat, if not finally, termimited — to return to yuo 
our thanks, for the manner in which you have acknowledged tik! 
services which it has been in our power to ndnder from 
tima But for my own part I must disclaim the amount of mciit 
which is attributed to me by the resolution, for in j>oml of fi 
my labours have been very slight ; they have consisted simply in 
attending, when more imperative duties did not call me elsewhere, 
once a week at Uie meetings of the executive committee, aad ihen 
presiding over a body composed of men of various political and 
religious opinions, hut acting together with a unanimity, cordi' 
ality. and harmooy, which ver)' seldom is to be found even iu modi 
smaller bodies. This harmony and unanimity is due, not to the 
cbainuau or to any iuflueuce which he might possess, but to the 
general feeling which penaded all members of that 
that they were working iu one common c&use, in which they kut 
one common interest and one common duty to pedorm ; and to Uia 
performance of that duty, I am satisfied each and ererjone of 
oommittee have sacrificed every other sentiment ; feeling that it wm 
impenttive upon them to contiibute anvthing thej could do. towaids 
the rulief of a distress so gnat and unpuaUeted aa that thin 
which this county has recently passed. The beM rewanl we 
hope for any services which we oay have been enabled to nmbi 
is in the lust place to think that those aerviees hare been vBm 
that they have, to a great ezlenl, mitigated the presituns «f 
distivss which this oaonty has aaficrcd ; and that they have bett' 
1 with kaa of evil or kwof iU 



CONCLUSION. 



457 



have been expected, from the conduct of an experiment so novel, 
and at the same time so large. Next to the satisfaction of having 
contributed to the general good of the country, must be the satis- 
faction we feel at the confidence which you, gentlemen, under 
whom we have been acting, have been pleased to repose in us; the 
approbation which you have given to the measures we have pur- 
sued, and to the confidence you have been pleased to assure us we 
have established, in our good intentions and discretion, throughout 
the county which it has been our desire to serve and assist. I am 
sure, in the name of the whole committee, I may oflTer you our 
most grateful thanks for the manner in which you have appre- 
ciated our services ; and for my own part, I can only say you have 
very far overrated anything it has been in my power to do. 
The meeting then separated. 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT AND ] 



BiBp(i>]f<i of l.va Olnu 



SunSuutU .. 



nSinthViJa) 



ToSDih Jon 






Mailatnuxl •lunlrT Psnl|Ii 



bnquliHattli* 

i ■ d. 

MM» II 

ni HII 

ii.isa U » 
nit s 

W.3U W S 

aia T 

7.»9I 14 t 
I H S 



< » A. 

ill nn 



INI 

Urn tt u 



"' ' 


rw » : 







































































■ m-rb ail4 L. ... ^ 

nMHlftaniMcsIlfmiMr .. l3,Ma T I 



LIx 



«|juuiuvli TtMltf CHWnltM* ■ . 



TEE CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMHTTTEE. 





To SOtb Jont. 


ToSinDu, 


,„.. 




tna.«aT *' * 


/ 1. d. 

«6,1» 


t > iL 




-OS.IHW 4 t 


M.iao 


i<-v.o:a ( i 


K)rediu»Uii(iottih.iuiiiiJtt .." .. 


Eil 


61 ■> 






x}.va a 4 


Tw a 3 


•Jt.rii .i T 


a,«(i 


i.aii 11 a 


5.GI1 ]i r. 




s.Mi la 3 




K,;il2 Vi :i 


P«U«< ud but •uunia 

Bmluia uulngH 

Cuintfd 

Bern of umpaatj wtnbooK, Im 


'M9 14 7 

M « g 


mi7 
act 10 

ST IS 10 






8,1UI S * 


H9I7 


■l,«ll S J 


TtoUicme(Kl><ll.tribntal<wUclinIUlentarud) 


Ml 13 B 




Ml IS s 


O^irhMlM, 

Do. with honorwj KKTBlJirT 


'"■S!'! 


-1,9M S 






l«,*M 1 10 


8».«a. 6 < 
m s' 




STiSS^r';*^"^'':: ;: ^'S S 






niton* InslndsHpenMlnnund is Ihs mlpt ud dlMUboU 
in kind. Ti.:- 

K'r"'K-Ss:S"'" :: :: :;'^:£S 

KW „ blKinlU 7M 


01 Th.lBgwpwtion 




(2»«Mt.ofppl«to«t.o«rroU,[aniiiin»ij! M 

3a<i]»l.<.fBH .. .. MO 

l{plpg>uidlMil>«lUDf<rlng sua 

«B labs or stoOdng. btonkiU. be. lopukod islo t.OlS 

£lll.0«g 


5!S£ 


taliaf Cun- 
of New York. 




BTHCR n. HEVWOOO, rrm.-wp. 
JUN WM. MACLURG. Bon. &r. 


RltAY & CO 


-^^fTTT 



ioiu. uJn of ocnudflimmti. to)., unoiinteil to £883.0M. 12i Id. oicliulyB of b«nk Intsput, £ 
e. ^ JiL; IDT ctottdnff gnnU. £<ll.a7T. III. 6d.; sod for ipad&l |{rut> ud dowtiou to ni 
ih ft >arg« pDTtios bH bono »liin»d ; iHilug ft bftlftuos of £37,&4A ISft on bftnd, 4tli I>ac<mlj 



APPENDtX. 



FUND FOR KELIEF OF DISTRESS IN THE M.UfTTFACTUEISG 

DISTRICTS. 

CENTRAL ESEUDTIVE COiQUTTEE : 

The Right Konourable the Eiirl of Dorby, K.G. (chairman). 
Sir James P. Kay -Shuttle worth, BaroDet (deputy chairman). 



The Right Honourable Lord 

Egertoii of Tatton. 
T]ie Right Honourable Lord 

Edward Howard, M.P. 
Colonel Wilson Patten, M.P. 
Major Egertou Lcifrfa. 
Tbomaa ^Vslit^n, Esq. 
Edmund Ashworth, Esq. 
G. L, Ashworth, Eaq. 
Robert Gladstone, Esq. 
Nathaniel Eckersley, Esq. 
Joseph Fenton, Ea([, 
J. Goodair, Esq. 
Robert Hutchison, Esq. 
R, H. Hutchinson, Esq. 



J. Robinson Kay, Esq. 

Hugh Mason, Esq. 

Robert M'Clure, Esq. 

John Piatt, Esq. 

W, Rathbone, jun., Es^i. 

William Roberts, Esq. 

Malcolm Ross, Esq. 

J. S. Stem, Esq. 

James Worrall, Esq. 

The Worshipful the Mayor fl 
Manchester (cbairmao 
general committee). 

a R Famall, Ea<j. (aj 
commissioner, ex offieid). 

A. H. Hey wood. Esq. (traoBura 



John William Maclure, Esq. (honorary secretary). 

The following report was presented to the central executire 
November, 1804, but baa not before been published; and 1 
Maclure has since kindly famished the return up to Morcb, 181 



AFFBNDIZ No. L 461 

"Manchester, November 21, 1864. 

" My Lords and Gentlemen, — ^The accompanying tables afford a 
comparison between the ordinary expenditure for relief of the poor 
in the twenty-eight unions of the cotton district, and that of the 
years which have been affected by the cotton famine. 

"The excess of expenditure over 1861 (which may be taken as 
an average year) in in-door maintenance and out-door relief, in- 
cluding that of the local relief committees, in the year ended Lady- 
day, 1862, was £40,221 ; in 1863, £1,287,597 ; in 1864, £949,554; 
and during the six months ended Michaelmas, 1864, over £300,000; 
being a to^aJ excess of expenditure of £2,577,372 in the three years 
and six months, during which the present exceptional state of dis- 
tress £as continued. 

"During the three years ended Lady-day, 1864, the guardians 
expended in the relief of the poor £1,937,928, and the local com- 
mittees £1,372,454, making a total of £3,310,382; whilst, in 1861, 
the guardians of the poor spent only £313,135. 

" Of the amount received by the committees, £289,938 was from 
local sources ; but, in addition to that amount, the central com- 
mittee received £276,453 in subscriptions from the cotton districts ; 
and it is estimated that no less a sum than £220,000 was locally 
distributed in private charity, beyond the large amount voluntarily 
remitted by manufacturers and property owners for cottage rents. 

For the information referring to the guardians' relief I am in- 
debted to Mr. F. Purdy, of the poor-law board 

*^ I have the honour to be, 

"My Lords and Qentlemen, 

" Your most obedient servant, 

" John Wm. Maclure, lion. sec. 

" N.B. With reference to the expenditure in the various unions, 
as shown in the tables, I beg particularly to call attention to the 
note at the foot of each page." 







ud oaVdoor t^«( th« fiunUjua oipaiHlad ^££,0^ tar t^ 

loDccwd with relief. Thu th« total flipwidittuv in Uh >«af ^k^ 
0|d. la the pouad on tlu MUMUicnt at tlw (irm^.«i|lit nnkii 



APPENDIX No 1. 



463 



TABLE II. 



iTDITURE FOB IK-MAINTENANCB AND OUT-DOOR RELIEF BT GUABDIANS DT THE TWENTY- 
[OHT DiBTBESaiD UNIONS OF THE CoTTON DiSTBICTS, FOB THE YSAB ENDED LaDT-DAY, 

186Q. 











Population 

in 

1861. 


AaMMonent 

in 

1861. 


Expenditure of 
Guardians. 


litura 
I Com- 
eea. 


Total 


8. d. 


Uniok. 


In- 
raainte- 
nance. 


Out- 
door 
Relief 


Ezpen( 

of Loca 

mitt 








£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


Lahton-imder-Ljnia . 




. i 134,761 


813,350 


2,669 


6,771 






8,430 


oi 


larton-npon-Irwell . 




80,040 


136,828 


1,263 


2,363 






8,626 


oj 


Uackbom 






119,937 


272,448 


2,814 


11,011 






13,826 


1 oj 


kdton .. 






130,270 


860,729 


8,831 


9.783 






13,614 


n 


himley 






75,888 


185,142 


844 


6,066 






6,900 


i>l 


Jury 






101,142 


828,223 


2,390 


6,960 






9,350 


t',l 


Ihorley . . 








41,679 


150,216 


1,176 


4,031 






5,207 


8| 


liorlton 






169,673 


475,906 


6,823 


6,919 






11,742 


01 


litheroe 






. ! 20,476 


93,526 


687 


1,939 






2,626 


03 


^Ide (The) 








25,623 


117,761 


886 


2,548 






3,433 


7 


tentang 






• 


12,411 


72,168 


261 


2,245 






2,496 


«i 


(lOMCp.. 






21,140 


63.446 


536 


903 






1,439 


Ci 


[aaliDgdeii 






69,782 


143,952 


1,067 


8.115 






4,182 


7 


duacaater 






. '; 24,006 


106,625 


636 


2,788 






3,324 


7J 


4ngh .. 








87,700 


104,964 


1,201 


2,260 






3,461 


71 


laodeefield 








61,517 


198,688 


2,733 


7,292 






10.026 


1 ^^\ 1 


I&nchester 






. 


185,040 


789,203 


20,551 


17,198 






37,749 


lis 


Hdh&m 








111,267 


226,201 


4,864 


4,850 






9,214 


9} 


Veston.. 








110,488 


831,704 


6,314 


13,275 






19,689 


1 -'J 


*restwioh 








58,578 


182,170 


647 


2,128 






2,676 


^ 


tochdale 








91,758 


254,208 


2,242 


7,871 






10,113 


Oi 


Addleworth . 






18,630 


53,997 


6n 


861 






1,622 


Of 


alford .. 






105,334 


337,719 


3.944 


6,996 






10,939 


73 


kipton . . 






31,185 


142,427 


695 


6,342 






7,a37 


1 


tockport 








94.361 


242,361 


8,190 


6,720 






8,910 


82 


'odmorden 








29,727 


89,696 


1 
1 


3,587 






3,587 


n 


furington 








43,788 


149,249 


2,086 


4,514 






6,600 


lOj 


figan .. 








94,559 


266,193 
6,030,659 


2,724 


6,983 






9,077 


8| 
9\ 


Total 


2,060,000 


70,024 


155.298 


• 


• 


231,822 



* N.B. Beyond in -maintenance and out-door relief, the guardianii expended £123,8.')8, for the mainte- 
>f paupers in lunatic asylums, for the repayment of workhouse loans and interest, for salaries of officers, 
' other purposes immediately connected with reliell Thus the total expenditure in the year ended Lady- 
)62, was X366,160, or Is. 2^ in the pound on the assessment of the twenty-eight imions. 





■ 


■ 


APPENBH No, t. 


^ 








TABLE III. 


1 


^H BXPEVDnUBB FOR 


IS-IUJBTXKJJICT AVD OUT-DOOB RBLUf 


y GCABOIANS UCD Locki Ct^ 




«TWfSNTl 




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YuB DmKD Ladt-dat, 

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41,039 


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